Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: A. Majumder

22 A CORDIC Based Design Technique for Efficient Computation of DCT

Authors: Deboraj Muchahary, Amlan Deep Borah Abir J. Mondal, Alak Majumder

Abstract:

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) is described and a technique to compute it using fast Fourier transform (FFT) is developed. In this work, DCT of a finite length sequence is obtained by incorporating CORDIC methodology in radix-2 FFT algorithm. The proposed methodology is simple to comprehend and maintains a regular structure, thereby reducing computational complexity. DCTs are used extensively in the area of digital processing for the purpose of pattern recognition. So the efficient computation of DCT maintaining a transparent design flow is highly solicited.

Keywords: DCT, DFT, CORDIC, FFT

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21 Variation of Stagnation Properties at Various Altitudes of an Klimov RD-33 Engine

Authors: Upamanyu Majumder, Angshuman Das

Abstract:

The Klimov RD-33 is a turbofan jet engine for a lightweight fighter jet that is the primary engine for the Mikoyan MiG-29. Its production started in 1981. The RD-33 was the first afterburning turbofan engine produced by the Klimov Company of Russia in the 8,000 to 9,000 kilograms-force (78,000 to 88,000 N; 18,000 to 20,000 lbf) thrust class. It features a modular twin-shaft design with individual parts that can be replaced separately and has a good tolerance to the environment. The RD-33 is simple to maintain and retains good performance in challenging environments. In this paper the stagnation properties(pressure and temperature) at the intake diffuser, compressor and turbine sections of the RD-33 engine are calculated using the standard atmosphere conditions at different altitudes( take-off, 5000m, 10000m, 15000m, 20000m and 22500m). The results are plotted against altitude values using MS-Excel.

Keywords: Klimov RD-33 engine, stagnation properties, various altitudes, ms-excel

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20 Hardness Analysis of Samples of Friction Stir Welded Joints of (Al-Cu)

Authors: Upamanyu Majumder, Angshuman Das

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a Solid-State joining process. Unlike fusion welding techniques it does not involve operation above the melting point temperature of metals, but above the re-crystallization temperature. FSW also does not involve fusion of other material. FSW of ALUMINIUM has been commercialized and recent studies on joining dissimilar metals have been studied. Friction stir welding was introduced and patented in 1991 by The Welding Institute. For this paper, a total of nine samples each of copper and ALUMINIUM(Dissimilar metals) were welded using FSW process and Vickers Hardness were conducted on each of the samples.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), recrystallization temperature, dissimilar metals, aluminium-copper, Vickers hardness test

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19 Study of the Effect of Inclusion of TiO2 in Active Flux on Submerged Arc Welding of Low Carbon Mild Steel Plate and Parametric Optimization of the Process by Using DEA Based Bat Algorithm

Authors: Sheetal Kumar Parwar, J. Deb Barma, A. Majumder

Abstract:

Submerged arc welding is a very complex process. It is a very efficient and high performance welding process. In this present study an attempt have been done to reduce the welding distortion by increased amount of oxide flux through TiO2 in submerged arc welding process. Care has been taken to avoid the excessiveness of the adding agent for attainment of significant results. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based BAT algorithm is used for the parametric optimization purpose in which DEA Data Envelopment Analysis is used to convert multi response parameters into a single response parameter. The present study also helps to know the effectiveness of the addition of TiO2 in active flux during submerged arc welding process.

