Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15174

Search results for: human centered design

15174 Designing and Evaluating Pedagogic Conversational Agents to Teach Children

Authors: Silvia Tamayo-Moreno, Diana Pérez-Marín

Abstract:

In this paper, the possibility of children studying by using an interactive learning technology called Pedagogic Conversational Agent is presented. The main benefit is that the agent is able to adapt the dialogue to each student and to provide automatic feedback. Moreover, according to Math teachers, in many cases students are unable to solve the problems even knowing the procedure to solve them, because they do not understand what they have to do. The hypothesis is that if students are helped to understand what they have to solve, they will be able to do it. Taken that into account, we have started the development of Dr. Roland, an agent to help students understand Math problems following a User-Centered Design methodology. The use of this methodology is proposed, for the first time, to design pedagogic agents to teach any subject from Secondary down to Pre-Primary education. The reason behind proposing a methodology is that while working on this project, we noticed the lack of literature to design and evaluate agents. To cover this gap, we describe how User-Centered Design can be applied, and which usability techniques can be applied to evaluate the agent.

Keywords: pedagogic conversational agent, human-computer interaction, user-centered design, natural language interface

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15173 Design and Māori Values: A Rebrand Project for the Social Enterprise Sector

Authors: M. Kiarna, S. Junjira, S. Casey, M. Nolwazi, M. S. Marcos, A. T. Tatiana, L. Cassandra

Abstract:

This paper details a rebrand design project developed for a non-profitable organization called Te Roopu Waiora (TRW), which is currently located in Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand. This social enterprise is dedicated to supporting the Māori community living with sensorial, physical and intellectual disabilities (whānau hauā). As part of a year three bachelor design brief, the rebrand project enabled students to reflect on Kaupapa Māori principles and appropriately address the values of the organisation. As such, the methodology used a pragmatic paradigm approach and mixed methods design practices involving a human-centred design to problem solving. As result, the student project culminated in the development in a range of cohesive design artefacts, aiming to improve the rentability and perception of the brand with the audience and stakeholders.

Keywords: design in Aotearoa New Zealand, Kaupapa Māori, branding, design education, human-centered design

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15172 Oath Taking-An Approach to Combating Criminality: Challenges and Implication to the Victim Centered Approach in Human Trafficking

Authors: Faith G. Ehiemua, Chandra E. Ulinfun

Abstract:

This work presents two approaches that use competing models to combat criminality in human trafficking. It argues that oath-taking is an approach used to combat and repress crime by natives of African descent. Therefore, certain value choices reflected explicitly or implicitly in its habitual functioning are features of crime control, a model of the criminal process used to repress and prevent crime. By pitting the approaches against each other, the work examines the utility of the purpose of each approach with the aim of assessing moral worthiness. The approaches adopted are descriptive, normative, and theoretical. The findings reveal that oath-taking is effective in human trafficking mainly because Africans believe that the African traditional system is efficient. However, the utilitarian ethical theory applied to the use of oath-taking in human trafficking shows oath-taking as protecting the interest of human traffickers against the general good of society.

Keywords: human rights, human trafficking, oath taking, utilitarianism, victim-centered approach

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15171 The Design Process of an Interactive Seat for Improving Workplace Productivity

Authors: Carlos Ferreira, Paulo Freitas, Valentim Freitas

Abstract:

Creative industries’ workers are becoming more prominent as countries move towards intellectual-based economies. Consequently, the nature and essence of the workplace needs to be reconfigured so that creativity and productivity can be better promoted at these spaces. Using a multidisciplinary approach and a user-centered methodology, combining product design, electronic engineering, software and human-computer interaction, we have designed and developed a new seat that uses embedded sensors and actuators to increase the overall well-being of its users, their productivity and their creativity. Our contribution focuses on the parameters that most affect the user’s work on these kinds of spaces, which are, according to our study, noise and temperature. We describe the design process for a new interactive seat targeted at improving workspace productivity.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, usability, user interface, creativity, ergonomics

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15170 Human-Computer Interaction: Strategies for Ensuring the Design of User-Centered Web Interfaces for Smartphones

Authors: Byron Joseph A. Hallar, Annjeannette Alain D. Galang, Maria Visitacion N. Gumabay

Abstract:

