Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5600

Search results for: translation problems

5600 Mistakes in Translation Causing Translation Problems for Undergraduate Students in Thailand

Authors: Benjawan Tipprachaban

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate mistakes in translation, particularly from Thai to English, which cause translation problems for undergraduate students in Thailand. The researcher had the non-English major students of Suratthani Rajabhat University as samples. The data were collected by having 27 non-English major students translate 50 Thai sentences into English. After the translation, lots of mistakes were found and the researcher categorized them into 3 main types which were the grammatical mistake, the usage mistake, and the spelling mistake. However, this research is currently in the process of analyzing the data and shall be completed in August. The researcher, nevertheless, predicts that, of all the mistakes, the grammatical mistake will principally be made, the usage mistake and the spelling one respectively, which will support the researcher’s hypothesizes, i.e. 1) the grammatical mistake, mainly caused by language transfer, essentially leads to considerable translation problems; 2) the usage mistake is another critical problem that causes translation problems; 3) basic knowledge in Thai to English translation of undergraduate students in Thailand is at low level.

Keywords: English, language, Thai, translation

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5599 Problems in English into Thai Translation Normally Found in Thai University Students

Authors: Anochao Phetcharat

Abstract:

This research aims to study problems of translation basic knowledge, particularly from English into Thai. The researcher used 38 2nd-year non-English speaking students of Suratthani Rajabhat University as samples. The samples were required to translate an A4-sized article from English into Thai assigned as a part of BEN0202 Translation for Business, a requirement subject for Business English Department, which was also taught by the researcher. After completion of the translation, numerous problems were found and the research grouped them into 4 major types. The normally occurred problems in English-Thai translation works are the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech, word-by-word translation employment, misspellings as well as the poor knowledge in English language structure. However, this research is currently under the process of data analysis and shall be completed by the beginning of August. The researcher, nevertheless, predicts that all the above-mentioned problems, will support the researcher’s hypothesizes, that are; 1) the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech causes the mistranslation problem; 2) employing word-by-word translation technique hugely results in the mistranslation problem; 3) misspellings yields the mistranslation problem; and 4) the poor knowledge in English language structure also brings about translation errors. The research also predicts that, of all the aforementioned problems, the following ones are found the most, respectively: the poor knowledge in English language structure, word-by-word translation employment, the lack of knowledge in terms of parts of speech, and misspellings.

Keywords: problem, student, Thai, translation

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5598 Syntax-Related Problems of Translation

Authors: Anna Kesoyan

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the syntax-related problems of translation from English into Armenian. Although Syntax is a part of grammar, syntax-related problems of translation are studied separately during the process of translation. Translation from one language to another is widely accepted as a challenging problem. This becomes even more challenging when the source and target languages are widely different in structure and style, as is the case with English and Armenian. Syntax-related problems of translation from English into Armenian are mainly connected with the syntactical structures of these languages, and particularly, with the word order of the sentence. The word order of the sentence of the Armenian language, which is a synthetic language, is usually characterized as “rather free”, and the word order of the English language, which is an analytical language, is characterized “fixed”. The following research examines the main translation means, particularly, syntactical transformations as the translator has to take real steps while trying to solve certain syntax-related problems. Most of the means of translation are based on the transformation of grammatical components of the sentence, without changing the main information of the text. There are several transformations that occur during translation such as word order of the sentence, transformations of certain grammatical constructions like Infinitive participial construction, Nominative with the Infinitive and Elliptical constructions which have been covered in the following research.