Keywords: BAT algorithm, design of experiment, optimization, submerged arc welding

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18 An Efficient Activated Carbon for Copper (II) Adsorption Synthesized from Indian Gooseberry Seed Shells

Authors: Somen Mondal, Subrata Kumar Majumder

Abstract:

Removal of metal pollutants by efficient activated carbon is challenging research in the present-day scenario. In the present study, the characteristic features of an efficient activated carbon (AC) synthesized from Indian gooseberry seed shells for the copper (II) adsorption are reported. A three-step chemical activation method consisting of the impregnation, carbonization and subsequent activation is used to produce the activated carbon. The copper adsorption kinetics and isotherms onto the activated carbon were analyzed. As per present investigation, Indian gooseberry seed shells showed the BET surface area of 1359 m²/g. The maximum adsorptivity of the activated carbon at a pH value of 9.52 was found to be 44.84 mg/g at 30°C. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model along with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This AC could be used as a favorable and cost-effective copper (II) adsorbent in wastewater treatment to remove the metal contaminants.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption isotherm, kinetic model, characterization

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17 Complementary Split Ring Resonator-Loaded Microstrip Patch Antenna Useful for Microwave Communication

Authors: Subal Kar, Madhuja Ghosh, Amitesh Kumar, Arijit Majumder

Abstract:

Complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) loaded microstrip square patch antenna has been optimally designed with the help of high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The antenna has been fabricated on the basis of the simulation design data and experimentally tested in anechoic chamber to evaluate its gain, bandwidth, efficiency and polarization characteristics. The CSRR loaded microstrip patch antenna has been found to realize significant size miniaturization (to the extent of 24%) compared to the conventional-type microstrip patch antenna both operating at the same frequency (5.2 GHz). The fabricated antenna could realize a maximum gain of 4.17 dB, 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 34 MHz, efficiency 50.73% and with maximum cross-pol of 10.56 dB down at the operating frequency. This practically designed antenna with its miniaturized size is expected to be useful for airborne and space borne applications at microwave frequency.

Keywords: split ring resonator, metamaterial, CSRR loaded patch antenna, microstrip patch antenna, LC resonator

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16 Influence of Particulate Fractions on Air Quality for Four Major Congested Cities of India over a Period of Four Years from 2006-2009

Authors: I. Mukherjee, J. Ghose, T. Chakraborty, S. Chaudhury, R. Majumder

Abstract:

India is the second most populated nation in the world. With the Indian population hitting the 1.26 billion mark in the year 2014, there has been an unprecedented rise in power and energy requirements throughout the nation. This mammoth demand for energy, both at the industrial as well as at the domestic household level, as well as the increase in the usage of automobiles has led to a corresponding increase in the total tonnage of fuels being burnt every year. This, in turn, has led to an increase in the concentration of atmospheric pollutants over the years with enhanced particulate concentrations being reported for different parts of the country. Considering the adverseness of the particulates, the paper analyses the role of the particulates on the air quality of four major congested cities of the country namely, Kolkata (22034’ N, 88024’ E), Delhi (28038’N , 77012’ E), Bangalore (12058’ N , 77038’E) and Mumbai (18.9750° N, 72.8258° E) over a period of four years from 2006-2009. The fractional contribution of the finer fractions to the coarser one has been considered in the study in addition to the relative occurrences of the particulate fractions with respect to the other gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX).

Keywords: air quality, particulates, yearly variation, relative occurrence, SO2, NOX

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15 Association between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission and Under-Five Mortality: Panel Data Evidence from 100 Countries

Authors: Mahadev Bhise, Nabanita Majumder

Abstract:

Recent studies have found association between air pollutants and mortality, particularly how concentration of air pollutant explains under-five mortality across the countries. Thus, the present study evaluates the relationship between Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and under-five mortality, while controlling other well-being determinant of Under-five mortality in 100 countries using panel unbalanced cross sectional data. We have used PCSE and GMM model for the period 1990-2011 to meet our objectives. Our findings suggest that, the positive relationship between lagged periods of carbon dioxide and under-five mortality; the percentage of rural population with access of improved water is negatively associated with under-five mortality, while in case of urban population with access of improved water, is positively related to under-five mortality. Access of sanitation facility, food production index, GDP per capita, and concentration of urban population have significant negative impact on under-five mortality. Further, total fertility rate is significantly associated (positive) with under-five mortality which indicates relative change in fertility is related to relative change in under-five mortality.