The widespread adoption and increasing proliferation of smartphones that started during the first decade of the twenty-first century have enabled their users to communicate and access information in ways that were merely thought of as possibilities in the few years before the smartphone revolution. A product of the convergence of the cellular phone and portable computer, the smartphone provides an additional important function that used to be the exclusive domain of desktop-bound computers and portable computers: Web Browsing. For increasing numbers of users, the smartphone and allied devices such as tablet computers have become their first and often their only means of accessing the World Wide Web. This has led to the development of websites that cater to the needs of the new breed of smartphone-carrying web users. The smaller size of smartphones as compared with conventional computers has provided unique challenges to web interface designers. The smaller screen size and touchscreen interface have made it much more difficult to read and navigate through web pages that were in most part designed for traditional desktop and portable computers. Although increasing numbers of websites now provide an alternate website formatted for smartphones, problems with ease of use, reliability and usability still remain. This study focuses on the identification of the problems associated with smartphone web interfaces, the compliance with accepted standards of user-oriented web interface design, the strategies that could be utilized to ensure the design of user-centric web interfaces for smartphones, and the identification of the current trends and developments related to user-centric web interface design intended for the consumption of smartphone users.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, user-centered design, web interface, mobile, smartphone

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15169 Architectural Design Strategies and Visual Perception of Contemporary Spatial Design

Authors: Nora Geczy

Abstract:

In today’s architectural practice, during the process of designing public, educational, healthcare and cultural space, human-centered architectural designs helping spatial orientation, safe space usage and the appropriate spatial sequence of actions are gaining increasing importance. Related to the methodology of designing public buildings, several scientific experiments in spatial recognition, spatial analysis and spatial psychology with regard to the components of space producing mental and physiological effects have been going on at the Department of Architectural Design and the Interdisciplinary Student Workshop (IDM) at the Széchenyi István University, Győr since 2013. Defining the creation of preventive, anticipated spatial design and the architectural tools of spatial comfort of public buildings and their practical usability are in the limelight of our research. In the experiments applying eye-tracking cameras, we studied the way public spaces are used, especially concentrating on the characteristics of spatial behaviour, orientation, recognition, the sequence of actions, and space usage. Along with the role of mental maps, human perception, and interaction problems in public spaces (at railway stations, galleries, and educational institutions), we analyzed the spatial situations influencing psychological and ergonomic factors. We also analyzed the eye movements of the experimental subjects in dynamic situations, in spatial procession, using stairs and corridors. We monitored both the consequences and the distorting effects of the ocular dominance of the right eye on spatial orientation; we analyzed the gender-based differences of women and men’s orientation, stress-inducing spaces, spaces affecting concentration and the spatial situation influencing territorial behaviour. Based on these observations, we collected the components of creating public interior spaces, which -according to our theory- contribute to the optimal usability of public spaces. We summed up our research in criteria for design, including 10 points. Our further goals are testing design principles needed for optimizing orientation and space usage, their discussion, refinement, and practical usage.

Keywords: architecture, eye-tracking, human-centered spatial design, public interior spaces, visual perception

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15168 Effects of a Student-Centered Approach to Assessment on Students' Attitudes towards 'Applied Statistics' Course

Authors: Anduela Lile

Abstract:

The purpose of this cross sectional study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching and learning Statistics from a student centered perspective in higher education institutions. Statistics education has emphasized the application of tangible and interesting examples in order to motivate students learning about statistical concepts. Participants in this study were 112 bachelor students enrolled in the ‘Applied Statistics’ course in Sports University of Tirana. Experimental group students received a student-centered teaching approach; Control group students received an instructor-centered teaching approach. This study found student-centered approach student group had statistically significantly higher assessments scores (52.1 ± 18.9) at the end of the evaluation compared to instructor-centered approach student group (61.8 ± 16.4), (t (108) = 2.848, p = 0.005). Results concluded that student-centered perspective can improve student positive attitude to statistical methods and to motivate project work. Therefore, findings of this study may be very useful to the higher education institutions to establish their learning strategies especially for courses related to Statistics.

