Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5197

Search results for: vocational education

5197 Design of Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System for Vocational Education

Authors: Seree Chadcham, Niphon Sukvilai

Abstract:

This study is the research and development which is intended to: 1) design of the Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System (ISLMS) for vocational education, 2) assess the suitability of the Design of Intelligent Scaffolding Learning Management System for Vocational Education. Its methods are divided into 2 phases. Phase 1 is the design of the ISLMS for Vocational Education and phase 2 is the assessment of the suitability of the design. The samples used in this study are work done by 15 professionals in the field of Intelligent Scaffolding, Learning Management System, Vocational Education, and Information and Communication Technology in education selected using the purposive sampling method. Data analyzed by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results showed that the ISLMS for vocational education consists of 2 main components which are: 1) the Intelligent Learning Management System for Vocational Education, 2) the Intelligent Scaffolding Management System. The result of the system suitability assessment from the professionals is in the highest range.

Keywords: intelligent, scaffolding, learning management system, vocational education

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5196 Changes in Vocational Teacher Training in Hungary: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: Anetta Bacsa-Bán

Abstract:

The training of vocational education teachers in Hungary was a special training system before the Bologna system, but under the influence of the Bologna system, the structure and content of the training changed significantly. The training of vocational teachers, including engineering teachers and vocational trainers, is considerably different when compared to the training of public education teachers. This study aims to present these differences and peculiarities, problems and issues of the training as well as to outline the possibilities of further development. During the study, the following methods were implemented: empirical research among students and graduates of vocational teacher training, as well as analysis of the relevant literature. The study summarizes the research and theoretical results related to vocational education and training (VET) teacher training over the past 15 years, with the aim of developing the training and mapping new directions in the field.

Keywords: vocational teacher, technical instructors, technical vocational instructors, theoretical aspects

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5195 Digital Learning Repositories for Vocational Teaching and Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Prachyanun Nilsook, Panita Wannapiroon

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study a Digital Learning Repository System (DLRS) on vocational teachers and teaching in Thailand. The innobpcd.net is a DLRS being utilized by the Office of Vocational Education Commission and operationalized by the Bureau of Personnel Competency Development for vocational education teachers. The aim of the system is to support and enhance the process of vocational teaching and to improve staff development by providing teachers with a variety of network connections and information. The system provides centralized hosting and access to content, and the ability to share digital objects or files, to set permissions and controls for access to content that can be used vocational education teachers for their teaching and for their own development. The elements of DLRS include; Digital learning system, Media Library, Knowledge-based system and Mobile Application. The system aims to link vocational teachers to the most effective emerging technologies available for learning, so they are better resourced to support their vocational students. The initial results from this evaluation indicate that there is a range of services provided by the system being used by vocational teachers and this paper indicates which facilities have the greatest usage and impact on vocational teaching in Thailand.

Keywords: digital learning repositories, vocational education, knowledge sharing, learning objects

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5194 Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Maikudi Umar

Abstract:

This paper conceived Vocational and Technical Education as those aspects of educational process, in addition to general education leading to acquisition of practical skills, attitudes as well as basic scientific knowledge as it relates to occupations in various sectors of the economic and social life. The paper therefore viewed Vocational and Technical education as those aspects of educational training designed to provide the recipient with the skills abilities and understanding needed for efficient performance in chosen occupational carrier for self reliance. The paper also examined some major inhibitions to the attainment of self reliance through VTE. The paper also recommended a change of attitudes by governments in Nigeria by providing adequate equipment so as to meet up with the challenges.

Keywords: vocational education, technical education, skills and self reliance, issues and challenges

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5193 The Influence of the Vocational Teachers Empowerment toward the Vocational High Schools’ Performance Based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia

Authors: Abdul Haris Setiawan

Abstract:

Teachers empowerment is one of the important factors considered to contribute significantly to the achievement of the national education goals. This study was conducted to determine the influence on the vocational teachers empowerment toward the performance of the vocational high schools based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia. The population of the study was all vocational teachers at the State Vocational High schools in Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The sampling technique used proportional random sampling technique. This study used a quantitative descriptive statistical analysis techniques. The data was collected using questionnaires. The data has been collected and then tested using analysis requirements test. Having tested using the requirements analysis and then the data processed using regression analysis between the independent and dependent variables to determine the effect and the regression equation. The results of the study found that the level of vocational high schools’ performance based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia was 74.29%, including in the high category; the level of vocational teachers empowerment was 76.20%, including in the high category; there was a positive influence of vocational teachers empowerment toward the vocational high schools’ performance based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia with a correlation coefficient of 0,886, and a contribution of 78.50% with the regression equation Y = 79.431 +0.534 X.