Keywords: arbon dioxide (CO2), under-five mortality (0q5), gross domestic product (GDP), urban population, food production, panel corrected standard errors (PCSE), generalized method of moments (GMM)

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14 Influence of Free Field Vibrations Due to Vibratory Pile Driving

Authors: Shashank Mukkoti, Mainak Majumder, Srinivasan Venkatraman

Abstract:

Owing to the land scarcity in the modern-day, most of the construction activities are carried out closed to the existing buildings. Most of the high-rise buildings are constructed on pile foundations to transfer the design loads to a strong stratum below the ground surface. Due to the proximity of the new and existing structures, noise disturbances are prominent during the pile installation. Installation of vibratory piles is most suitable in urban areas. The ground vibrations developed due to the vibratory pile driving may cause many detrimental effects on the surrounding structures based on the proximity of the sources and nature of the structures. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the severity of ground vibrations induced by vibratory pile driving. For this purpose, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed in the ABAQUS/ Explicit finite element program. The couple finite/infinite element method has been employed for the capturing of propagating waves due to the pile installation. The geometry of the pile foundations, frequency of the pile driving, length of the pile has been considered for the parametric study. The results show that vibrations generated due to the vibratory pile installation are either very close or more than the thresholds tolerance limits set by different guidelines.

Keywords: FE model, pile driving, free field vibrations, wave propagation

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13 CRLH and SRR Based Microwave Filter Design Useful for Communication Applications

Authors: Subal Kar, Amitesh Kumar, A. Majumder, S. K. Ghosh, S. Saha, S. S. Sikdar, T. K. Saha

Abstract:

CRLH (composite right/left-handed) based and SRR (split-ring resonator) based filters have been designed at microwave frequency which can provide better performance compared to conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency, 2.45 GHz. Both CRLH and SRR are unit cells used in metamaterial design. The primary aim of designing filters with such structures is to realize size reduction and also to realize novel filter performance. The CRLH based filter has been designed in microstrip transmission line, while the SRR based filter is designed with SRR loading in waveguide. The CRLH based filter designed at 2.45 GHz provides an insertion loss of 1.6 dB with harmonic suppression up to 10 GHz with 67 % size reduction when compared with a conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency. One dimensional (1-D) SRR matrix loaded in a waveguide shows the possibility of realizing a stop-band with sharp skirts in the pass-band while a stop-band in the pass-band of normal rectangular waveguide with tailoring of the dimensions of SRR unit cells. Such filters are expected to be very useful for communication systems at microwave frequency.

Keywords: BPF, CRLH, harmonic, metamaterial, SRR and waveguide

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12 A Comparative Analysis about the Effects of a Courtyard in Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space Adjacent to Courtyard of a House in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Fatema Tasmia, Brishti Majumder, Atiqur Rahman

Abstract:

Attaining appropriate comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it is resided at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. Courtyards are the part of buildings which are used as space for outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to have indoor thermal comfort as an effect of courtyard. This paper aims to investigate the effect of courtyard in indoor thermal environment of a room adjacent to the courtyard and a room next to transitional space after a courtyard through field measurements of a case study house. The field measurement was conducted in a two-storey house. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature in both situations. Ventilation or air movement was considered to have no impact because of the rooms’ layout and location. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of courtyards and in its relation to indoor space while achieving thermal comfort.

Keywords: courtyard, old Dhaka, temperature, thermal comfort, transitional space

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11 Climate Variability on Hydro-Energy Potential: An MCDM and Neural Network Approach

Authors: Apu Kumar Saha, Mrinmoy Majumder

Abstract:

The increase in the concentration of Green House gases all over the World has induced global warming phenomena whereby the average temperature of the world has aggravated to impact the pattern of climate in different regions. The frequency of extreme event has increased, early onset of season and change in an average amount of rainfall all are engrossing the conclusion that normal pattern of climate is changing. Sophisticated and complex models are prepared to estimate the future situation of the climate in different zones of the Earth. As hydro-energy is directly related to climatic parameters like rainfall and evaporation such energy resources will have to sustain the onset of the climatic abnormalities. The present investigation has tried to assess the impact of climatic abnormalities upon hydropower potential of different regions of the World. In this regard multi-criteria, decision making, and the neural network is used to predict the impact of the change cognitively by an index. The results from the study show that hydro-energy potential of Asian region is mostly vulnerable with respect to other regions of the world. The model results also encourage further application of the index to analyze the impact of climate change on the potential of hydro-energy.