Keywords: student-centered, instructor-centered, course assessment, learning outcomes, applied statistics

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15167 A Qualitative Student-Perspective Study of Student-Centered Learning Practices in the Context of Irish Teacher Education

Authors: Pauline Logue

Abstract:

In recent decades, the Irish Department of Education and Skills has pro-actively promoted student-center learning methodologies. Similarly, the National Forum for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning has advocated such strategies, aligning them with student success. These developments have informed the author’s professional practice as a teacher educator. This qualitative student-perspective study focuses on a review of one pilot initiative in the academic year 2020-2021, namely, the implementation of universal design for learning strategies within teacher education, employing student-centered learning strategies. Findings included: that student-centered strategies enhanced student performance and success overall, with some minor evidence of student resistance. It was concluded that a dialogical review with student teachers on prior learning experiences (from intellectual and affective perspectives) and learning environments (physical, virtual, and emotional) could facilitate greater student ownership of learning. It is recommended to more formally structure such a dialogical review in a future delivery.

Keywords: professional practice, student-centered learning, teacher education, universal design for learning

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15166 Implementing Learner-Centered Teaching Approach In Iraqi Higher Education

Authors: Iman Ali Ahmed Al-Rashed

Abstract:

This paper directs attention to the limitations of the teacher-centered strategy in teaching. The aim of this study is to draw more educational attention to learner-centered strategy in order to shift the emphasis from the traditional concept of teaching to a new concept in teaching. To begin bridging the traditional concept of teaching and the new concept, the study will explore the new concept of teaching to support teaching in Arab World generally and in Iraq specifically. A qualitative case study orientation was used to collect data in the form of classroom observations, interviews and field notes. The teaching practices used by three university instructors are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: case study, learner-centered strategy, qualitative study, teacher-centered strategy, traditional teaching

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15165 Designing a Socio-Technical System for Groundwater Resources Management, Applying Smart Energy and Water Meter

Authors: S. Mahdi Sadatmansouri, Maryam Khalili

Abstract:

World, nowadays, encounters serious water scarcity problem. During the past few years, by advent of Smart Energy and Water Meter (SEWM) and its installation at the electro-pumps of the water wells, one had believed that it could be the golden key to address the groundwater resources over-pumping issue. In fact, implementation of these Smart Meters managed to control the water table drawdown for short; but it was not a sustainable approach. SEWM has been considered as law enforcement facility at first; however, for solving a complex socioeconomic problem like shared groundwater resources management, more than just enforcement is required: participation to conserve common resources. The well owners or farmers, as water consumers, are the main and direct stakeholders of this system and other stakeholders could be government sectors, investors, technology providers, privet sectors or ordinary people. Designing a socio-technical system not only defines the role of each stakeholder but also can lubricate the communication to reach the system goals while benefits of each are considered and provided. Farmers, as the key participators for solving groundwater problem, do not trust governments but they would trust a fair system in which responsibilities, privileges and benefits are clear. Technology could help this system remained impartial and productive. Social aspects provide rules, regulations, social objects and etc. for the system and help it to be more human-centered. As the design methodology, Design Thinking provides probable solutions for the challenging problems and ongoing conflicts; it could enlighten the way in which the final system could be designed. Using Human Centered Design approach of IDEO helps to keep farmers in the center of the solution and provides a vision by which stakeholders’ requirements and needs are addressed effectively. Farmers would be considered to trust the system and participate in their groundwater resources management if they find the rules and tools of the system fair and effective. Besides, implementation of the socio-technical system could change farmers’ behavior in order that they concern more about their valuable shared water resources as well as their farm profit. This socio-technical system contains nine main subsystems: 1) Measurement and Monitoring system, 2) Legislation and Governmental system, 3) Information Sharing system, 4) Knowledge based NGOs, 5) Integrated Farm Management system (using IoT), 6) Water Market and Water Banking system, 7) Gamification, 8) Agribusiness ecosystem, 9) Investment system.

Keywords: human centered design, participatory management, smart energy and water meter (SEWM), social object, socio-technical system, water table drawdown

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15164 Sustainable Behavior and Design in Chinese Traditional Culture

Authors: Jin Chuhao

Abstract:

Sustainable design is the key for the human to realize the harmonious development. However, sustainable design requires localization that combines their own regional culture’s characteristics, then forms the most common cultural identity. As a result, the concept of sustainable design integrates into social behavior and promotes the harmonious development. Chinese Confucian doctrine is one of the important thoughts of human culture, which is accepted by more and more people. This paper summarizes the sustainable concept from the Chinese traditional culture and local design, discusses how they change the life of human being and produces enlightenment and significance to China and world.

