Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3687

Search results for: product inhibition

3687 Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol Using Vacuum Fractionation Technique

Authors: Weeraya Samnuknit, Apichat Boontawan

Abstract:

A vacuum fractionation technique was introduced to remove ethanol from fermentation broth. The effect of initial glucose and ethanol concentrations were investigated for specific productivity. The inhibitory ethanol concentration was observed at 100 g/L. In order to increase the fermentation performance, the ethanol product was removed as soon as it is produced. The broth was boiled at 35°C by reducing the pressure to 65 mBar. The ethanol/water vapor was fractionated for up to 90 wt% before leaving the column. Ethanol concentration in the broth was kept lower than 25 g/L, thus minimized the product inhibition effect to the yeast cells. For batch extractive fermentation, a high substrate utilization rate was obtained at 26.6 g/L.h and most of glucose was consumed within 21 h. For repeated-batch extractive fermentation, addition of glucose was carried out up to 9 times and ethanol was produced more than 8-fold higher than batch fermentation.

Keywords: ethanol, extractive fermentation, product inhibition, vacuum fractionation

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
3686 Pathological Gambling and Impulsivity: Comparison of the Eight Laboratory Measures of Inhibition Capacities

Authors: Semion Kertzman, Pinhas Dannon

Abstract:

Impulsive behaviour and the underlying brain processes are hypothesized to be central in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. Inhibition ability can be differentially impaired in pathological gamblers (PGs). Aims: This study aimed to compare the ability of eight widely used inhibition measures to discriminate between PGs and healthy controls (HCs). Methods: PGs (N=51) and demographically matched HCs (N=51) performed cognitive inhibition (the Stroop), motor inhibition (the Go/NoGo) and reflective inhibition (the Matching Familiar Figures (MFFT)) tasks. Results: An augmented total interference response time in the Stroop task (η² =0.054), a large number of commission errors (η² =0.053) in the Go/NoGo task, and the total number of errors in the MFFT (η² =0.05) can discriminate PGs from HCs. Other measures are unable to differentiate between PGs and HCs. No significant correlations were observed between inhibition measures. Conclusion: Inhibition measures varied in the ability to discriminate PGs from HCs. Most inhibition measures were not relevant to gambling behaviour. PGs do not express rash, impulsive behaviour, such as quickly choosing an answer without thinking. In contrast, in PGs, inhibition impairment was related to slow-inaccurate performance.

Keywords: pathological gambling, impulsivity, neurocognition, addiction

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3685 Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Aminoreductone against Pathogenic Bacteria in Comparison with Other Antibiotics

Authors: Vu Thu Trang, Lam Xuan Thanh, Samira Sarter, Tomoko Shimamura, Hiroaki Takeuchi  

Abstract:

Antimicrobial activities of aminoreductone (AR), a product formed in the initial stage of Maillard reaction, were screened against pathogenic bacteria. A significant growth inhibition of AR against all 7 isolates (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC® 14028™, Bacillus cereus ATCC® 13061™, Bacillus subtilis ATCC® 11774™, Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922™, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212™, Listeria innocua ATCC® 33090™) were observed by the standard disc diffusion methods. The inhibition zone for each isolate by AR (2.5 mg) ranged from 15±0 mm to 28.3±0.4 mm in diameter. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AR ranging from 20 mM to 26 mM was proven in the seven isolates tested. AR also showed the similar effect of growth inhibition in comparison with antibiotics frequently used for the treatment of infections bacteria, such as amikacin, ciprofloxacin, meropennem, and levofloxacin. The results indicated that foods containing AR are valuable sources of bioactive compounds towards pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords: pathogenic bacteria, aminoreductone, Maillard reaction, antimicrobial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
3684 Mechanism of Changing a Product Concept

Authors: Kiyohiro Yamazaki

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis explaining the mechanism in the case, where the product is deleted or reduced the fundamental function of the product through the product concept changes in the digital camera industry. This paper points out not owning the fundamental technology might cause the change of the product concept. Casio could create new competitive factor so that this paper discusses a possibility of the mechanism of changing the product concept.