Keywords: hydro-energy potential, neural networks, multi criteria decision analysis, environmental and ecological engineering

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10 Development of Rural Entrepreneurs: Challenges Faced in India

Authors: Sankar Majumder

Abstract:

Development of Rural Entrepreneurs requires a holistic approach involving social, economic, political, technical, and environmental and many other issues. It needs a thorough understanding of the economy and society. It's true that agricultural development, rural development and many other social and right based development programmes have resulted in the growth of income in the rural sector. The development of rural entrepreneurs is necessary to utilise these opportunities. Many programmes and policies in the spheres of organisational, financial, infrastructural and technical supports have been taken to promote rural industries. But if one looks at the growth and development of rural industrial units, especially the manufacturing units, the picture is not promising. This paper aims at analysing the possible causes and its solutions in terms of (1) Mind set of the society towards business as a livelihood; (2) Sufficiency and appropriateness of the existing organisational, financial, infrastructural and technical supports. The paper is based on secondary data on various aspects of rural enterprises and the author’s experiences in the course of his work as a practitioner in this field. Growth of units and employment in the rural industries shows that the entrepreneurs are more inclined towards trading units than towards manufacturing ventures. The growth of rural industries is constrained not by the insufficiency of the supply of finance but by the insufficient demand for finance. The task is to increase the supply of entrepreneurs by creating an entrepreneurial environment. Incubation for rural entrepreneurs is the need of the hour.

Keywords: business mind set, entrepreneurial environment, supply of finance, technical support

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9 Poor Proficiency of English Language among Tertiary Level Students in Bangladesh and Its Effect on Employability: An Investigation to Find Fact and Solution

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Nahian Fyrose Fahim, Subrata Majumder, Tek Winesberry

Abstract:

English is unanimously recognized as the standard second language in the world, and no one can deny this fact. Many people believe that possessing English proficiency skills is the key to communicating effectively globally, especially for developing countries, which can bring further success to itself on many fronts, as well as to other countries, by ensuring its people worldwide access to education, business, and technology. A notable number of students in Bangladesh are currently pursuing higher education, especially at the tertiary or collegiate level in more than 150 public and private universities. English is the dominant linguistic medium through which college instruction and lectures are given to students in Bangladesh. However, many of our students who had only completed their primary and secondary levels of education in the Bangla medium or language are generally in an awkward position to suddenly take and complete many unfamiliar requirements by the time they enter the university as freshmen. As students, they struggle to complete at least 18 courses to acquire proficiency in English. After obtaining a tertiary education certificate, the students could then have the opportunity to acquire a sustainable position in the job market industry; however, many of them do fail unfortunately, because of poor English proficiency skills. After statistical analysis, the study suggested certain remedial measures that could be taken in order to increase students’ proficiency in English as well as to ensure their employability potential.

