Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Adebukola A. Akintade

4 Effects of Fermentation Techniques on the Quality of Cocoa Beans

Authors: Monday O. Ale, Adebukola A. Akintade, Olasunbo O. Orungbemi


Fermentation as an important operation in the processing of cocoa beans is now affected by the recent climate change across the globe. The major requirement for effective fermentation is the ability of the material used to retain sufficient heat for the required microbial activities. Apart from the effects of climate on the rate of heat retention, the materials used for fermentation plays an important role. Most Farmers still restrict fermentation activities to the use of traditional methods. Improving on cocoa fermentation in this era of climate change makes it necessary to work on other materials that can be suitable for cocoa fermentation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of fermentation techniques on the quality of cocoa beans. The materials used in this fermentation research were heap-leaves (traditional), stainless steel, plastic tin, plastic basket and wooden box. The period of fermentation varies from zero days to 10 days. Physical and chemical tests were carried out for variables in quality determination in the samples. The weight per bean varied from 1.0-1.2 g after drying across the samples and the major color of the dry beans observed was brown except with the samples from stainless steel. The moisture content varied from 5.5-7%. The mineral content and the heavy metals decreased with increase in the fermentation period. A wooden box can conclusively be used as an alternative to heap-leaves as there was no significant difference in the physical features of the samples fermented with the two methods. The use of a wooden box as an alternative for cocoa fermentation is therefore recommended for cocoa farmers.

Keywords: fermentation, effects, fermentation materials, period, quality

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3 Estimation of Effective Radiation Dose Following Computed Tomography Urography at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria

Authors: Idris Garba, Aisha Rabiu Abdullahi, Mansur Yahuza, Akintade Dare


Background: CT urography (CTU) is efficient radiological examination for the evaluation of the urinary system disorders. However, patients are exposed to a significant radiation dose which is in a way associated with increased cancer risks. Objectives: To determine Computed Tomography Dose Index following CTU, and to evaluate organs equivalent doses. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried at a tertiary institution located in Kano northwestern. Ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the research ethics board of the institution. Demographic, scan parameters and CT radiation dose data were obtained from patients that had CTU procedure. Effective dose, organ equivalent doses, and cancer risks were estimated using SPSS statistical software version 16 and CT dose calculator software. Result: A total of 56 patients were included in the study, consisting of 29 males and 27 females. The common indication for CTU examination was found to be renal cyst seen commonly among young adults (15-44yrs). CT radiation dose values in DLP, CTDI and effective dose for CTU were 2320 mGy cm, CTDIw 9.67 mGy and 35.04 mSv respectively. The probability of cancer risks was estimated to be 600 per a million CTU examinations. Conclusion: In this study, the radiation dose for CTU is considered significantly high, with increase in cancer risks probability. Wide radiation dose variations between patient doses suggest that optimization is not fulfilled yet. Patient radiation dose estimate should be taken into consideration when imaging protocols are established for CT urography.

Keywords: CT urography, cancer risks, effective dose, radiation exposure

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2 Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides (POPs) in Water, Sediment, Fin Fishes (Schilbes mystus and Hemichromis fasciatus) from River Ogun, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Edwin O. Clarke, Akintade O. Adeboyejo