Keywords: elliptical constructions, nominative with the infinitive constructions, fixed and free word order, syntactic structures

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5597 Problems of Translating Technical Terms from English into Arabic

Authors: Nisreen Naji Al-Khawaldeh, Lara Ahmad Mansour El-Awar

Abstract:

The present study investigated the strategies MA translation students used for translating technical terms, the most common obstacles they encountered in translating such terms, and the motives behind using such terms as they are in their original form despite their translatability into Arabic. To achieve these objectives, a translation test was administered to 100 MA students specialising in translation at both Hashemite University and The University of Jordan. It consisted of two parts: (a) 50 English technical terms to be translated (b) two questions to be answered concerning the challenges or problems encountered while translating the previous technical terms and the motives that drive them to use most of the English technical terms as they are despite their translatability into Arabic. The analysis of the results revealed that MA translation students faced problems in translating technical terms, namely the inability to find the equivalent form for the given technical terms, the use of literal translation, and the wider use of loan-words type. Besides, the students used different strategies to translate the technical terms, namely borrowing (i.e., loan- words), paraphrasing, synonymy, naturalization, equivalence, and literal translation. Moreover, it was also revealed that most technical terms were used as they are in the source language despite their translatability into Arabic because these technical terms are easier to use in English rather than in Arabic. Also, when these terms were introduced to the Arab world, they were introduced in English, not in Arabic. So, the brain links these objects to their English terms.

Keywords: arabic, english, technical terms, translation strategies, translation problems

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5596 L2 Strategies in the English Translation of Fengshen Yanyi

Authors: Yanbin Cai

Abstract:

L2 Translation, or translation out of one’s native language, is often adopted for Chinese classical literature. The purpose of this study is to investigate problems arisen in this process and the strategies different from translation by native speakers. Texts selected for this study is a Ming dynasty novel, Fengshen Yanyi, written by Xu Zhonglin and translated into English by Gu Zhizhong. Translated proper names and dialogues are analyzed, followed with a review on translator’s shifting focus on text selection. The result reveals not the problem of linguistic incompetence or cultural negligence, but translation strategies adopted for specific purposes and target readers.

Keywords: L2 translation, Chinese literature, literature translation, Fengshen Yanyi

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5595 The Study of Idiom Translation in Fiction from English into Thai

Authors: Chinchira Bunchutrakun

Abstract:

The purposes of the study are to investigate the problems that the translators encountered when translating English idioms into Thai and study the strategies they applied in solving the problems. The original English version and the Thai translated version of each of two works of fiction were purposively selected for the study. The first was Mr. Maybe, written by Jane Green and translated by Montharat Songphao. The second was The Trials of Tiffany Trott, written by Isabel Wolff and translated by Jitraporn Notoda. Thirty idioms of two translated works of fiction were, then, analyzed. Questionnaires and interviews with the translators of each novel were conducted to obtain the best possible information. The results indicated that the only type of problem that occurred was cultural problems, and these were solved differently by the two translators.

Keywords: translation, idiom translation, fiction translation, problem-solution strategies

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5594 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande

Abstract:

Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: translation, degree in translation, translation quality, professional experience

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5593 An Investigation into Problems Confronting Pre-Service Teachers of French in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Modupe Beatrice Adeyinka

Abstract:

French, as a foreign language in Nigeria, is pronounced to be the second official language and a compulsory subject in the primary school level; hence, colleges of education across the nation are saddled with the responsibility of training teachers for the subject. However, it has been observed that this policy has not been fully implemented, for French teachers in training, do face many challenges, of which translation is chief. In a bid to investigate the major cause of the perceived translation problem, this study examined French translation problems of pre-service teachers in selected colleges of education in the southwest, Nigeria. This study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The simple random sampling technique was used to select four colleges of education in the southwest, where 100 French students were randomly selected by selecting 25 from each school. The pre-service teachers’ French translation problems’ questionnaire (PTFTPQ) was used as an instrument while four research questions were answered and three null hypotheses were tested. Among others, the findings revealed that students do have problems with false friends, though mainly with its interpretation when attempting French-English translation and vice versa; majority of the students make use of French dictionary as a way out and found the material very useful for their understanding of false friends. Teachers were, therefore, urged to attend in-service training where they would be exposed to new and emerging strategies, approaches and methodologies of French language teaching that will make students overcome the challenge of translation in learning French.