Keywords: sustainable design, Chinese traditional culture, harmonious development, Confucianism

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15163 A Holographic Infotainment System for Connected and Driverless Cars: An Exploratory Study of Gesture Based Interaction

Authors: Nicholas Lambert, Seungyeon Ryu, Mehmet Mulla, Albert Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, an interactive in-car interface called HoloDash is presented. It is intended to provide information and infotainment in both autonomous vehicles and ‘connected cars’, vehicles equipped with Internet access via cellular services. The research focuses on the development of interactive avatars for this system and its gesture-based control system. This is a case study for the development of a possible human-centred means of presenting a connected or autonomous vehicle’s On-Board Diagnostics through a projected ‘holographic’ infotainment system. This system is termed a Holographic Human Vehicle Interface (HHIV), as it utilises a dashboard projection unit and gesture detection. The research also examines the suitability for gestures in an automotive environment, given that it might be used in both driver-controlled and driverless vehicles. Using Human Centred Design methods, questions were posed to test subjects and preferences discovered in terms of the gesture interface and the user experience for passengers within the vehicle. These affirm the benefits of this mode of visual communication for both connected and driverless cars.

Keywords: gesture, holographic interface, human-computer interaction, user-centered design

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15162 Various Perspectives for the Concept of the Emotion Labor

Authors: Jae Soo Do, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

Radical changes in the industrial environment, and spectacular developments of IT have changed the current of managements from people-centered to technology- or IT-centered. Interpersonal emotion exchanges have long become insipid and interactive services have also come as mechanical reactions. This study offers various concepts for the emotional labor based on traditional studies on emotional labor. Especially the present day, on which human emotions are subject to being served as machinized thing, is the time when the study on human emotions comes momentous. Precedent researches on emotional labors commonly and basically dealt with the relationship between the active group who performs actions and the passive group who is done with the action. This study focuses on the passive group and tries to offer a new perspective of 'liquid emotion' as a defence mechanism for the passive group from the external environment. Especially, this addresses a concrete discussion on directions of following studies on the liquid labor as a newly suggested perspective.

Keywords: emotion labor, surface acting, deep acting, liquid emotion

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15161 Investigating Relationship between Use of Mobile Technologies and Employees’ Creativity

Authors: Leila Niroomand, Reza Rafigh

Abstract:

Nowadays, the world is going under a dramatic change from an industry-centered society to an information-centered one. In other words, we are experiencing a transition from real, physical world into a virtual one. Stepping into the information age and running an effective life within the information-centered society demands getting acquainted with characteristics peculiar to such society. Recently, new technologies such as telecommunication and mobile technologies have changed vehemently and accumulation of achievements and information has become so important and brought about changes in occupational structures. The intellectual structure of this day and age depends on deep attention to creative and knowledge-based human resource collaboration instead of merely functioning human resource. Present study scrutinizes the contribution of different dimensions of mobile technologies including perceived use, perceived enjoyment, continuance intention, confirmation and satisfaction to the creativity of personnel. The statistical population included infrastructure communications company employees totaling 2431 persons out of which 331 individuals were chosen as sample based on Morgan and Krejcie table. This research is descriptive and the questionnaire was used for data gathering and it was distributed among those who used telegram application. 228 questionnaires were analyzed by the researcher. Applying SPSS software, Pierson correlation coefficient was analyzed and it was found out that all dimensions of mobile technologies except satisfaction correlate with the creativity of employees.

Keywords: mobile technologies, continuance intention, perceived enjoyment, confirmation, satisfaction, creativity, perceived use

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15160 Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze

Abstract:

Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high-temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and at 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into the body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

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15159 Portable Hands-Free Process Assistant for Gas Turbine Maintenance

Authors: Elisabeth Brandenburg, Robert Woll, Rainer Stark

Abstract:

This paper presents how smart glasses and voice commands can be used for improving the maintenance process of industrial gas turbines. It presents the process of inspecting a gas turbine’s combustion chamber and how it is currently performed using a set of paper-based documents. In order to improve this process, a portable hands-free process assistance system has been conceived. In the following, it will be presented how the approach of user-centered design and the method of paper prototyping have been successfully applied in order to design a user interface and a corresponding workflow model that describes the possible interaction patterns between the user and the interface. The presented evaluation of these results suggests that the assistance system could help the user by rendering multiple manual activities obsolete, thus allowing him to work hands-free and to save time for generating protocols.