Keywords: vocational teachers, empowerment, vocational high school, the education national standards

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5192 Rubric in Vocational Education

Authors: Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Jamil Ahmad, Ruhizan Muhammad Yasin

Abstract:

Rubric is a very important tool for teachers and students for a variety of purposes. Teachers use the rubric for evaluating student work while students use rubrics for self-assessment. Therefore, this paper was emphasized scoring rubric as a scoring tool for teachers in an environment of Competency Based Education and Training (CBET) in Malaysia Vocational College. A total of three teachers in the fields of electrical and electronics engineering were interviewed to identify how the use of rubrics practiced since vocational transformation implemented in 2012. Overall holistic rubric used to determine the performance of students in the skills area.

Keywords: rubric, vocational education, teachers, CBET

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5191 Industry Practitioners Involvement in Taiwan Vocational Education

Authors: Hsiao Tseng Lin, Szu Mei Hsiao, Mei Chun Yuan

Abstract:

Today's rapid development of industrial pulsation, how to reduce the gap between the academics and industry need become an important issue in vocational education. Beginning in 2015, a two-year program for teaching excellence, funded by the Ministry of Education Taiwan, is implemented by Meiho University, with a total project funding of $ 1.5 million USD. One of the innovated highlights of this program is to invite 188 industry practitioners to participate in collaborative teaching for 175 classes and 28 industry practitioners to be as mentors too. 56 industry practitioners are also invited to participate in curriculum planning and design. Students' overall satisfaction with the program was more than 4.5 (out of 5.0). This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness and discusses the limit of the practitioners program. This study has revealed and provided some valuable perspectives how to best ensure the ongoing involvement of industry practitioners in vocational education. The findings of this study are valuable to those involved in designing collaborative teaching curriculum and delivering a course for vocational education.

Keywords: collaborative teaching, industry practitioners, mentor, vocational education

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5190 The Effects of Vocational Training on Offender Rehabilitation in Nigerian Correctional Institutions

Authors: Hadi Mohammed

Abstract:

The introduction of vocational education and training (VET) in correctional institutions as part of prisoner rehabilitation program is to help offenders develop marketable job skills and reduce re-offending thereby increasing the likely hood of successful reintegration back to their community. Offenders who participate in vocational education and training are significantly less likely to return to prison after released and are more likely to find employment after released than offenders who do not received such training. Those who participated in vocational training were 28% more likely to be employed after released from prison than those who did not received such training. This paper examined the effects of vocational training on offender rehabilitation as well as the effects of vocational training on the relationship between reformation and reintegration in Nigerian correctional institution. To address this two research question were formulated to guide the research. A survey research was employed. The participants were 200 offenders in Nigerian correctional institutions. Questionnaire items were administered. Mean, standard deviation and Partial Correlation were used for the data analysis. The findings revealed that vocational training has helped in offender rehabilitation in Nigerian correctional institutions. Similarly there was a moderate significant positive partial correlation between reformation and reintegration, controlling for vocational training, r=0.461, n=221, p<0.005 with moderate level of reformation and being associated with moderate level of reintegration. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Nigerian Correctional Institutions should strengthen their vocational training program for offenders to be properly rehabilitated.

Keywords: correctional institutions, vocational education and training, offender rehabilitation

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5189 Vocational Education: A Synergy for Skills Acquisition and Global Learning in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Raimi, Kehinde Olawuyi, Omoare Ayodeji Motunrayo

Abstract:

In the last two decades, there has been rising youth unemployment, restiveness, and social vices in Nigeria. The relevance of Vocational Education for skills acquisition, global learning, and national development to address these problems cannot be underestimated. Thus, the need to economically empower Nigerian youths to be able to develop the nation and meet up in the ever-changing global learning and economy led to the assessment of Vocational Education as Synergy for the Skills Acquisition and Global Learning in Ogun State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty out of 1,500 students were randomly selected for this study. Data were obtained through a questionnaire and were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Chi-square. The results of the study showed that 59.2% of the respondents were between 20 – 24 years of age, 60.8% were male, and 65.8% had a keen interest in Vocational Education. Also, 90% of the respondents acquired skills in extension/advisory, 78.3% acquired skills in poultry production, and 69.1% acquired skills in fisheries/aquaculture. The major constraints to Vocational Education are inadequate resource personnel (χ² = 10.25, p = 0.02), inadequate training facilities (x̅ = 2.46) and unstable power supply (x̅ = 2.38). Results of Chi-square showed significance association between constraints and Skills Acquisition (χ² = 12.54, p = 0.00) at p < 0.05 level of significance. It was established that Vocational Education significantly contributed to students’ skills acquisition and global learning. This study, therefore, recommends that inadequate personnel should be looked into by the school authority in order not to over-stretch the available staff of the institution while the provision of alternative stable power supply (solar power) is also essential for effective teaching and learning process.