Keywords: English language proficiency, tertiary education, unemployment problems, employability

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8 A Cognitive Approach to the Optimization of Power Distribution across an Educational Campus

Authors: Mrinmoy Majumder, Apu Kumar Saha

Abstract:

The ever-increasing human population and its demand for energy is placing stress upon conventional energy sources; and as demand for power continues to outstrip supply, the need to optimize energy distribution and utilization is emerging as an important focus for various stakeholders. The distribution of available energy must be achieved in such a way that the needs of the consumer are satisfied. However, if the availability of resources is not sufficient to satisfy consumer demand, it is necessary to find a method to select consumers based on factors such as their socio-economic or environmental impacts. Weighting consumer types in this way can help separate them based on their relative importance, and cognitive optimization of the allocation process can then be carried out so that, even on days of particularly scarce supply, the socio-economic impacts of not satisfying the needs of consumers can be minimized. In this context, the present study utilized fuzzy logic to assign weightage to different types of consumers based at an educational campus in India, and then established optimal allocation by applying the non-linear mapping capability of neuro-genetic algorithms. The outputs of the algorithms were compared with similar outputs from particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithms. The results of the study demonstrate an option for the optimal utilization of available energy based on the socio-economic importance of consumers.

Keywords: power allocation, optimization problem, neural networks, environmental and ecological engineering

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7 A Comparative Analysis of the Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space or Threshold in Traditional Row Houses Adjacent to a Narrow Alley 'Rupchan Lane' in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Fatema Tasmia, Brishti Majumder, Atiqur Rahman

Abstract:

Attaining appropriate thermal comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it resides at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. This paper aims to investigate the indoor thermal environment of a room with and without transitional space or threshold in traditional row houses adjacent to a narrow alley of old Dhaka through field measurements. Transitional spaces are the part of buildings which are used for semi-outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to provide an indoor thermal effect. The field study was conducted by collecting thermal data (temperature, humidity and airflow) respectively, among the outdoor narrow alley, transitional space and adjacent indoor. This east-west elongated alley has an average width of 2.13 meter (varies from 1.5 to 2.6 meter) holding row houses on both sides. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature of corresponding cases. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of row houses with transitional spaces and in its relation to the adjacent outdoor space while achieving thermal comfort.

Keywords: alley, Old-Dhaka, row houses, temperature, thermal comfort, threshold, transitional space

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6 A Physiological Approach for Early Detection of Hemorrhage

Authors: Rabie Fadil, Parshuram Aarotale, Shubha Majumder, Bijay Guargain

Abstract:

Hemorrhage is the loss of blood from the circulatory system and leading cause of battlefield and postpartum related deaths. Early detection of hemorrhage remains the most effective strategy to reduce mortality rate caused by traumatic injuries. In this study, we investigated the physiological changes via non-invasive cardiac signals at rest and under different hemorrhage conditions simulated through graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), blood pressure (BP), impedance cardiogram (ICG), and phonocardiogram (PCG) were acquired from 10 participants (age:28 ± 6 year, weight:73 ± 11 kg, height:172 ± 8 cm). The LBNP protocol consisted of applying -20, -30, -40, -50, and -60 mmHg pressure to the lower half of the body. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean aerial pressure (MAP) were extracted from ECG and blood pressure. Systolic amplitude (SA), systolic time (ST), diastolic time (DT), and left ventricle Ejection time (LVET) were extracted from PPG during each stage. Preliminary results showed that the application of -40 mmHg i.e. moderate stage simulated hemorrhage resulted significant changes in HR (85±4 bpm vs 68 ± 5bpm, p < 0.01), ST (191 ± 10 ms vs 253 ± 31 ms, p < 0.05), LVET (350 ± 14 ms vs 479 ± 47 ms, p < 0.05) and DT (551 ± 22 ms vs 683 ± 59 ms, p < 0.05) compared to rest, while no change was observed in SA (p > 0.05) as a consequence of LBNP application. These findings demonstrated the potential of cardiac signals in detecting moderate hemorrhage. In future, we will analyze all the LBNP stages and investigate the feasibility of other physiological signals to develop a predictive machine learning model for early detection of hemorrhage.