Keywords: false friends, French language, pre-service teachers, source language, target language, translation

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5592 Using Synonymy in Translation of Hemingway’s 'A Farewell to Arms' from English into Albanian

Authors: Miranda Enesi, Helena Grillo Mukli

Abstract:

The English word-stock is extremely rich in synonyms which can be largely accounted for by the abundant borrowing. Translation problems encountered by translators in general are usually ‘transfer problems’. They face more difficulties in the interpretation of meaning from the source language text than lexical differences between languages. The aim of the study is to inspect the various strategies used in translating from English into Albanian specific words in the ‘A Farwell to arms’ novel. For this purpose, examples translated from English into Albanian were examined. The Albanian equivalents have shown that various strategies were used in order to overcome the problem of rendering words and expressions into the target language. Employed strategies were synonymy, modulation, transposition, calque and word for word translation. In addition, this paper shows that the strategy of translating using synonymy is mostly used. In this paper, an attempt is made to examine the nature of contextual synonymy in order to investigate its problematic nature regarding translation. Types of synonymy are analyzed and then examples from English and Albanian versions are provided to examine the overlap between them.

Keywords: equivalence, literal translation, paraphrasing, transfer problems, synonymy

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5591 Direct Translation vs. Pivot Language Translation for Persian-Spanish Low-Resourced Statistical Machine Translation System

Authors: Benyamin Ahmadnia, Javier Serrano

Abstract:

In this paper we compare two different approaches for translating from Persian to Spanish, as a language pair with scarce parallel corpus. The first approach involves direct transfer using an statistical machine translation system, which is available for this language pair. The second approach involves translation through English, as a pivot language, which has more translation resources and more advanced translation systems available. The results show that, it is possible to achieve better translation quality using English as a pivot language in either approach outperforms direct translation from Persian to Spanish. Our best result is the pivot system which scores higher than direct translation by (1.12) BLEU points.

Keywords: statistical machine translation, direct translation approach, pivot language translation approach, parallel corpus

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5590 Translation Quality Assessment: Proposing a Linguistic-Based Model for Translation Criticism with Considering Ideology and Power Relations

Authors: Mehrnoosh Pirhayati

Abstract:

In this study, the researcher tried to propose a model of Translation Criticism (TC) regarding the phenomenon of Translation Quality Assessment (TQA). With changing the general view on re/writing as an illegal act, the researcher defined a scale for the act of translation and determined the redline of translation with other products. This research attempts to show TC as a related phenomenon to TQA. This study shows that TQA with using the rules and factors of TC as depicted in both product-oriented analysis and process-oriented analysis, determines the orientation or the level of the quality of translation. This study also depicts that TC, regarding TQA’s perspective, reveals the aim of the translation of original text and the root of ideological manipulation and re/writing. On the other hand, this study stresses the existence of a direct relationship between the linguistic materials and semiotic codes of a text or book. This study can be fruitful for translators, scholars, translation criticizers, and translation quality assessors, and also it is applicable in the area of pedagogy.

Keywords: a model of translation criticism, a model of translation quality assessment, critical discourse analysis (CDA), re/writing, translation criticism (TC), translation quality assessment (TQA)

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5589 Perception and Implementation of Machine Translation Applications by the Iranian English Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to provide a relatively comprehensive preview of the Iranian English translators’ perception on Machine Translation. Furthermore, the study tries to shed light on the status of implementation of Machine Translation among the Iranian English Translators. To reach the aforementioned objectives, the Localization Industry Standards Association’s questioner for measuring perceptions with regard to the adoption of a technology innovation was adapted and used to investigate three parameter among the participants of the study, namely familiarity with Machine Translation, general perception on Machine Translation and implementation of Machine Translation systems in translation tasks. The participants of the study were 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Machine Translation, as well as a positive perception of and attitude toward Machine Translation by the Iranian English translators.

Keywords: translation technology, machine translation, perception, implementation

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5588 Interlingual Translation of Manipuri Folktales with the Ideas of André Lefevere's Translation

Authors: Thoudam Jomita Devi

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to analyze the problems of translating Manipuri folktales into English and the strategies deployed. In Manipuri, folktales are known as Fungawari/Phungawari, which is similar to a western bed time story. The work is with the special reference to folktales of Meetei community. Meetei are the majority ethnic group of Manipur, India. For this paper’s purpose, two folktales Shandrembi Cheisra and Pebet will be chosen for analysis and discussion. The translation of folktales can contribute to intercultural communication and bridge the gap between the generations. Translating Manipuri Folktales is problematic on both cultural and linguistic levels. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to understand, how the idea of André Lefevere (1992) translation could be implicated in translating Manipuri folktales.