Keywords: firm without fundamental technology, product development, product concept, digital camera industry, Casio

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
3683 Bioactivity of Local Isolated Probiotic to Inhibiting Important Bacterial Pathogens in Aquaculture

Authors: Abhichet Nobhiwong, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn, Udomluk Sompong

Abstract:

Six probiotic strains isolated from Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai province, Thailand; CR1-2, CM3-4, CM5-2, CR7-8, CM10-5 and CM10-8 were used to study their morphology and inhibition activity on three pathogenic bacteria; Aeromonas sp., Streptococcus sp. and Flavobacterium sp. that isolated from infected Nile tilapia. The agar well diffusion technique was applied for 24 and 48 hours incubation. Interestingly, some probiotics showed good inhibition activity both 24 and 48 hours on each 3 bacterial pathogens. The capable inhibiting Aeromonas sp. were CR1-2 and CR5-2 with inhibition diameters of 13.0 mm and 11.2 mm, respectively. For Streptococcus sp., effective probiotics were CR10-2 with inhibition diameters of 10.7 mm. Whereas for Flavobacterium sp., effective probiotics were CR5-2 with inhibition diameter of 9.7 mm. It can be concluded that these probiotics have potentiality to develop as the pathogens biocontrol products. These will be support for safety and organic aquaculture that which the most worthy for people health.

Keywords: probiotics, Aeromanas sp., Streptococcus sp., Flavobacterium sp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
3682 Immunosupressive Effect of Chloroquine through the Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase

Authors: J. B. Minari, O. B. Oloyede

Abstract:

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play a crucial role in a variety of infections caused by bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Indeed, the involvement of PMNs in host defence against Plasmodium falciparum is well documented both in vitro and in vivo. Many of the antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine used in the treatment of human malaria significantly reduce the immune response of the host in vitro and in vivo. Myeloperoxidase is the most abundant enzyme found in the polymorphonuclear neutrophil which plays a crucial role in its function. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chloroquine on the enzyme. In investigating the effects of the drug on myeloperoxidase, the influence of concentration, pH, partition ratio estimation and kinetics of inhibition were studied. This study showed that chloroquine is concentration-dependent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase with an IC50 of 0.03 mM. Partition ratio estimation showed that 40 enzymatic turnover cycles are required for complete inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of chloroquine. The influence of pH on the effect of chloroquine on the enzyme showed significant inhibition of myeloperoxidase at physiological pH. The kinetic inhibition studies showed that chloroquine caused a non-competitive inhibition with an inhibition constant Ki of 0.27mM. The results obtained from this study shows that chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase and it is capable of inactivating the enzyme. It is therefore considered that the inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of chloroquine as revealed in this study may partly explain the impairment of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and consequent immunosuppression of the host defence system against secondary infections.

Keywords: myeloperoxidase, chloroquine, inhibition, neutrophil, immune

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
3681 The Equality Test of Ceftriaxone Anti-Bacterial Effect and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (Myermecodia pendens Merr. and L. M Perry) to MRSA

Authors: Rifa’ah Mahmudah Bulu’

Abstract:

MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen in the world. Therefore, the prevention and effort to control MRSA is still very important to conduct. One of the preventions of MRSA, which have been reported by several studies, is Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant. This research is an experimental test to determine the potency of MRSA’s anti-bacterial with Cefriaxone (30 μg) and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (13 mg/ml) based on inhibition zone on LAB (Lempeng Agar Biasa). The size of inhibition zone that is formed on Cefriaxone is adjusted with CSLI criteria, which ≥ 21 mm of inhibition zone is called sensitive; ≤13 mm is called resistance and between 14-20 mm is called intermediate. This research is conducted three times. Comparative test between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is analyzed by Maan Whitney’s statistic method. The Result of Cefriaxone anti-bacterial potency shows the variety of inhibition zone. Cefriaxone forms approximately 16,5-20 mm with average 18,22mm of inhibition zone that make Cefriaxone’s criteria to MRSA’s inhibition is intermediate. Anti-bacterial potency of Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is about 0,5-2 mm with average 1,17 mm of inhibition zone that prove MRSA is sensitive to Ant Plant. The conclusion of this research shows that Cefriaxone is intermediate to MRSA’s inhibition, while MRSA is sensitive to Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant, which at the end; it creates different potency of anti-bacterial between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant.