Keywords: paper prototyping, smart glasses, turbine maintenance, user centered design

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15158 Human-Centred Data Analysis Method for Future Design of Residential Spaces: Coliving Case Study

Authors: Alicia Regodon Puyalto, Alfonso Garcia-Santos

Abstract:

This article presents a method to analyze the use of indoor spaces based on data analytics obtained from inbuilt digital devices. The study uses the data generated by the in-place devices, such as smart locks, Wi-Fi routers, and electrical sensors, to gain additional insights on space occupancy, user behaviour, and comfort. Those devices, originally installed to facilitate remote operations, report data through the internet that the research uses to analyze information on human real-time use of spaces. Using an in-place Internet of Things (IoT) network enables a faster, more affordable, seamless, and scalable solution to analyze building interior spaces without incorporating external data collection systems such as sensors. The methodology is applied to a real case study of coliving, a residential building of 3000m², 7 floors, and 80 users in the centre of Madrid. The case study applies the method to classify IoT devices, assess, clean, and analyze collected data based on the analysis framework. The information is collected remotely, through the different platforms devices' platforms; the first step is to curate the data, understand what insights can be provided from each device according to the objectives of the study, this generates an analysis framework to be escalated for future building assessment even beyond the residential sector. The method will adjust the parameters to be analyzed tailored to the dataset available in the IoT of each building. The research demonstrates how human-centered data analytics can improve the future spatial design of indoor spaces.

Keywords: in-place devices, IoT, human-centred data-analytics, spatial design

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15157 Healing Architecture and Evidence Based Design: An Interior Design Example in Medicana KızıLtoprak Hospital

Authors: Yunus Emre Kara, Atilla Kuzu, Levent Cirpici

Abstract:

Recently, in the interior design of hospitals, the effect of the physical environment on the healing process has been frequently emphasized, and the importance of psychological and behavioral factors has increased day by day. When designing new hospital interiors, it became important to create spaces that not only meet medical requirements but also support the healing process of patients with interior design. In this study, the patient rooms, corridor, atrium area, waiting area, and entrance counter in a hospital were handled with patient-centered design, evidence-based design, and remedial architectural approaches, and it was seen that the healing and reassuring elements in hospitals were extremely important.

Keywords: evidence based design, healing architecture, hospital, organic design, parametric design

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15156 Thermal Effects of Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze

Abstract:

Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and in 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, neodymium, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

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15155 Human Security and Human Trafficking Related Corruption

Authors: Ekin D. Horzum

Abstract:

The aim of the proposal is to examine the relationship between human trafficking related corruption and human security. The proposal suggests that the human trafficking related corruption is about willingness of the states to turn a blind eye to the human trafficking cases. Therefore, it is important to approach human trafficking related corruption in terms of human security and human rights violation to find an effective way to fight against human trafficking. In this context, the purpose of this proposal is to examine the human trafficking related corruption as a safe haven in which trafficking thrives for perpetrators.

Keywords: human trafficking, human security, human rights, corruption, organized crime

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15154 The Application of System Approach to Knowledge Management and Human Resource Management Evidence from Tehran Municipality

Authors: Vajhollah Ghorbanizadeh, Seyed Mohsen Asadi, Mirali Seyednaghavi, Davoud Hoseynpour

Abstract:

In the current era, all organizations need knowledge to be able to manage the diverse human resources. Creative, dynamic and knowledge-based Human resources are important competitive advantage and the scarcest resource in today's knowledge-based economy. In addition managers with skills of knowledge management must be aware of human resource management science. It is now generally accepted that successful implementation of knowledge management requires dynamic interaction between knowledge management and human resource management. This is emphasized at systematic approach to knowledge management as well. However human resource management can be complementary of knowledge management because human resources management with the aim of empowering human resources as the key resource organizations in the 21st century, the use of other resources, creating and growing and developing today. Thus, knowledge is the major capital of every organization which is introduced through the process of knowledge management. In this context, knowledge management is systematic approach to create, receive, organize, access, and use of knowledge and learning in the organization. This article aims to define and explain the concepts of knowledge management and human resource management and the importance of these processes and concepts. Literature related to knowledge management and human resource management as well as related topics were studied, then to design, illustrate and provide a theoretical model to explain the factors affecting the relationship between knowledge management and human resource management and knowledge management system approach, for schematic design and are drawn.