Keywords: cultural, folktales, intercultural, interlingual, translation

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5587 Adaptation in Translation of 'Christmas Every Day' Short Story by William Dean Howells

Authors: Mohsine Khazrouni

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to highlight the importance of adaptation in translation. To convey the message, the translator needs to take into account not only the text but also extra-linguistic factors such as the target audience. The present paper claims that adaptation is an unavoidable translation strategy when dealing with texts that are heavy with religious and cultural themes. The translation task becomes even more challenging when dealing with children’s literature as the audience are children whose comprehension, experience and world knowledge are limited. The study uses the Arabic translation of the short story ‘Christmas Every Day’ as a case study. The short story will be translated, and the pragmatic problems involved will be discussed. The focus will be on the issue of adaptation. i.e., the source text should be adapted to the target language audience`s social and cultural environment.

Keywords: pragmatic adaptation, Arabic translation, children's literature, equivalence

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5586 An Analysis of Machine Translation: Instagram Translation vs Human Translation on the Perspective Translation Quality

Authors: Aulia Fitri

Abstract:

This aims to seek which part of the linguistics with the common mistakes occurred between Instagram translation and human translation. Instagram is a social media account that is widely used by people in the world. Everyone with the Instagram account can consume the captions and pictures that are shared by their friends, celebrity, and public figures across countries. Instagram provides the machine translation under its caption space that will assist users to understand the language of their non-native. The researcher takes samples from an Indonesian public figure whereas the account is followed by many followers. The public figure tries to help her followers from other countries understand her posts by putting up the English version after the Indonesian version. However, the research on Instagram account has not been done yet even though the account is widely used by the worldwide society. There are 20 samples that will be analysed on the perspective of translation quality and linguistics tools. As the MT, Instagram tends to give a literal translation without regarding the topic meant. On the other hand, the human translation tends to exaggerate the translation which leads a different meaning in English. This is an interesting study to discuss when the human nature and robotic-system influence the translation result.

Keywords: human translation, machine translation (MT), translation quality, linguistic tool

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5585 Literary Translation Human vs Machine: An Essay about Online Translation

Authors: F. L. Bernardo, R. A. S. Zacarias

Abstract:

The ways to translate are manifold since textual genres undergoing translations are diverse. In this essay, our goal is to give special attention to the literary genre and to the online translation tool Google Translate (GT), widely used either by nonprofessionals or by scholars, in order to show evidence of the indispensability of human wit in a good translation. Our study has its basis on a literary review of prominent authors, with emphasis on translation categories. Also highlighting the issue of polysemous literary translation, we aim to shed light on the translator’s craft and the fallible nature of online translation. To better illustrate these principles, the methodology consisted on performing a comparative analysis involving the original text Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe in English to its online translation given by GT and to a translation into Brazilian Portuguese performed by a human. We proceeded to identifying and analyzing the degrees of textual equivalence according to the following categories: volume, levels and order. The results have attested the unsuitability in a translation done by a computer connected to the World Wide Web.

Keywords: Google Translator, human translation, literary translation, Moll Flanders

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5584 The Loss of Oral Performative Semantic Influence of the Qur'an in Its Translations

Authors: Alalddin Al-Tarawneh

Abstract:

In its literal translation, the Qur’an is frequently subject to misinterpretation as a result of failures to deliver its meaning into any language. This paper relies on the genuine aspect that the Qur’an is an oral performance in its nature; and the objective of any Qur’an translation is to deliver its meaning in English. Therefore, it approaches the translation of the Qur’an beyond the usual formal linguistic approach in order to include an extra-textual factor. This factor is the recitation or oral performance of the Qur’an, that is, tajweed as it is termed in Arabic. The translations used in this paper to apply the suggested approach were carefully chosen to be representative of the problems that exist in many Qur’an translations. These translations are The Meaning of the Holy Quran: Translation and Commentary by Ali (1989), The Meaning of the Glorious Koran by Pickthall (1997/1930), and The Quran: Arabic Text with Corresponding English Meanings by Sahih (2010). Through the examples cited in this paper, it is suggested that the agents involved in producing a ‘translation’ of the Holy Qur’an have to take into account its oral aspect which yields additional senses and meanings that are not being captured by adhering to the words of the ‘written’ discourse. This paper attempts in its translation into English.