Keywords: MRSA, cefriaxone, ant plant, CSLI, mann whitney

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
3680 Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of Defatted Methanol Extract of Capparis spinosa L. Root Barks

Authors: Asma Meddour, Mouloud Yahia, Afaf Benhouda, Souhila Benbia, Hachani Khadhraoui

Abstract:

Peripheral analgesic activity of defatted methanol extract of root barks of Capparis spinosa was tested orally at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg against pain induced by acetic acid in rats. The dose of 200 mg/kg presents significant analgesic effect with a percentage of inhibition of torsions of 88.51% compared to the positive control which is the acetylsalicylic acid which represents a percentage of inhibition of 92.55%. The dose of 100 mg/kg presents a percentage of inhibition of 81.68%.

Keywords: peripheral analgesic activity, Capparis spinosa, percentage of inhibition of torsions, chemical sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
3679 Chiral Amine Synthesis and Recovery by Using High Molecular Weight Amine Donors

Authors: Claudia Matassa, Matthias Hohne, Dominic Ormerod, Yamini Satyawali

Abstract:

Chiral amines integrate the backbone of several active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) used in modern medicine for the treatment of a vast range of diseases. Despite the demand, their synthesis remains challenging. Besides a range of chemicals and enzymatical methods, chiral amine synthesis using transaminases (EC 2.6.1.W) represents a useful alternative to access this important class of compounds. Even though transaminases exhibit excellent stereo and regioselectivity and the potential for high yield, the reaction suffers from a number of challenges, including the thermodynamic equilibrium, product inhibition, and low substrate solubility. In this work, we demonstrate a membrane assisted strategy for addressing these challenges. It involves the use of high molecular weight (HMW) amine donors for the transaminase-catalyzed synthesis of 4-phenyl-2-butylamine in both aqueous and organic solvent media. In contrast to common amine donors such as alanine or isopropylamine, these large molecules, provided in excess for thermodynamic equilibrium shifting, are easily retained by commercial nanofiltration membranes; thus a selective permeation of the desired smaller product amine is possible. The enzymatic transamination in aqueous media, combined with selective product removal shifted the equilibrium enhancing substrate conversion by an additional 25% compared to the control reaction. Along with very efficient amine product removal, there was undesirable loss of ketone substrate and low product concentration was achieved. The system was therefore further improved by performing the reaction in organic solvent (n-heptane). Coupling the reaction system with membrane-assisted product removal resulted in a highly concentrated and relatively pure ( > 97%) product solution. Moreover, a product yield of 60% was reached, compared to 15% without product removal.

Keywords: amine donor, chiral amines, in situ product removal, transamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
3678 Aqueous Extract of Argemone Mexicana Roots for Effective Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in HCl Environment

Authors: Gopal Ji, Priyanka Dwivedi, Shanthi Sundaram, Rajiv Prakash

Abstract:

Inhibition effect of aqueous Argemone Mexicana root extract (AMRE) on mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl has been studied by weight loss, Tafel polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Results indicate that inhibition ability of AMRE increases with the increasing amount of the extract. A maximum corrosion inhibition of 94% is acknowledged at the extract concentration of 400 mg L-1. Polarization curves and impedance spectra reveal that both cathodic and anodic reactions are suppressed due to passive layer formation at metal-acid interface. It is also confirmed by SEM micro graphs and FTIR studies. Furthermore, the effects of acid concentration (1-5 M), immersion time (120 hours) and temperature (30-60˚C) on inhibition potential of AMRE have been investigated by weight loss method and electrochemical techniques. Adsorption mechanism is also proposed on the basis of weight loss results, which shows good agreement with Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: mild steel, polarization, SEM, acid corrosion, EIS, green inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
3677 Product Line Design with Customization in the Presence of Demand Uncertainty

Authors: Parisa Bagheri Tookanlou

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze a product line design problem faced by a manufacturing firm where the product line consists of a customized product in addition to a standard product and is offered in a market in which customers are heterogeneous on aesthetic attributes of the product. The customization level of a product is defined by the fraction of aesthetic attributes of the product that the manufacturer chooses to customize. In contrast to the existing literature on product line design that predominantly assumes deterministic demand, we consider the presence of demand uncertainty and frame the product line design problem in a single period (news vendor) setting. We examine the effect of demand uncertainty on product line decisions. Furthermore, we also examine how product line decisions are influenced by channel structure. While we use the centralized channel as a benchmark, we consider the decentralized dual channel where the customized product is sold through an online channel owned by the manufacturer and the standard product is sold through a retailer. We introduce a supply contract between the manufacturer and the retailer for improving channel efficiency and coordinate the distribution channel.