Keywords: vocational education, skills acquisition, national development, global learning

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5188 Vocational and Technical Education: A Practical Approach to Reducing Insecurity in Nigeria

Authors: S. S. Amoor

Abstract:

Insecurity is becoming a major tool in the hand of Nigeria’s enemies to increase poverty and hatred among the citizens and split the county into several political segments. It is based on this background that this paper critically examines Vocational and Technical Education as a practical and realistic approach to reducing insecurity in Nigeria so as to save the country from total disintegration. The paper discusses the concept of insecurity, types, causes and effects of insecurity, and how vocational and technical education and its variables are fundamental and practical measures to reducing insecurity in Nigeria. The paper concludes that the large army of unemployed and unskilled youths in Nigeria requires immediate attention in the area of provision of marketable vocational and technical skills, creativity and competences that will prepare them for employment or self-reliance. It is hoped that government jobs or self-employment will keep the teeming youths busy and therefore take their minds away from odd jobs that threaten the security of the country. In line with these, the paper recommends, among others, that since the teeming unemployed and unskilled youths are mostly from the rural areas, the state governments in collaboration with the local governments should take appropriate steps to provide the youths with vocational skills in carpentry, fashion designing, hair-dressing, driving, welding, mechanical works, among others. Once the youths are involved in one skilled trade or the other, insecurity would be reduced.

Keywords: vocational and technical education, insecurity, practical approach to reducing insecurity, unemployment

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5187 Practitioner System in Vocational Education: Perspectives of Academics and Industry Practitioners

Authors: Hsiao-Tseng Lin, Nguyen Ngoc Dat, Szu-Mei Hsiao, R. J. Hernández-Díaz

Abstract:

The practitioner system has become an important tool for universities working to shrink the gap between industry and vocational education. Beginning in 2015, Meiho University conducted a consecutive three-year program for teaching excellence, funded in part by Taiwan’s Ministry of Education, with a total project funding of over $2.5 million USD. One of the highlights of this program is the recruitment of 300 industry practitioners to participate in collaborative teaching, a dual-mentor system, and curriculum planning. More than 60% of the practitioners boast more than 10 years of practical industry experience, and 52% of them have earned master's degree or higher. Students rated their overall program satisfaction over 4.5(out of 5.0) on average. This study explores the perspectives of academics and industry practitioners using in-depth interviews and surveys, along with an examination of the challenges of the practitioner system. The paper enables the framing of practitioner system policies by vocational education institutions and industry to facilitate more effective and efficient transfer of knowledge between academics and practitioners, leading to enhanced university competitive advantage, which would ultimately benefit society.

Keywords: collaborative teaching, industry practitioners, practitioner system, vocational education

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5186 Teaching Contemporary Power Distribution and Industrial Networks in Higher Education Vocational Studies

Authors: Rade M. Ciric

Abstract:

The paper shows the development and implementation of the syllabus of the subject 'Distribution and Industrial Networks', attended by the vocational specialist Year 4 students of the Electric Power Engineering study programme at the Higher Education Technical School of Vocational Studies in Novi Sad. The aim of the subject is to equip students with the knowledge necessary for planning, exploitation and management of distributive and industrial electric power networks in an open electricity market environment. The results of the evaluation of educational outcomes on the subject are presented and discussed.

Keywords: engineering education, power distribution network, syllabus implementation, outcome evaluation

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5185 Development of a Distance Training Package on Production of Handbook and Report Writing for Innovative Learning and Teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of the Vocational Education Commission

Authors: Petchpong Mayukhachot

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were (1) to develop a distance training package on topic of Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission; (2) to study the effects of using the distance training package on topic Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission. and (3) to study the samples’ opinion on the distance training package on topic Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission Research and Development was used in this research. The purposive sampling group of this research was 39 Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission. Instruments were; (1) the distance training package, (2) achievement tests on understanding of Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching and learning activities to develop practical skills, and (3) a questionnaire for sample’s opinion on the distance training package. Percent, Mean, Standard Deviation, the E1/E2 efficiency index and t-test were used for data analysis. The findings of the research were as follows: (1) The efficiency of the distance training package was established as 80.90 / 81.90. The distance training package composed of the distance training package document and a manual for the distance training package. The distance training package document consisted of the name of the distance training package, direction for studying the distance training package, content’s structure, concepts, objectives, and activities after studying the distance training package. The manual for the distance training package consisted of the explanation of the distance training package and objectives, direction for using the distance training package, training schedule, documents as a manual of speech, and evaluations. (2) The effects of using the distance training package on topic Production of Handbook and Report writing for innovative learning and teaching for Vocational Teachers of Office of The Vocational Education Commission were the posttest average scores of achievement on understanding of Technology and Occupations teaching for development of critical thinking of the sample group were higher than the pretest average scores. (3) The most appropriate of trainees’ opinion were contents of the distance training package is beneficial to performance. That can be utilized in Teaching or operations. Due to the content of the two units is consistent and activities assigned to the appropriate content.