Keywords: oral performance, tajweed, Qur'an translation, recitation

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5583 Evaluation of Persian Medical Terms Compatibility with International Naming Criteria Based on the Applied Translation Procedures

Authors: Ali Akbar Zeinali

Abstract:

Lack of appropriate equivalences for the terms or technical words is the result of ineffective translation guidelines adopted in the translation processes. The increasing number of foreign words and specific terms incorporated into the native language are due to the ongoing development of technology and science. Many problems appear in medical translation when the Persian translators try to employ non-Persian or imported words in medical texts, in which multiple equivalents may be created for one particular word based on the individual preferences of authors and translators in the target language due to lack of standardization. The study attempted to discuss the findings based on the compatibility of the international naming criteria, considering the translation procedures. About 67% of 339 equivalents under this study were grouped as incompatible words while about 33% of them were compatible terms. The similarities and differences were investigated and discussed according to the compatibility status of the equivalents with Sager’s criteria. Such equivalents have been classified into several groups through bi-dimensional descriptions that were different features of translation procedures related to the international naming criteria. In review of the frequency distribution of compatibilities, the equivalents were divided into two categories of compatibles and incompatibles, indicating the effectiveness of the applied translation procedures.

Keywords: linguistics, medical translation, naming, terminology

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5582 The Effect of Using Computer-Assisted Translation Tools on the Translation of Collocations

Authors: Hassan Mahdi

Abstract:

The integration of computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools in translation creates several opportunities for translators. However, this integration is not useful in all types of English structures. This study aims at examining the impact of using CAT tools in translating collocations. Seventy students of English as a foreign language participated in this study. The participants were divided into three groups (i.e., CAT tools group, Machine Translation group, and the control group). The comparison of the results obtained from the translation output of the three groups demonstrated the improvement of translation using CAT tools. The results indicated that the participants who used CAT tools outscored the participants who used MT, and in turn, both groups outscored the control group who did not use any type of technology in translation. In addition, there was a significant difference in the use of CAT for translation different types of collocations. The results also indicated that CAT tools were more effective in translation fixed and medium-strength collocations than weak collocations. Finally, the results showed that CAT tools were effective in translation collocations in both types of languages (i.e. target language or source language). The study suggests some guidelines for translators to use CAT tools.

Keywords: machine translation, computer-assisted translation, collocations, technology

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5581 Statistical Comparison of Machine and Manual Translation: A Corpus-Based Study of Gone with the Wind

Authors: Yanmeng Liu

Abstract:

This article analyzes and compares the linguistic differences between machine translation and manual translation, through a case study of the book Gone with the Wind. As an important carrier of human feeling and thinking, the literature translation poses a huge difficulty for machine translation, and it is supposed to expose distinct translation features apart from manual translation. In order to display linguistic features objectively, tentative uses of computerized and statistical evidence to the systematic investigation of large scale translation corpora by using quantitative methods have been deployed. This study compiles bilingual corpus with four versions of Chinese translations of the book Gone with the Wind, namely, Piao by Chunhai Fan, Piao by Huairen Huang, translations by Google Translation and Baidu Translation. After processing the corpus with the software of Stanford Segmenter, Stanford Postagger, and AntConc, etc., the study analyzes linguistic data and answers the following questions: 1. How does the machine translation differ from manual translation linguistically? 2. Why do these deviances happen? This paper combines translation study with the knowledge of corpus linguistics, and concretes divergent linguistic dimensions in translated text analysis, in order to present linguistic deviances in manual and machine translation. Consequently, this study provides a more accurate and more fine-grained understanding of machine translation products, and it also proposes several suggestions for machine translation development in the future.