Keywords: systemic approach, human resources, knowledge, human resources management, knowledge management

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15153 Human Development as an Integral Part of Human Security within the Responsibility to Rebuild

Authors: Themistoklis Tzimas

Abstract:

The proposed paper focuses on a triangular relationship, between human security, human development and responsibility to rebuild. This relationship constitutes the innovative contribution to the debate about human security. Human security constitutes a generic and legally binding notion, which orientates from an integrated approach the UN Charter principles and of the collective security system. Such an approach brings at the forefront of international law and of international relations not only states but non- state actors as well. Several doctrines attempt to implement the fore-mentioned approach among which the Responsibility to Protect- hereinafter R2P- doctrine and its aspect of Responsibility to Rebuild- hereinafter R2R. In this sense, R2P in general and R2R are supposed to be guided by human security imperatives. Human security because of its human- centered approach encompasses as an integral part of it, human development. Human development constitutes part of the backbone of human security, since it deals with the social and economic root- causes of the threats, which human security attempts to confront. In this sense, doctrines which orientate from human security, such as R2P and its R2R aspect should also take into account human development imperatives, in order to improve their efficiency. On the contrary though, R2R is more often linked with market- orientated policies, which are often imposed under transitional authorities, regardless of local needs. The implementation of such policies can be identified as a cause for striking failures in the framework of R2R. In addition it is a misinterpretation of the essence of human security and subsequently of R2P as well. The findings of the article, on the basis of the fore-mentioned argument is that a change must take place from a market- orientated misinterpretation of R2R to an approach attempting to implement human development doctrines, since the latter lie at the heart of human security and can be proven more effective in dealing with the root- causes of conflicts. Methodologically, the article begins with an examination of human security and of its binding nature on the basis of its orientation from the UN Charter. It also examines its significance in the framework of the collective security system. Then, follows the analysis of why and how human development constitutes an integral part of human security. At the next part it is proven that R2P in general and R2R more specifically constitute or should constitute an attempt to implement human security doctrines within the collective security system. Having built this triangular relationship it is argued that human development is proven to be the most suitable notion, so that the spirit of human security and the scopes of R2P are successfully implemented.

Keywords: human security, un charter, responsibility to protect, responsibility to rebuild, human development

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15152 Human Centred Design Approach for Public Transportation

Authors: Jo Kuys, Kirsten Day

Abstract:

Improving urban transportation systems requires an emphasis on users’ end-to-end journey experience, from the moment the user steps out of their home to when they arrive at their destination. In considering such end-to-end experiences, human centred design (HCD) must be integrated from the very beginning to generate viable outcomes for the public. An HCD approach will encourage innovative outcomes while acknowledging all factors that need to be understood along the journey. We provide evidence to show that when designing for public transportation, it is not just about the physical manifestation of a particular outcome; moreover, it’s about the context and human behaviours that need to be considered throughout the design process. Humans and their behavioural factors are vitally important to successful implementation of sustainable public transport systems. Through an in-depth literature review of HCD approaches for urban transportation systems, we provide a base to exploit the benefits and highlight the importance of including HCD in public transportation projects for greater patronage, resulting in more sustainable cities. An HCD approach is critical to all public transportation projects to understand different levels of transportation design, from the setting of transport policy to implementation to infrastructure, vehicle, and interface design.

Keywords: human centred design, public transportation, urban planning, user experience

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15151 Obstruction to Treatments Meeting International Standards for Lyme and Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Patients

Authors: J. Luché-Thayer, C. Perronne, C. Meseko

Abstract:

We reviewed how certain institutional policies and practices, as well as questionable research, are creating obstacles to care and informed consent for Lyme and relapsing fever Borreliosis patients. The interference is denying access to treatments that meet the internationally accepted standards as set by the Institute of Medicine. This obstruction to care contributes to significant human suffering, disability and negative economic effect across many nations and in many regions of the world. We note how evidence based medicine emphasizes the importance of clinical experience and patient-centered care and how these patients benefit significantly when their rights to choose among treatment options are upheld.  