Keywords: product line design, demand uncertainty, customization level, distribution channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
3676 Activation of AMPK-TSC axis is involved in cryptotanshinone inhibition of mTOR signaling in cancer cells

Authors: Wenxing Chen, Guangying Chen, Yin Lu, Shile Huang

Abstract:

Cryptotanshinone (CPT), a fat-soluble tanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been demonstrated to inhibit mTOR pathway, resulting in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism how CPT acts on mTOR is unknown. Here, cancer cells expressing rapamycin-resistant mutant mTOR are also sensitive to CPT, while phosphorylation of AMPK and TSC2 was activated, suggesting that CPT inhibition of mTOR maybe due to activating upstream of mTOR, AMPK, but not directly binding to and inhibiting mTOR. Further results indicated that Compound C, inhibitor of AMPK, could partially reversed CPT inhibition effect on cancer cells, and dominant-negative AMPK in cancer cells conferred resistance to CPT inhibition of 4EBP1 and phosphorylation of S6K1, as well as sh-AMPK. Furthermore, compared with MEF cells with AMPK positive, MEF cells with AMPK knock out are less sensitive to CPT by the findings that 4E-BP1 and phosphorylation of S6K1 express comparatively much. Furthermore, downexpression of TSC2 slightly recovered expression of 4EBP1 and phosphorylation of S6K1, while co-immunoprecipitation of TSC2 did not affect expression of TSC1 by CPT. Collectively, the above-mentioned results suggest that CPT inhibited mTOR pathway mostly was due to activation of AMPK-TSC2 pathway rather than specific inhibition of mTOR and then induction of subsequent lethal cellular effect.

Keywords: cryptotanshinone, AMPK, TSC2, mTOR, cancer cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
3675 Therapeutical Role of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuO NPs) for Breast Cancer Therapy

Authors: Dipranjan Laha, Parimal Karmakar

Abstract:

Metal oxide nanoparticles are well known to generate oxidative stress and deregulate normal cellular activities. Among these, transition metals copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are more compelling than others and able to modulate different cellular responses. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized CuO NPs by various biophysical methods. These CuO NPs (~30 nm) induce autophagy in human breast cancer cell line, MCF7 in a time and dose-dependent manner. Cellular autophagy was tested by MDC staining, induction of green fluorescent protein light chain 3 (GFP-LC3B) foci by confocal microscopy, transfection of pBABE-puro mCherry-EGFP-LC3B plasmid and western blotting of autophagy marker proteins LC3B, beclin1, and ATG5. Further, inhibition of autophagy by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) decreased LD50 doses of CuO NPs. Such cell death was associated with the induction of apoptosis as revealed by FACS analysis, cleavage of PARP, dephosphorylation of Bad and increased cleavage product of caspase3. siRNA-mediated inhibition of autophagy-related gene beclin1 also demonstrated similar results. Finally, induction of apoptosis by 3-MA in CuO NPs treated cells were observed by TEM. This study indicates that CuO NPs are a potent inducer of autophagy which may be a cellular defense against the CuO NPs mediated toxicity and inhibition of autophagy switches the cellular response into apoptosis. A combination of CuO NPs with the autophagy inhibitor is essential to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge for financial support for this research work to the Department of Biotechnology (No. BT/PR14661/NNT/28/494/2010), Government of India.

Keywords: nanoparticle, autophagy, apoptosis, siRNA-mediated inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
3674 Product Development Process to Obtain Community Standard Product Certificate: A Case of Bangkhonthi, Samut Songkhram, Thailand

Authors: Supattra Pranee

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study the product development process to obtain a community standard product certificate and to set a guideline for the product development process to obtain the community product certificate. Focus group discussion was conducted with many experts in the field, local government officials, and representatives from local producers in Bangkontee district. The findings revealed that there were eight important processes to obtain the community product certificate: 1) prepare document, 2) submit the document, 3) set up an appointment for onsite inspection, 4) onsite inspection and sample collections, 5) evaluate samples, 6) obtain test result, and 7) obtain certificate.