Keywords: distance training package, handbook writing for innovative learning, teaching report writing for innovative learning, teaching

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5184 Employment Problems of Graduands Graduated Form Vocational High Schools

Authors: Refik Uyanöz, Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to show the employing ability of vocational students. And also, the employment problems of these students are emphasized in this study.The rapid development in technology and information and increased qualified labor is widely affects labor market. On the other hand, labor market will look for educated, qualified, talented and young people. Because of this reason, qualified staff should be educated at vocational high schools. Vocational high schools are one of the best institutions to educate qualified staff. In this research, the conditions of vocational high schools are studied. The difference between the employment policies and current employment problems are researched.

Keywords: vocational high school, employment, employment problems, vocational students

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5183 Vocational Rehabilitation for People with Disabilities: Employment Rates, Job Persistence and Wages

Authors: Hester Fass, Ofir Pinto

Abstract:

Research indicates gaps in education, employment rates and wages between people with disabilities and those without disabilities. One of the main tools available to reduce these gaps is vocational rehabilitation. In order to examine the effects of vocational rehabilitation, a follow-up study, based on comprehensive administrative data, was conducted. The study included 88,286 people with disabilities who participated in vocational rehabilitation of the National Insurance Institute of Israel (NII), and completed the process between 1999 and 2012. Research variables included: employment rates, job persistence and wage levels. This research, the first of its kind in Israel, has several unique aspects: a)a long-range follow-up study on people who completed vocational rehabilitation; b) examination of a broad population spectrum, including also people that are not eligible to disability pensions ; c) a comparison among those with work-related injuries, those injured in hostile acts and those injured in other circumstances; and finally d) the identification of the characteristics of those who are entitled to vocational rehabilitation but who do not participate in any vocational rehabilitation plan. The most notable results include: 1. Vocational rehabilitation contributed to employment, job persistence and wage levels. Participation in vocational rehabilitation resulted in an employment rate of 65% within two years after completing the program, and 73% eventually. Participation in a vocational rehabilitation plan also contributed to job persistence and wage levels. 2. Vocational rehabilitation plans aimed at integration in universal frameworks increased the chances of being employed, persisting at the job and receiving a higher wage than did the vocational rehabilitation aimed at selective frameworks (such as sheltered workshops). 3. The type of disability affected the chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan and in the labor market. People with a disability from birth had greater chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan, while the type of disability and its severity affected the chances of the person with disabilities to find employment.

Keywords: vocational rehabilitation, employment, job persistence, wages

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5182 Role of Vocational Education and Training in Economic Excellence and Social Inclusion

Authors: Muhammad Ali Asadullah, Zafarullah Amir

Abstract:

In recent years, Vocational Education and Training (VET) has been under discussion by the academic researchers and remained in focus in the political grounds. Due to potential contribution of VET, the World Bank and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) support vocational education to reduce poverty, enhance economic growth and increase competitiveness. This paper examines the impact of Vocational Education and Training on the Economic Growth and Social Inclusion with direct and mediation effect of Social Inclusion. The basic purpose of this study is to assess economic pay-offs as a result of long term investments in VET. Based on the review of Anderson Nilsson, initially we explored the increasing or decreasing trend in investment on VET. Further, the study explores that the countries which invest more on VET, tend to get more economic growth and are socially more ‘inclusive’. It is a longitudinal / panel data study with 12 years of registered data which involves 24 OECD countries. The results of the study indicate the VET has positive association with Social Inclusion and Economic Growth. Further, there is also a positive association of VET and Economic Growth through mediation of Social Inclusion. The current study considers not only issue and challenges in developing VET systems but also contributes to develop the theoretical framework for considering how VET can directly and indirectly improve economic growth and social inclusion. A wider appreciation of how VET’s benefits operate may influence a country’s decisions to invest in it. If policy makers increase investment on VET, the result would be positive in Economic Growth and Social Inclusion. It is also recommended that the same OECD model may be implemented in developing countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: Vocational Education and Training (VET), Social Inclusion, Economic Growth, OECD countries

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5181 The Impact of Scaffolding on Motivation of Vocational Special Education Students in Kakamega Program for Persons with Hearing Impaired in Kenya

Authors: J. W. Mbogani, B. A. Bunyasi

Abstract:

The special skills for five students in the vocational class in Kakamega program for Hearing impaired were identified within one term period of the Kenyan education system. Three students were identified as having a liking for tailoring. The remaining two students did not show any interest in any vocational subject. The three students were attached to two professionals in practicing general tailors within the school vicinity for scaffolding purposes. The students were allowed to attend general classes under the normal curriculum and were withdrawn after eleven in the morning for tailoring classes. The students were then monitored with the guideline of a checklist. The purpose of monitoring was to establish whether the behavior of the students reflected a motivated student. It was established that two of them improved in their school attendance in terms of regularity, punctuality and responsibility accomplishment. The third student ended up attending only tailoring classes. The socialization aspect of the two students improved a lot. They also tended to identify more with the teachers than their fellow students. We recommend that learners with special needs in education should be subjected to the normal curriculum. They may benefit more and attain a skill that could help them economically. Further study should also be done to in several institutions involving learners in other classes.

Keywords: general tailoring, scaffolding, term, vocational class

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5180 Enhancing Sustainability Awareness through Social Learning Experiences on Campuses

Authors: Rashika Sharma

Abstract:

The campuses at tertiary institutes can act as a social environment for peer to peer connections. However, socialization is not the only aspect that campuses provide. The campus can act as a learning environment that has often been termed as the campus curriculum. Many tertiary institutes have taken steps to make their campus a ‘green campus’ whereby initiatives have been taken to reduce their impact on the environment. However, as visible as these initiatives are, it is debatable whether these have any effect on students’ and their understanding of sustainable campus operations. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable campus operations in raising students’ awareness of sustainability. Students at two vocational institutes participated in this interpretive research with data collected through surveys and focus groups. The findings indicated that majority of vocational education students remained oblivious of sustainability initiatives on campuses.

Keywords: campus learning, education for sustainability, social learning, vocational education

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5179 Status of Vocational Education and Training in India: Policies and Practices

Authors: Vineeta Sirohi

Abstract:

The development of critical skills and competencies becomes imperative for young people to cope with the unpredicted challenges of the time and prepare for work and life. Recognizing that education has a critical role in reaching sustainability goals as emphasized by 2030 agenda for sustainability development, educating youth in global competence, meta-cognitive competencies, and skills from the initial stages of formal education are vital. Further, educating for global competence would help in developing work readiness and boost employability. Vocational education and training in India as envisaged in various policy documents remain marginalized in practice as compared to general education. The country is still far away from the national policy goal of tracking 25% of the secondary students at grade eleven and twelve under the vocational stream. In recent years, the importance of skill development has been recognized in the present context of globalization and change in the demographic structure of the Indian population. As a result, it has become a national policy priority and taken up with renewed focus by the government, which has set the target of skilling 500 million people by 2022. This paper provides an overview of the policies, practices, and current status of vocational education and training in India supported by statistics from the National Sample Survey, the official statistics of India. The national policy documents and annual reports of the organizations actively involved in vocational education and training have also been examined to capture relevant data and information. It has also highlighted major initiatives taken by the government to promote skill development. The data indicates that in the age group 15-59 years, only 2.2 percent reported having received formal vocational training, and 8.6 percent have received non-formal vocational training, whereas 88.3 percent did not receive any vocational training. At present, the coverage of vocational education is abysmal as less than 5 percent of the students are covered by the vocational education programme. Besides, launching various schemes to address the mismatch of skills supply and demand, the government through its National Policy on Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015 proposes to bring about inclusivity by bridging the gender, social and sectoral divide, ensuring that the skilling needs of socially disadvantaged and marginalized groups are appropriately addressed. It is fundamental that the curriculum is aligned with the demands of the labor market, incorporating more of the entrepreneur skills. Creating nonfarm employment opportunities for educated youth will be a challenge for the country in the near future. Hence, there is a need to formulate specific skill development programs for this sector and also programs for upgrading their skills to enhance their employability. There is a need to promote female participation in work and in non-traditional courses. Moreover, rigorous research and development of a robust information base for skills are required to inform policy decisions on vocational education and training.

Keywords: policy, skill, training, vocational education

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5178 Assessing the Impacts of Vocational Training System in the Sudan: A Dynamic CGE Application

Authors: Zuhal Mohammed, Khalid Siddig, Harald Grethe

Abstract:

Vocational training (VT) has been identified as a potential engine for achieving economic and social development, particularly in developing countries, while during the last two decades it is deemed as an essential determinant of human capital accumulation. Furthermore, it has a crucial role in reducing inequality, wage gaps and unemployment and in promoting skill decomposition. Government plays an important role in the human capital formulation by providing finance for education. In some countries, a large portion of the public educational investment is devoted to academic education (primary, secondary and tertiary). This is reflected in disproportionately increasing investment in various education sectors other than vocational education and VT. Nevertheless, the finance of VT system is not likely to increase or even remain at its existing level. This paper conducts an in-depth analysis to quantify the impacts of various options for expanding the public expenditure on education as well as vocational training in the Sudan. The study uses a recursive dynamic CGE modelling framework that accommodates VT and allows depicting the impact of various policies targeting the vocational training system with special focus on the agricultural sector. This allows for depicting the potential effects of various resource allocation policies not only among education versus non-education sectors, but also between the various types of education and training. Moreover, the study assesses the role of VT system in the economy through its influence on workers’ skill improvement and their movement across sectors. The results show that an increase in the public educational investment will lead to decrease the supply of low and high educated workers as results of increasing the school participation of the students in the short run. While in the medium to long run, this measure guides to increase the productivity of the labour and thus the growth rate of the gross domestic product (GDP). Therefore, the findings of the study provide Sudanese policymakers with needed information to help to adopt measures to reduce unemployment, enhance workers’ skill and ultimately improve livelihoods.

Keywords: vocational training, recursive dynamic CGE, skill level, labour market, economic growth, Sudan

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5177 The Professionalization of Teachers in the Context of the Development of a Future-Oriented Technical and Vocational Education and Training System in Egypt

Authors: Sherin Ahmed El-Badry Sadek

Abstract:

In this research, it is scientifically examined what contribution the professionalization of teachers can make to the development of a future-oriented vocational education and training system in Egypt. For this purpose, a needs assessment of the Egyptian vocational training system with the central actors and prevailing structures forms the foundation of the study, which theoretically underpinned with the attempt to resolve to some extent the tension between Luhmann's systems theory approach and the actor-centered theory of professional teacher competence. The vocational education system, in particular, must be adaptable and flexible due to the rapidly changing qualification requirements. In view of the pace of technological progress and the associated market changes, vocational training is no longer to be understood only as an educational tool aimed at those who achieve poorer academic performance or are not motivated to take up a degree. Rather, it is to be understood as a cornerstone for the development of society, and international experience shows that it is the core of lifelong learning. But to what extent have the education systems been able to react to these changes in their political, social, and technological systems? And how effective and sustainable are these changes actually? The vocational training system, in particular, has a particular impact on other social systems, which is why the appropriate parameters with the greatest leverage must be identified and adapted. Even if systems and structures are highly relevant, teachers must not hide behind them and must instead strive to develop further and to constantly learn. Despite numerous initiatives and programs to reform vocational training in Egypt, including the EU-funded Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) reform phase I and phase II, the fit of the skilled workers to the needs of the labor market is still insufficient. Surveys show that the majority of employers are very dissatisfied with the graduates that the vocational training system produces. The data was collected through guideline-based interviews with experts from the education system and relevant neighboring systems, which allowed me to reconstruct central in-depth structures, as well as patterns of action and interpretation, in order to subsequently feed these into a matrix of recommendations for action. These recommendations are addressed to different decision-makers and stakeholders and are intended to serve as an impetus for the sustainable improvement of the Egyptian vocational training system. The research findings have shown that education, and in particular vocational training, is a political field that is characterized by a high degree of complexity and which is embedded in a barely manageable, highly branched landscape of structures and actors. At the same time, the vocational training system is not only determined by endogenous factors but also increasingly shaped by the dynamics of the environment and the neighboring social subsystems, with a mutual dependency relationship becoming apparent. These interactions must be taken into account in all decisions, even if prioritization of measures and thus a clear sequence and process orientation are of great urgency.

Keywords: competence orientation, educational policies, education systems, expert interviews, globalization, organizational development, professionalization, systems theory, teacher training, TVET system, vocational training

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5176 Examines the Proportionality between the Needs of Industry and Technical and Vocational Training of Male and Female Vocational Schools

Authors: Khalil Aryanfar, Pariya Gholipor, Elmira Hafez

Abstract:

This study examines the proportionality between the needs of industry and technical and vocational training of male and female vocational schools. The research method was descriptive that was conducted in two parts: documentary analysis and needs assessment and Delphi method was used in the need assessment. The statistical population of the study included 312 individuals from the industry sector employers and 52 of them were selected through stratified random sampling. Methods of data collection in this study, upstream documents include: document of the development of technical and vocational training, Statistical Yearbook 1393 in Tehran, the available documents in Isfahan Planning Department, the findings indicate that there is an almost proportionality between the needs of industry and Vocational training of male and female vocational schools in fields of welding, industrial electronics, electro technique, industrial drawing, auto mechanics, design, packaging, machine tool, metalworking, construction, accounting, computer graphics and the Administrative Affairs. The findings indicate that there is no proportionality between the needs of industry and Vocational training of male and female vocational schools in fields of Thermal - cooling systems, building electricity, building drawing, interior architecture, car electricity and motor repair.