Keywords: corpus-based analysis, linguistic deviances, machine translation, statistical evidence

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5580 The Relation between Subtitling and General Translation from a Didactic Perspective

Authors: Sonia Gonzalez Cruz

Abstract:

Subtitling activities allow for acquiring and developing certain translation skills, and they also have a great impact on the students' motivation. Active subtitling is a relatively recent activity that has generated a lot of interest particularly in the field of second-language acquisition, but it is also present within both the didactics of general translation and language teaching for translators. It is interesting to analyze the level of inclusion of these new resources into the existent curricula and observe to what extent these different teaching methods are being used in the translation classroom. Although subtitling has already become an independent discipline of study and it is considered to be a type of translation on its own, it is necessary to do further research on the different didactic varieties that this type of audiovisual translation offers. Therefore, this project is framed within the field of the didactics of translation, and it focuses on the relationship between the didactics of general translation and active subtitling as a didactic tool. Its main objective is to analyze the inclusion of interlinguistic active subtitling in general translation curricula at different universities. As it has been observed so far, the analyzed curricula do not make any type of reference to the use of this didactic tool in general translation classrooms. However, they do register the inclusion of other audiovisual activities such as dubbing, script translation or video watching, among others. By means of online questionnaires and interviews, the main goal is to confirm the results obtained after the observation of the curricula and find out to what extent subtitling has actually been included into general translation classrooms.

Keywords: subtitling, general translation, didactics, translation competence

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5579 Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Ozlem Bozok, Yusuf Bozok

Abstract:

The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: exposure to foreign language translation, foreign language learning, prospective teachers’ opinions, use of L1

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5578 A Study of Chinese-specific Terms in Government Work Report(2017-2019) from the Perspective of Relevance Theory

Authors: Shi Jiaxin

Abstract:

The Government Work Report is an essential form of document in the government of the People’s Republic of China. It covers all aspects of Chinese society and reflects China’s development strategy and trend. There are countless special terms in Government Work Report. Only by understanding Chinese-specific terms can we understand the content of the Government Work Report. Only by accurately translating the Chinese-specific terms can people come from all across the world know the Chinese government work report and understand China. Relevance theory is a popular theory of cognitive pragmatics. Relevance Translation Theory, which is closely related to Relevance Theory, has crucial and major guiding significance for the translation of Chinese-specific. Through studying Relevance Theory and researching the translation techniques, strategies and applications in the process of translating Chinese-specific terms from the perspective of Relevance Theory, we can understand the meaning and connotation of Chinese-specific terms, then solve various problems in the process of C-E translation, and strengthen our translation ability.

Keywords: government work report, Chinese-specific terms, relevance theory, translation

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5577 Teaching Translation during Covid-19 Outbreak: Challenges and Discoveries

Authors: Rafat Alwazna

Abstract:

Translation teaching is a particular activity that includes translators and interpreters training either inside or outside institutionalised settings, such as universities. It can also serve as a means of teaching other fields, such as foreign languages. Translation teaching began in the twentieth century. Teachers of translation hold the responsibilities of educating students, developing their translation competence and training them to be professional translators. The activity of translation teaching involves various tasks, including curriculum design, course delivery, material writing as well as application and implementation. The present paper addresses translation teaching during COVID-19 outbreak, seeking to find out the challenges encountered by translation teachers in online translation teaching and the discoveries/solutions arrived at to resolve them. The paper makes use of a comprehensive questionnaire, containing closed-ended and open-ended questions to elicit both quantitative as well as qualitative data from about sixty translation teachers who have been teaching translation at BA and MA levels during COVID-19 outbreak. The data shows that about 40% of the participants evaluate their online translation teaching experience during COVID-19 outbreak as enjoyable and exhilarating. On the contrary, no participant has evaluated his/her online translation teaching experience as being not good, nor has any participant evaluated his/her online translation teaching experience as being terrible. The data also presents that about 23.33% of the participants evaluate their online translation teaching experience as very good, and the same percentage applies to those who evaluate their online translation teaching experience as good to some extent. Moreover, the data indicates that around 13.33% of the participants evaluate their online translation teaching experience as good. The data also demonstrates that the majority of the participants have encountered obstacles in online translation teaching and have concurrently proposed solutions to resolve them.