Keywords: perceived values, tourist destination, visiting, product development

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
3673 Measuring the Effectiveness of Response Inhibition regarding to Motor Complexity: Evidence from the Stroop Effect

Authors: Germán Gálvez-García, Marta Lavin, Javiera Peña, Javier Albayay, Claudio Bascour, Jesus Fernandez-Gomez, Alicia Pérez-Gálvez

Abstract:

We studied the effectiveness of response inhibition in movements with different degrees of motor complexity when they were executed in isolation and alternately. Sixteen participants performed the Stroop task which was used as a measure of response inhibition. Participants responded by lifting the index finger and reaching the screen with the same finger. Both actions were performed separately and alternately in different experimental blocks. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare reaction time, movement time, kinematic errors and Movement errors across conditions (experimental block, movement, and congruency). Delta plots were constructed to perform distributional analyses of response inhibition and accuracy rate. The effectiveness of response inhibition did not show difference when the movements were performed in separated blocks. Nevertheless, it showed differences when they were performed alternately in the same experimental block, being more effective for the lifting action. This could be due to a competition of the available resources during a more complex scenario which also demands to adopt some strategy to avoid errors.

Keywords: response inhibition, motor complexity, Stroop task, delta plots

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
3672 Identification of Synthetic Hybrids of 4-Thiazolidinone-Bromopyrrole Alkaloid as HIV-1 RT Inhibitors

Authors: Rajesh A. Rane, Shital S. Naphade, Rajshekhar Karpoormath

Abstract:

Thiozolidin-4-one, a mimic of thiazolobenzimidazole (TBZ) has drawn many attentions due to its potent and selective inhibition against the HIV-1 and low toxicity by binding to the allosteric site of the reverse transcriptase (RT) as a non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI). Similarly, marine bromopyrrole alkaloids are well known for their diverse array of anti-infective properties. Hence, we have reported synthesis and in vitro HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity of a series of 4-thiazolidinone-bromopyrrole alkaloid hybrids tethered with amide linker. The results of in vitro HIV-1 RT kit assay showed that some of the compounds, such as 4c, 4d, and 4i could effectively inhibit RT activity. Among them, compounds 4c having 4-chlorophenyl substituted 4-thiazolidione ring was the best one with the IC50 value of 0.26 µM. The sturdy emerges with key structure-activity relationship that pyrrole-NH-free core benefited inhibition against HIV-1 RT inhibition. This study identified conjugate 4c with potent activity and selectivity as promising compound for further drug development to HIV.

Keywords: antiviral drugs, bromopyrrole alkaloids, HIV-1 RT inhibition, 4-thiazolidinone

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
3671 β-Lactamase Inhibitory Effects of Anchusa azurea Extracts

Authors: Naoual Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Iman Krache, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani

Abstract:

Resistance to antibiotics has emerged following their widespread use; the important mechanism of beta-lactam resistance in bacteria is the production of beta-lactamase. In order to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated the inhibition effect of the extracts of Anchusa azurea (AA) on a beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus. The extracts exerted inhibitory effects on beta-lactamase in a dose-dependent manner, the results showed that the crude extract (BrE) and the ethyl acetate extract (AcE) of Anchusa azurea showed a very high inhibitory activity at a concentration of 10 mg, the percentage of inhibition was between 58% and 68%. Not all extracts were as potent as the original inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, the isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents in these extracts will provide useful means in the development of beta -lactamase inhibitors.

Keywords: Anchusa azurea, natural product, resistance, antibiotics, beta-lactamase, inhibitors

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
3670 The Effects of Source and Timing on the Acceptance of New Product Recommendation: A Lab Experiment

Authors: Yani Shi, Jiaqi Yan

Abstract:

A new product is important for companies to extend consumers and manifest competitiveness. New product often involves new features that consumers might not be familiar with while it may also have a competitive advantage to attract consumers compared to established products. However, although most online retailers employ recommendation agents (RA) to influence consumers’ product choice decision, recommended new products are not accepted and chosen as expected. We argue that it might also be caused by providing a new product recommendation in the wrong way at the wrong time. This study seeks to discuss how new product evaluations sourced from third parties could be employed in RAs as evidence of the superiority for the new product and how the new product recommendation could be provided to a consumer at the right time so that it can be accepted and finally chosen during the consumer’s decision-making process. A 2*2 controlled laboratory experiment was conducted to understand the selection of new product recommendation sources and recommendation timing. Human subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments to minimize the effects of individual differences on the results. Participants were told to make purchase choices from our product categories. We find that a new product recommended right after a similar existing product and with the source of the expert review will be more likely to be accepted. Based on this study, both theoretical and practical contributions are provided regarding new product recommendation.