Keywords: needs assessment, technical and vocational training, industry

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5175 Youths Economic Empowerment through Vocational Agricultural Enterprises (Entrepreneurship) for Sustainable Agriculture in Nigeria: Constraints and Initiatives for Improvement

Authors: Thomas Ogilegwu Orohu

Abstract:

This paper presents agricultural education as a vocational study, an impetus for youths, economic empowerment. The survival of Nigeria’s agriculture rests squarely on the youth who are the farmers and leaders of tomorrow. Hitherto, the teaching and learning of agriculture has proceeded in such a manner that graduates of such programs have failed to make the successful launch into the world of agricultural enterprises (entrepreneurship). Major constraints that predisposed this anomalous situation were identified to include poor policy framework, socio-economic pressures, undue parental and peer influences, improper value orientation and of course, the nature of curricula. In response to the situation, some programs and/or initiatives aimed at inculcating entrepreneurial skills were proposed by this paper with identified target beneficiaries. The initiatives bordered on curricular reorientation that integrate entrepreneurship/enterprise education, retraining of graduates, financial support system among others.

Keywords: Program initiatives. vocational agriculture, youths’ empowerment, introduction

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5174 Development and Optimization of German Diagnostical Tests in Mathematics for Vocational Training

Authors: J. Thiele

Abstract:

Teachers working at vocational Colleges are often confronted with the problem, that many students graduated from different schools and therefore each had a different education. Especially in mathematics many students lack fundamentals or had different priorities at their previous schools. Furthermore, these vocational Colleges have to provide Graduations for many different working-fields, with different core themes. The Colleges are interested in measuring the different Education levels of their students and providing assistance for those who need to catch up. The Project mathe-meistern was initiated to remedy this problem at vocational Colleges. For this purpose, online-tests were developed. The aim of these tests is to evaluate basic mathematical abilities of the students. The tests are online Multiple-Choice-Tests with a total of 65 Items. They are accessed online with a unique Transaction-Number (TAN) for each participant. The content is divided in several Categories (Arithmetic, Algebra, Fractions, Geometry, etc.). After each test, the student gets a personalized summary depicting their strengths and weaknesses in mathematical Basics. Teachers can visit a special website to examine the results of their classes or single students. In total 5830 students did participate so far. For standardization and optimization purposes the tests are being evaluated, using the classic and probabilistic Test-Theory regarding Objectivity, Reliability and Validity, annually since 2015. This Paper is about the Optimization process considering the Rasch-scaling and Standardization of the tests. Additionally, current results using standardized tests will be discussed. To achieve this Competence levels and Types of errors of students attending vocational Colleges in Nordrheinwestfalen, Germany, were determined, using descriptive Data and Distractorevaluations.

Keywords: diagnostical tests in mathematics, distractor devaluation, test-optimization, test-theory

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5173 Leading with Skill Development: A Collaborative and Community Based Approach to Ending Open Defecation in Rural India via Computerized Technical Vocational Education and Training

Authors: Srividya Sheshadri, Christopher Coley, Roa. R. Bhavani

Abstract:

India currently accounts for 60 percent of the open defecation that is practiced globally. While research in the domain of sanitation development makes it apparent that girls and women living in rural India are disproportionately affected, interventions to address this dilemma are lacking. An important but relatively unexplored connection with poor sanitation is that women living in rural India are not only the largest marginalized group without access to adequate sanitation facilities, they also represent a majority of India’s unskilled workers. By training women to build their own toilets, through an approach that has demonstrated success in empowering marginalized communities through technical and vocational education and training (TVET), a collaborative dynamic emerges that can engage entire communities in the movement towards total sanitation. Designed and implemented by Amrita University, this technology-enhanced, community-based approach to skill development, known as Amrita computerized Vocational Education and Training (or Amrita cVET), has begun to show promise in addressing the struggle to end open defecation, and raise sanitation awareness, as well as strengthen personal and community development among women living in rural India. While Amrita cVET project, known as Women Empowerment: Sanitation, is currently in implementation in seven states throughout India, this paper will discuss early stages of the intervention in rural villages within the Indian states of: Karnataka and Goa, where previous sanitation efforts have failed to take hold.