Keywords: conflicts of interest, obstacles to healthcare accessibility, patient-centered care, the right to informed consent

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15150 Health Portals for Specific Populations: A Design for Pregnant Women

Authors: Janine Sommer, Mariana Daus, Mariana Simon, Maria Smith, Daniel Luna

Abstract:

The technologies and communication advances contributed to new tools development which allows patients to have an active role in their own health. In the light of information needs and paradigms changes about health, the patient self-manages their care. This line of care focuses on patients; specific portals come up to people with particular requirements like pregnant women. Thinking of a portal design to this sector of the population, in September 2016 a survey was made to users with the objective to knowing and understanding information’s needs at the moment to use an application for pregnant. Also, prototypes of the portal´s features were designed to try and validate with users, using the methodology of human-centered design. Investigations have made possible the identification of needs of this population and develop a tool who try to satisfy, providing timely information for each part of pregnancy and allowing the patients to make a physical check and the follow up of pregnancy seeking advice from our obstetricians.

Keywords: electronic health record, health personal record, mobile applications, pregnant women

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15149 Biosphere Compatibility and Sustainable Development

Authors: Zinaida I. Ivanova, Olga V. Yudenkova

Abstract:

The article addresses the pressing need to implement the principle of the biosphere compatibility as the core prerequisite for sustainable development. The co-authors argue that a careful attitude towards the biosphere, termination of its overutilization, analysis of the ratio between the biospheric potential of a specific area and its population numbers, coupled with population regulation techniques represent the factors that may solve the problems of ecological depletion. However these problems may only be tackled through the employment of the high-quality human capital, capable of acting with account for the principles of nature conservation.

Keywords: biosphere compatibility, eco-centered conscience, human capital, sustainable development

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15148 Building Learning Organization: Case Study of Transforming a Banking Company with 21st Century Creative Services Company

Authors: Zeynep Aykul Yavuz

Abstract:

Misconception about design is about making a product pretty. However, the holistic approaches such as design thinking or human-centered design could take the design from making things nice to things inspired by real people and work with real-world limitations. Design thinking helps companies to understand not only problem area but also opportunities. It can be used by any people from any background which provide a space for companies where employees from different departments work together to solve the same problem. While demanding skills changing year to year into the market, previous technical skills are commons anymore. The frontier companies in the sectors look for interactive methods to solve problems. Moreover, the recruiter aims to understand the candidate’s design thinking skills (. The study includes a case study where a 21st century creative services company “ATÖLYE” offers innovation transformation with design thinking to a banking company. Both companies are located in İstanbul in Turkey. The banking company contacted with the ATÖLYE in January 2018 because they heard design thinking in different markets and how it transformed the way of working. The transformation process had 3 phases which were basic training of teams while getting coaching from ATÖLYE’s employees, coaching training with graduates of basic training, facilitator training. Employees built new skills while solving the banking company’s strategic problems. ATÖLYE offered experiential learning which helped employees’ making sense of new skills and knowledge. One day workshops were organized to create awareness about the practice of design thinking. In addition to these, a community of practice was built to create an environment to make reflections and discuss good practice. Not only graduates from the training program but also other employees from the company participated in the community gatherings. ATÖLYE did not train some employees in the company. Rather than that, its aim was to build a contemporary organization for the company. This provided a sustainable system in terms of human resources and motivation. At the beginning of 2020, employees from the first cohort in the basic training who took coaching training and facilitator training have started to design training for different groups in the company. They have considered what could be better in their training experience and designed new ones according to that, so they have been using design thinking to design the design training. This is one of the outcomes which shows the impact of all process clearly.

Keywords: design thinking, learning community, professional development, training, organizational transformation

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15147 Human Factors Integration of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Response: Systems and Technologies

Authors: Graham Hancox, Saydia Razak, Sue Hignett, Jo Barnes, Jyri Silmari, Florian Kading

Abstract:

In the event of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) incident rapidly gaining, situational awareness is of paramount importance and advanced technologies have an important role to play in improving detection, identification, monitoring (DIM) and patient tracking. Understanding how these advanced technologies can fit into current response systems is essential to ensure they are optimally designed, usable and meet end-users’ needs. For this reason, Human Factors (Ergonomics) methods have been used within an EU Horizon 2020 project (TOXI-Triage) to firstly describe (map) the hierarchical structure in a CBRN response with adapted Accident Map (AcciMap) methodology. Secondly, Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) has been used to describe and review the sequence of steps (sub-tasks) in a CBRN scenario response as a task system. HTA methodology was then used to map one advanced technology, ‘Tag and Trace’, which tags an element (people, sample and equipment) with a Near Field Communication (NFC) chip in the Hot Zone to allow tracing of (monitoring), for example casualty progress through the response. This HTA mapping of the Tag and Trace system showed how the provider envisaged the technology being used, allowing for review and fit with the current CBRN response systems. These methodologies have been found to be very effective in promoting and supporting a dialogue between end-users and technology providers. The Human Factors methods have given clear diagrammatic (visual) representations of how providers see their technology being used and how end users would actually use it in the field; allowing for a more user centered approach to the design process. For CBRN events usability is critical as sub-optimum design of technology could add to a responders’ workload in what is already a chaotic, ambiguous and safety critical environment.

Keywords: AcciMap, CBRN, ergonomics, hierarchical task analysis, human factors

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15146 A Student Centered Learning Environment in Engineering Education: Design and a Longitudinal Study of Impact

Authors: Tom O'Mahony

Abstract:

This article considers the design of a student-centered learning environment in engineering education. The learning environment integrates a number of components, including project-based learning, collaborative learning, two-stage assignments, active learning lectures, and a flipped-classroom. Together these elements place the individual learner and their learning at the center of the environment by focusing on understanding, enhancing relevance, applying learning, obtaining rich feedback, making choices, and taking responsibility. The evolution of this environment from 2014 to the present day is outlined. The impact of this environment on learners and their learning is evaluated via student questionnaires that consist of both open and closed-ended questions. The closed questions indicate that students found the learning environment to be really interesting and enjoyable (rated as 4.7 on a 5 point scale) and encouraged students to adopt a deep approach towards studying the course materials (rated as 4.0 on a 5 point scale). A content analysis of the open-ended questions provides evidence that the project, active learning lectures, and flipped classroom all contribute to the success of this environment. Furthermore, this analysis indicates that the two-stage assessment process, in which feedback is provided between a draft and final assignment, is the key component and the dominant theme. A limitation of the study is the small class size (less than 20 learners per year), but, to some degree, this is compensated for by the longitudinal nature of the study.

Keywords: deep approaches, formative assessment, project-based learning, student-centered learning

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15145 Bridging Binaries: Exploring Students' Conceptions of Good Teaching within Teacher-Centered and Learner-Centered Pedagogies of Their Teachers in Disadvantaged Public Schools in the Philippines

Authors: Julie Lucille H. Del Valle

Abstract:

To improve its public school education, the Philippines took a radical curriculum reform in 2012, by launching the K-to-12 program which not only added two years to its basic education but also mandated for a replacement of traditional teaching with learner-centered pedagogy, an instruction whose western underpinnings suggest improving student achievement, thus, making pedagogies in the country more or less similar with those in Europe and USA. This policy, however, placed learner-centered pedagogy in a binary opposition against teacher-centered instruction, creating a simplistic dichotomy between good and bad teaching. It is in this dichotomy that this study seeks to explore, using Critical Pedagogy of the Place as the lens, in understanding what constitutes good teaching across a range of learner-centered and teacher-centered pedagogies in the context of public schools in disadvantaged communities. Furthermore, this paper examines how pedagogical homogeneity, arguably influenced by dominant global imperatives with economic agenda – often referred as economisation of education – not only thins out local identities as structures of global schooling become increasingly similar but also limits the concept of good teaching to student outcomes and corporate employability. This paper draws from qualitative research on students, thus addressing the gap created by studies on good teaching which looked mainly into the perceptions of teachers and administrators, while overlooking those of students whose voices must be considered in the formulation of inclusive policies that advocate for true education reform. Using ethnographic methods including student focus groups, classroom observations, and teacher interviews, responses from students of disadvantaged schools reveal that good teaching includes both learner-centered and teacher-centered practices that incorporate ‘academic caring’ which sustains their motivation to achieve in school despite the challenging learning environments. The combination of these two pedagogies equips students with life-long skills necessary to gain equal access to sustainable economic opportunities in their local communities.

Keywords: critical pedagogy of the place, good teaching, learner-centered pedagogy, placed-based instruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 158