Keywords: new product recommendation, recommendation timing, recommendation source, recommendation agents

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
3669 Prioritizing Quality Dimensions in ‘Servitised’ Business through AHP

Authors: Mohita Gangwar Sharma

Abstract:

Different factors are compelling manufacturers to move towards the phenomenon of servitization i.e. when firms go beyond giving support to the customers in operating the equipment. The challenges that are being faced in this transition by the manufacturing firms from being a product provider to a product- service provider are multipronged. Product-Service Systems (PSS) lies in between the pure-product and pure-service continuum. Through this study, we wish to understand the dimensions of ‘PSS-quality’. We draw upon the quality literature for both the product and services and through an expert survey for a specific transportation sector using analytical hierarchical process (AHP) derive a conceptual model that can be used as a comprehensive measurement tool for PSS offerings.

Keywords: servitisation, quality, product-service system, AHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
3668 Allura Red, Sunset Yellow and Amaranth Azo Dyes for Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 0.5 H₂SO₄ Solutions

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Preeti Tiwari, Shubham Srivastava, Rajiv Prakash, Herman Terryn, Gopal Ji

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibition potential of azo dyes namely Allura red (AR), Sunset Yellow (SY) and Amaranth (AN) have been investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Tafel polarization curves, linear polarization curves, open circuit potential (ocp) curves, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Amaranth dye is found to provide highest corrosion inhibition (90 %) against mild steel corrosion in sulfuric acid solutions among all the tested dyes; while SY and AR dye shows 80% and 78% corrosion inhibition efficiency respectively. The electrochemical measurements and surface morphology analysis reveal that molecular adsorption of dyes at metal acid interface is accountable for inhibition of mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions. The adsorption behavior of dyes has been investigated by various isotherms models, which verifies that it is in accordance with Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: mild steel, Azo dye, EIS, Langmuir isotherm

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3667 The Effect of Artesunate on Myeloperoxidase Activity of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil

Authors: J. B. Minari, O. B. Oloyede, A. A. Odutuga

Abstract:

Myeloperoxidase is the most abundant enzyme found in the polymorphonuclear neutrophil and is known to play a central role in the host defense system of the leukocyte. The enzyme has been reported to interact with some drugs to generate free radical which inhibits its activity. This study investigated the effects of artesunate on the activity of the enzyme and the subsequent effect on the host immune system. In investigating the effects of the drugs on myeloperoxidase, the influence of concentration, pH, partition ratio estimation and kinetics of inhibition were studied. This study showed that artesunate is concentration-dependent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase with an IC50 of 0.078mM. Partition ratio estimation showed that 60 enzymatic turnover cycles are required for complete inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of artesunate. The influence of pH on the effect of artesunate on the enzyme showed least activity of myeloperoxidase at physiological pH. The kinetic inhibition studies showed that artesunate caused a competitive inhibition with an increase in the Km value from 0.12mM to 0.26mM and no effect on the Vmax value. The Ki value was estimated to be 2.5mM. The results obtained from this study show that artesunate is a potent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase and it is capable of inactivating the enzyme. It is considered that the inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of artesunate as revealed in this study may partly explain the impairment of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and consequent reduction of the strength of the host defense system against secondary infections.

Keywords: myeloperoxidase, artesunate, inhibition, nuetrophill

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3666 Inhibitory Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum Nocturnum on α-Amylase Activity

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Anil Kamboj

Abstract:

Inhibition of α- amylase play a vital role in the clinical management of postprandial hyperglycemia. Although, powerful synthetic inhibitors are available, natural inhibitors are potentially safer. The present study was carried out to evaluate α- amylase inhibition activity from hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts of Cestrum nocturnum. Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by Soxhletation Method. The extract showed strong inhibition towards α- amylase activity and IC50 value were 45.9 µg. This In vitro studies indicate the potential of C. nocturnum in the development of effective anti-diabetic agents.