Keywords: community based development, empowerment studies, sanitation in India, computerized vocational training

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5172 The Analysis of Internet and Social Media Behaviors of the Students in Vocational High School

Authors: Mehmet Balci, Sakir Tasdemir, Mustafa Altin, Ozlem Bozok

Abstract:

Our globalizing world has become almost a small village and everyone can access any information at any time. Everyone lets each other know who does whatever in which place. We can learn which social events occur in which place in the world. From the perspective of education, the course notes that a lecturer use in lessons in a university in any state of America can be examined by a student studying in a city of Africa or the Far East. This dizzying communication we have mentioned happened thanks to fast developments in computer technologies and in parallel with this, internet technology. While these developments in the world, has a very large young population and a rapidly evolving electronic communications infrastructure Turkey has been affected by this situation. Researches has shown that almost all young people in Turkey has an account in a social network. Especially becoming common of mobile devices causes data traffic in social networks to increase. In this study, has been surveyed on students in the different age groups and at the Selcuk University Vocational School of Technical Sciences Department of Computer Technology. Student’s opinions about the use of internet and social media has been gotten. Using the Internet and social media skills, purposes, operating frequency, access facilities and tools, social life and effects on vocational education etc. have been explored. Both internet and use of social media positive and negative effects on this department students results have been obtained by the obtained findings evaluating from various aspects. Relations and differences have been found out with statistic.

Keywords: computer technologies, internet use, social network, higher vocational school

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5171 Recognition of International Internships for Students at European Level

Authors: Tiron-Tudor Adriana, Ciolomic Ioana, Farcas Teodora

Abstract:

The mission of a business school is to train students for business careers in which practical skills- based on theoretical knowledge- are needed. These skills include a thorough knowledge of languages, creative skills, and well-founded professional and practical knowledge. With those skills, the graduates are highly competitive in the labour market. The paper objective is to disseminate the results of an international project by revealing how a HEI are prepared for higher vocational training course leading to professional diplomas.

Keywords: vocational education, business schools, international projects, HEI

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5170 Quality Education for the Poor People: Strategy of Islamic Education in the Medium Community

Authors: Naufal Ahmad Rijalul Alam

Abstract:

This article presents a quality of education for the poor people in Indonesia and the offering of strategy to be done. It also investigates the influence of Islamic Education which stands behind the religious values in developing effort of government to respond the problem with using humanities approaches in medium society. The offering strategy resulted in four agenda: 1) building a shared commitment, 2) encouraging the improvement of the quality of public and private schools, 3) encouraging the use of 'the indicator of disaffection' for gifted children, and 4) encouraging the enlargement of vocational training centers and polytechnics. The conclusion is that the quality of education can be increased with these four agenda, although they are not too easy because it deals with other factors such as the economy, politics, and culture which is happening in the country.

Keywords: quality education, poor people, strategy of Islamic education, medium community

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5169 A Case Study on Vocational Teachers’ Perceptions on Their Linguistically and Culturally Responsive Teaching

Authors: Kirsi Korkealehto

Abstract:

In Finland the transformation from homogenous culture into multicultural one as a result of heavy immigration has been rapid in the recent decades. As multilingualism and multiculturalism are growing features in our society, teachers in all educational levels need to be competent for encounters with students from diverse cultural backgrounds. Consequently, also the number of multicultural and multilingual vocational school students has increased which has not been taken into consideration in teacher education enough. To bridge this gap between teachers’ competences and the requirements of the contemporary school world, Finnish Ministry of Culture and Education established the DivEd-project. The aim of the project is to prepare all teachers to work in the linguistically and culturally diverse world they live in, to develop and increase culturally sustaining and linguistically responsive pedagogy in Finland, increase awareness among Teacher Educators working with preservice teachers and to increase awareness and provide specific strategies to in-service teachers. The partners in the nationwide project are 6 universities and 2 universities of applied sciences. In this research, the linguistically and culturally sustainable teaching practices developed within the DivEd-project are tested in practice. This research aims to explore vocational teachers’ perceptions of these multilingualism and multilingual educational practices. The participants of this study are vocational teachers in of different fields. The data were collected by individual, face-to-face interviews. The data analysis was conducted through content analysis. The findings indicate that the vocational teachers experience that they lack knowledge on linguistically and culturally responsive pedagogy. Moreover, they regard themselves in some extent incompetent in incorporating multilingually and multiculturally sustainable pedagogy in everyday teaching work. Therefore, they feel they need more training pertaining multicultural and multilingual knowledge, competences and suitable pedagogical methods for teaching students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds.

Keywords: multicultural, multilingual, teacher competence, vocational school

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5168 Effect of Organizational Resources on Improving Independency of People with Severe Disabilities: Vocational Rehabilitation Facilities in South Korea

Authors: Soungwan Kim

Abstract:

This paper discusses an analysis of how the characteristics of resources at vocational rehabilitation facilities for the disabled affect the improvement of independency skills among people with severe disabilities. The analysis results indicate that more internal financial resources and more connections to local communities among network resources had greater effects on improving the independency of people with severe disabilities. Based on this result, this paper presents strategies for mobilizing resources to improve the independency of people with severe disabilities at vocational rehabilitation facilities.

Keywords: vocational rehabilitation facility for people with disabilities, types of resources, independency, network resources

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