Intensive use of pesticides resulted in dispersal of pollutants throughout the globe. This study was carried out to investigate persistent Organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in water, sediment and fin fishes, Schilbes mystus and Hemichromis fasciatus from two different sampling stations along River Ogun between the month of June 2012 and January 2013. The Organochlorine pesticides analyzed include DDT (pp’1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl) ethane), DDD, DDE (pp1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene, HCH (gamma 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane, HCB hexachlorobenzene),Dieldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a octahydro- 1,4,5,8 dimethanonaphthalene). The analysis was done using Gas Chromatograph with Electron Capture Detector. In water sample, the result showed that PPDDT, Endrin aldehyde, Endrin ketone concentrations were high in both stations. The mean value of Organochlorine analyzed in water range from Beta BHC (0.50±0.10µg/l) to PP DDT (162.86±0.21µg/l) in Kara sample station and Beta BHC (0.20±0.07µg/l) to Endrin Aldehyde (76.47±0.02µg/l) in Odo-Ogun sample station. The levels of POPs obtained in sediments ranged from 0.40±0.23µg/g (Beta BHC) to 259.90 ± 1.00µg/kg (Endosulfan sulfate) in Kara sample station and 0.64±0.00µg/g (Beta BHC) to 379.77 ±0.15 µg/g (Endosulfan sulfate) in Odo-Ogun sample station. The levels of POPs obtained in fin fish samples ranged from 0.29±0.00µg/g (Delta BHC) to 197.87 ± 0.31µg/g (PP DDT) in Kara sample station and in Odo-Ogun sample station the mean value for fish samples range from 0.29 ± 0.00 µg/g (Delta BHC) to 197.87 ± 0.32 µg/g (PP DDT). The study showed that the accumulation of POPs affect the environment and reduce water quality. The results showed that the concentrations were found to exceed the maximum acceptable concentration of 0.10µg/l value set by the European Union for the protection of freshwater aquatic life and this can be hazardous if the trend is not checked.

Keywords: hazardous, persistent, pesticides, biomes

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1 Sublethal Effects of Industrial Effluents on Fish Fingerlings (Clarias gariepinus) from Ologe Lagoon Environs, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Akintade O. Adeboyejo, Edwin O. Clarke, Oluwatoyin Aderinola


The present study is on the sub-lethal toxicity of industrial effluents (IE) from the environment of Ologe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria on the African catfish fingerlings Clarias gariepinus. The fish were cultured in varying concentrations of industrial effluents: 0% (control), 5%, 15%, 25%, and 35%. Trials were carried out in triplicates for twelve (12) weeks. The culture system was a static renewable bioassay and was carried out in the fisheries laboratory of the Lagos State University, Ojo-Lagos. Weekly physico-chemical parameters: Temperature (0C), pH, Conductivity (ppm) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO in mg/l) were measured in each treatment tank. Length (cm) and weight (g) data were obtained weekly and used to calculate various growth parameters: mean weight gain (MWG), percentage weight gain (PWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival. Haematological (Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red blood cells (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Neutrophil and Lymphocytes etc) and histological alterations were measured after 12 weeks. The physico-chemical parameters showed that the pH ranged from 7.82±0.25–8.07±0.02. DO range from 1.92±0.66-4.43±1.24 mg/l. The conductivity values increased with increase in concentration of I.E. While the temperature remained stable with mean value range between 26.08±2.14–26.38±2.28. The DO showed significant differences at P<0.05. There was progressive increase in length and weight of fish during the culture period. The fish placed in the control had highest increase in both weight and length while fish in 35% had the least. MWG ranged from 16.59–35.96, DWG is from 0.3–0.48, SGR varied from 1.0–1.86 and survival was 100%. Haematological results showed that C. gariepinus had PCV ranging from 13.0±1.7-27.7±0.6, RBC ranged from 4.7±0.6–9.1±0.1, and Neutrophil ranged from 26.7±4.6–61.0±1.0 amongst others. The highest values of these parameters were obtained in the control and lowest at 35%. While the reverse effects were observed for WBC and lymphocytes. This study has shown that effluents may affect the health status of the test organism and impair vital processes if exposure continues for a long period of time. The histological examination revealed several lesions as expressed by the gills and livers. The histopathology of the gills in the control tanks had normal tissues with no visible lesion, but at higher concentrations, there were: lifting of epithelium, swollen lamellae and gill arch infiltration, necrosis and gill arch destruction. While in the liver: control (0%) show normal liver cells, at higher toxic level, there were: vacoulation, destruction of the hepatic parenchyma, tissue becoming eosinophilic (i.e. tending towards Carcinogenicity) and severe disruption of the hepatic cord architecture. The study has shown that industrial effluents from the study area may affect fish health status and impair vital processes if exposure continues for a long period of time even at lower concentrations (Sublethal).

Keywords: sublethal toxicity, industrial effluents, clarias gariepinus, ologe lagoon

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