Keywords: α- amylase, cestrum nocturnum, hyperglycemia, hydroalcoholic extracts, diabetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3665 Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 20% Sulfuric Acid

Authors: M. Dekmouche, M. Hadjada, Z. Rahmani, M. Saidi

Abstract:

The effect of iodide ions on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 20% sulfuric acid in the presence of 3-méthylthio-5-p-méthoxyphényl-1,2-dithiolylium against anion (I-) A1 synthesized in our laboratory,was studied by different electrochemical techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization. The obtained results showed that A1 effectively reduces the corrosion rate of steel. The adsorption of 3-méthylthio-5-p-méthoxyphényl-1,2-dithiolylium against anion (I-) followed Langmuir and temkin adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: steel XC52, corrosion, inhibition, 3-méthylthio-5-p-méthoxyphényl-1, 2-dithiolylium against anion (I-) , sulfuric acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
3664 Social Media as a Distribution Channel for Thailand’s Rice Berry Product

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom, Wannapong Waiyawuththanapoom, Pimploi Tirastittam

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is a globalization era which social media plays an important role to the lifestyle as an information source, tools to connect people together and etc. This research is object to find out about the significant level of the social media as a distribution channel to the agriculture product of Thailand. In this research, the agriculture product is the Rice Berry which is the cross-bred unmilled rice producing dark violet grain, is a combination of Hom Nin Rice and Thai Jasmine/ Fragrant Rice 105. Rice Berry has a very high nutrition and nice aroma so the product is in the growth stage of the product cycle. The problem for the Rice Berry product in Thailand is the production and the distribution channel. This study is to confirm that the social media is another option as the distribution channel for the product which is not a mass production product. This will be the role model for the other niche market product to select the distribution channel.

Keywords: distribution, social media, rice berry, distribution channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
3663 Corrosion Inhibition of Copper in 1M HNO3 Solution by Oleic Acid

Authors: S. Nigri, R. Oumeddour, F. Djazi

Abstract:

The inhibition of the corrosion of copper in 1 M HNO3 solution by oleic acid was investigated by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies. The experimental results have showed that this compound revealed a good corrosion inhibition and the inhibition efficiency is increased with the inhibitor concentration to reach 98%. The results obtained revealed that the adsorption of the inhibitor molecule onto metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The temperature effect on the corrosion behavior of copper in 1 M HNO3 without and with inhibitor at different concentration was studied in the temperature range from 303 to 333 K and the kinetic parameters activation such as Ea, ∆Ha and ∆Sa were evaluated. Tafel plot analysis revealed that oleic acid acts as a mixed type inhibitor. SEM analysis substantiated the formation of protective layer over the copper surface.

Keywords: oleic acid, weight loss, electrochemical measurement, SEM analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
3662 Effect of Thermal Treatment on Phenolic Content, Antioxidant, and Alpha-Amylase Inhibition Activities of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

Authors: Daniel Assefa, Engeda Dessalegn, Chetan Chauhan

Abstract:

Moringa stenopetala is a socioeconomic valued tree that is widely available and cultivated in the Southern part of Ethiopia. The leaves have been traditionally used as a food source with high nutritional and medicinal values. The present work was carried out to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the total phenolic content, antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibition activities of aqueous leaf extracts during maceration and different decoction time interval (5, 10 and 15 min). The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-ciocalteu methods whereas antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating assays and alpha-amylase inhibition activity was determined using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. Total phenolic content ranged from 34.35 to 39.47 mgGAE/g. Decoction for 10 min extract showed ferrous ion chelating (92.52), DPPH radical scavenging (91.52%), alpha-amylase inhibition (69.06%) and ferric reducing power (0.765), respectively. DPPH, reducing power and alpha-amylase inhibition activities showed positive linear correlation (R2=0.853, R2= 0.857 and R2=0.930), respectively with total phenolic content but ferrous ion chelating activity was found to be weakly correlated (R2=0.481). Based on the present investigation, it could be concluded that major loss of total phenolic content, antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibition activities of the crude leaf extracts of Moringa stenopetala leaves were observed at decoction time for 15 min. Therefore, to maintain the total phenolic content, antioxidant, and alpha-amylase inhibition activities of leaves, cooking practice should be at the optimum decoction time (5-10 min).

Keywords: alpha-amylase inhibition, antioxidant, Moringa stenopetala, total phenolic content

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
3661 Lean Product Development and Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: João P. E. De Souza, Rob Dekkers

Abstract:

Whereas lean product development aims at maximising customer value whilst optimising product and process design, the question arises whether this approach includes sustainability. A systematic literature review reveals that methods associated with this conceptualisation of product development are suitable for including sustainability, but that the criteria for the triple-bottom line need to be included when using these methods; this is particularly the case for social aspects. Thus, the main finding is that not new methods should be developed, but that existing methods should be more inclusive towards all aspects of sustainability and product life-cycle thinking.