Keywords: online translation teaching, electronic learning platform, COVID-19 outbreak, challenges, solutions

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5576 Nation Branding as Reframing: From the Perspective of Translation Studies

Authors: Ye Tian

Abstract:

Soft power has replaced hard power and become one of the most attractive ways nations pursue to expand their international influence. One of the ways to improve a nation’s soft power is to commercialise the country and brand or rebrand it to the international audience, and thus attract interests or foreign investments. In this process, translation has often been regarded as merely a tool, and researches in it are either in translating literature as culture export or in how (in)accuracy of translation influences the branding campaign. This paper proposes to analyse nation branding campaign with framing theory, and thus gives an entry for translation studies to come to a central stage in today’s soft power research. To frame information or elements of a text, an event, or, as in this paper, a nation is to put them in a mental structure. This structure can be built by outsiders or by those who create the text, the event, or by citizens of the nation. To frame information like this can be regarded as a process of translation, as what translation does in its traditional meaning of ‘translating a text’ is to put a framework on the text to, deliberately or not, highlight some of the elements while hiding the others. In the discourse of nations, then, people unavoidably simplify a national image and put the nation into their imaginary framework. In this way, problems like stereotype and prejudice come into being. Meanwhile, if nations seek ways to frame or reframe themselves, they make efforts to have in control what and who they are in the eyes of international audiences, and thus make profits, economically or politically, from it. The paper takes African nations, which are usually perceived as a whole, and the United Kingdom as examples to justify passive and active framing process, and assesses both positive and negative influence framing has on nations. In conclusion, translation as framing causes problems like prejudice, and the image of a nation is not always in the hands of nation branders, but reframing the nation in a positive way has the potential to turn the tide.

Keywords: framing, nation branding, stereotype, translation

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5575 Retrospection and Introspection on the Three-Decade Sight Translation Research in China—Bibliometric Analysis of CNKI (1987—2015) Relevant Articles

Authors: Wei Deng

Abstract:

Based on sorting and analyzing related literature on CNKI for nearly three decades between 1987—2015, this paper, adopting the method of bibliometrics, summarized and reviewed the domestic research on sight translation from three aspects. The analysis concluded the following findings: 1) The majority research had focused on the noumenon of sight translation. The rest of the three main research perspectives are in descending order: sight translation teaching, sight translation skills and other associated skills, and cognitive research of sight translation. 2) The domestic research increased significantly in recent five years, but there is much room for the quality. 3) The non-empirical study has had higher proportion, while the empirical study is unitary with the lack of triangle validation. This paper suggested that sight translation being in sore need of unified definition, multilingual, even interdisciplinary cooperation.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, perspectives, sight translation, tendency

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5574 Foreignization and Domestication in the West and the East: A Comparative Study of Lawrence Venuti and Lu Xun’s Translation Theories

Authors: Xijinyan Chen

Abstract:

The study of translation is one of the fields that have been dominated by the voices from the west. Both Lawrence Venuti and Lu Xun advocate a translation strategy of 'foreignization' sixty years apart from each other: the former in 1995 and the latter in 1935. And yet only Venuti’s idea has become one of the best-accepted ones in the translation paradigm, while Lu’s was rarely mentioned or even unknown to some. The paper attempts to provide a comprehensive comparative study of the theories proposed by the American translation scholar and the Chinese writer/translator scholar and re-examine the alleged Eurocentrism in translation studies. The paper first compares and contrasts the backgrounds, developments and main ideas of Venuti and Lu’s translation theories and then discusses the possible reasons behind the distinct receptions. The paper argues that in addition to lacking a systematic development, Lu’s idea seems to be limited to a certain Chinese political and cultural context and thus fail to reach out to a larger group of audiences. By introducing Lu’s idea and comparing it with Venuti’s, the paper aims at drawing some attention and interests to non-western voices in the translation field, so as to enrich and inspire the current translation scholarship. It is hoped that the study demonstrates the significance of establishing a field of comparative translation theories.