Keywords: lean product development, product life-cycle, sustainability, systematic literature review, triple bottom-line

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
3660 The Effects of Kinesio Tape® and No Tape for Muscle Facilitation and Inhibition, for Collegiate Athletes with Self-Reported Shoulder Pain

Authors: Gregory Chown, Benjamin Infantolino, Christopher Wise, Rachel Holmes, Samantha O'Donnell, Katelyn Pfeiffer, Victoria Ward

Abstract:

Background: There is a lack of understanding of how Kinesio Tape® physiologically works. Furthermore, few studies compare Kinesio Tape® to other forms of taping. The research question is: Does Kinesio Tape® cause a difference in muscle facilitation, inhibition, and pain, between Kinesio Tape® and no tape for collegiate athletes with self-reported shoulder pain? Method: This quantitative non-randomized design used a convenience sampling method. There were eleven participants with self-reported shoulder pain who were athletes on the men’s and women’s lacrosse and tennis teams. Participants attended one 30-45 minute session for data collection. Each participant received all three taping conditions and performed four repetitions of 120 degrees of active shoulder flexion for the three separate trials (no tape, Kinesio Tape® inhibition, and Kinesio Tape® facilitation). Surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes were placed on the anterior deltoid, supraspinatus, and lower trapezius to measure muscle facilitation and inhibition. Each participant completed the visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after each trial to measure pain. Results: No statistical significance was found for pain scores on the VAS between the taping methods of facilitation, inhibition, and no tape (p = .118). No statistical significance was found for the percentage of change in muscle function for each taping method; Anterior deltoid (p = .993), supraspinatus (p = .997) and lower trapezius (p = .922). Conclusion: Based on the results, Kinesio Tape® appears to not have an effect on muscle function or pain when utilizing the facilitation or inhibition taping method when compared to no tape.

Keywords: Kinesio tape, muscle facilitation, muscle inhibition, pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
3659 A Process of Forming a Single Competitive Factor in the Digital Camera Industry

Authors: Kiyohiro Yamazaki

Abstract:

This paper considers a forming process of a single competitive factor in the digital camera industry from the viewpoint of product platform. To make product development easier for companies and to increase product introduction ratios, development efforts concentrate on improving and strengthening certain product attributes, and it is born in the process that the product platform is formed continuously. It is pointed out that the formation of this product platform raises product development efficiency of individual companies, but on the other hand, it has a trade-off relationship of causing unification of competitive factors in the whole industry. This research tries to analyze product specification data which were collected from the web page of digital camera companies. Specifically, this research collected all product specification data released in Japan from 1995 to 2003 and analyzed the composition of image sensor and optical lens; and it identified product platforms shared by multiple products and discussed their application. As a result, this research found that the product platformation was born in the development of the standard product for major market segmentation. Every major company has made product platforms of image sensors and optical lenses, and as a result, this research found that the competitive factors were unified in the entire industry throughout product platformation. In other words, this product platformation brought product development efficiency of individual firms; however, it also caused industrial competition factors to be unified in the industry.

Keywords: digital camera industry, product evolution trajectory, product platform, unification of competitive factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
3658 Product Features Extraction from Opinions According to Time

Authors: Kamal Amarouche, Houda Benbrahim, Ismail Kassou

Abstract:

Nowadays, e-commerce shopping websites have experienced noticeable growth. These websites have gained consumers’ trust. After purchasing a product, many consumers share comments where opinions are usually embedded about the given product. Research on the automatic management of opinions that gives suggestions to potential consumers and portrays an image of the product to manufactures has been growing recently. After launching the product in the market, the reviews generated around it do not usually contain helpful information or generic opinions about this product (e.g. telephone: great phone...); in the sense that the product is still in the launching phase in the market. Within time, the product becomes old. Therefore, consumers perceive the advantages/ disadvantages about each specific product feature. Therefore, they will generate comments that contain their sentiments about these features. In this paper, we present an unsupervised method to extract different product features hidden in the opinions which influence its purchase, and that combines Time Weighting (TW) which depends on the time opinions were expressed with Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF). We conduct several experiments using two different datasets about cell phones and hotels. The results show the effectiveness of our automatic feature extraction, as well as its domain independent characteristic.

Keywords: opinion mining, product feature extraction, sentiment analysis, SentiWordNet

Procedia PDF Downloads 256