Keywords: comparative translation theories, eurocentrism, domestication and foreignization, Lawrence Venuti, Lu Xun

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5573 How Is a Machine-Translated Literary Text Organized in Coherence? An Analysis Based upon Theme-Rheme Structure

Authors: Jiang Niu, Yue Jiang

Abstract:

With the ultimate goal to automatically generate translated texts with high quality, machine translation has made tremendous improvements. However, its translations of literary works are still plagued with problems in coherence, esp. the translation between distant language pairs. One of the causes of the problems is probably the lack of linguistic knowledge to be incorporated into the training of machine translation systems. In order to enable readers to better understand the problems of machine translation in coherence, to seek out the potential knowledge to be incorporated, and thus to improve the quality of machine translation products, this study applies Theme-Rheme structure to examine how a machine-translated literary text is organized and developed in terms of coherence. Theme-Rheme structure in Systemic Functional Linguistics is a useful tool for analysis of textual coherence. Theme is the departure point of a clause and Rheme is the rest of the clause. In a text, as Themes and Rhemes may be connected with each other in meaning, they form thematic and rhematic progressions throughout the text. Based on this structure, we can look into how a text is organized and developed in terms of coherence. Methodologically, we chose Chinese and English as the language pair to be studied. Specifically, we built a comparable corpus with two modes of English translations, viz. machine translation (MT) and human translation (HT) of one Chinese literary source text. The translated texts were annotated with Themes, Rhemes and their progressions throughout the texts. The annotated texts were analyzed from two respects, the different types of Themes functioning differently in achieving coherence, and the different types of thematic and rhematic progressions functioning differently in constructing texts. By analyzing and contrasting the two modes of translations, it is found that compared with the HT, 1) the MT features “pseudo-coherence”, with lots of ill-connected fragments of information using “and”; 2) the MT system produces a static and less interconnected text that reads like a list; these two points, in turn, lead to the less coherent organization and development of the MT than that of the HT; 3) novel to traditional and previous studies, Rhemes do contribute to textual connection and coherence though less than Themes do and thus are worthy of notice in further studies. Hence, the findings suggest that Theme-Rheme structure be applied to measuring and assessing the coherence of machine translation, to being incorporated into the training of the machine translation system, and Rheme be taken into account when studying the textual coherence of both MT and HT.

Keywords: coherence, corpus-based, literary translation, machine translation, Theme-Rheme structure

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5572 An Experience of Translating an Excerpt from Sophie Adonon’s Echos de Femmes from French to English, Using Reverso.

Authors: Michael Ngongeh Mombe

Abstract:

This Paper seeks to investigate an assertion made by some colleagues that there is no need paying a human translator to translate their literary texts, that there are softwares such as Reverso that can be used to do the translation. The main objective of this study is to examine the veracity of this assertion using Reverso to translate a literary text without any post-editing by a human translator. The work is based on two theories: Skopos and Communicative theories of translation. The work is a documentary research where data were collected from published documents in libraries, on the internet and from the translation produced by Reverso. We made a comparative text analyses of both source and target texts in a bid to highlight the weaknesses and strengths of the software. Findings of this work revealed that those who advocate the use of only Machine translation do so in ignorance of the translation mistakes usually made by the software. From the review of all the 268 segments of translation, we found out that the translation produced by Reverso is fraught with errors. We therefore recommend the use of human translators to either do the translation of their literary texts or revise the translation produced by machine to conform to the skopos of the work. This paper is based on Reverso translation. Similar works in the near future will be based on the other translation softwares to determine their weaknesses and strengths.

Keywords: machine translation, human translator, Reverso, literary text

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5571 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder

Abstract:

Because of the growing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grows more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterised by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion, and translation problems etc. Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.

Keywords: iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems

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