Keywords: blood pressure, hemorrhage, lower-body negative pressure, LBNP, machine learning

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5 Combined Use of Microbial Consortia for the Enhanced Degradation of Type-IIx Pyrethroids

Authors: Parminder Kaur, Chandrajit B. Majumder

Abstract:

The unrestrained usage of pesticides to meet the burgeoning demand of enhanced crop productivity has led to the serious contamination of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. The remediation of mixture of pesticides is a challenging affair regarding inadvertent mixture of pesticides from agricultural lands treated with various compounds. Global concerns about the excessive use of pesticides have driven the need to develop more effective and safer alternatives for their remediation. We focused our work on the microbial degradation of a mixture of three Type II-pyrethroids, namely Cypermethrin, Cyhalothrin and Deltamethrin commonly applied for both agricultural and domestic purposes. The fungal strains (Fusarium strain 8-11P and Fusarium sp. zzz1124) had previously been isolated from agricultural soils and their ability to biotransform this amalgam was studied. In brief, the experiment was conducted in two growth systems (added carbon and carbon-free) enriched with variable concentrations of pyrethroids between 100 to 300 mgL⁻¹. Parameter optimization (pH, temperature, concentration and time) was done using a central composite design matrix of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). At concentrations below 200 mgL⁻¹, complete removal was observed; however, degradation of 95.6%/97.4 and 92.27%/95.65% (in carbon-free/added carbon) was observed for 250 and 300 mgL⁻¹ respectively. The consortium has been shown to degrade the pyrethroid mixture (300 mg L⁻¹) within 120 h. After 5 day incubation, the residual pyrethroids concentration in unsterilized soil were much lower than in sterilized soil, indicating that microbial degradation predominates in pyrethroids elimination with the half-life (t₁/₂) of 1.6 d and R² ranging from 0.992-0.999. Overall, these results showed that microbial consortia might be more efficient than single degrader strains. The findings will complement our current understanding of the bioremediation of mixture of Type II pyrethroids with microbial consortia and potentially heighten the importance for considering bioremediation as an effective alternative for the remediation of such pollutants.

Keywords: bioremediation, fungi, pyrethroids, soil

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4 From Sympathizers to Perpetrators: Examining the Involvement of Rural Women in Bangladesh in Violent Extremism

Authors: Shantanu Majumder

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explain the factors contribute in attracting and engaging rural women in Bangladesh toward political Islam that in many cases manifests itself in the form of violent extremism (VE). Bangladesh, the fourth largest Muslim majority country in the world, has been confronting the problem of VE in the name of Islam since a long. The political Islamists, explaining the events like military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, anti-Muslim politics in neighboring India and Myanmar, Islamophobia in the West, and several other issues in their own way, have become to a vast extent successful in creating a high level of emotion, anger and a feeling of being oppressed worldwide among the ordinary Muslims masses. Half-hearted role of public intellectuals and political expediency of liberal political forces in explaining these events in a secular democratic way also facilitate the extremists to earn political dividend. VE was perceived as an all-male activism of the political Islamists’ in the past in Bangladesh. However, evidence in the recent times shows that there are sympathizers, recruiters, and perpetrators as well among the womenfolk in favor of VE-based political Islam. The first section in this paper sheds light on the way the political Islamists build rapport with and win over the heart of target women in countryside under the camouflage of preaching authentic Islam. This section also describes the role of family in involvement of women in VE. The second section discusses wide-ranging use of websites, facebook, laptop, mobile phones and several other means in the way to motivate and radicalize women. How the involvement with political Islamists brings changes in thinking process, lifestyle and family life of motivated women has been focused in the third section. The final section deals briefly with the way out relying on the argument that law and order forces alone cannot tackle this problem.

Keywords: Bangladesh, political Islam, violent extremism, women

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3 Prevalence and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Mastitic Dairy Cattle in Canada

Authors: Satwik Majumder, Dongyun Jung, Jennifer Ronholm, Saji George

Abstract:

Bovine mastitis is the most common infectious disease in dairy cattle, with major economic implications for the dairy industry worldwide. Continuous monitoring for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacterial isolates from dairy farms is vital not only for animal husbandry but also for public health. In this study, the prevalence of AMR in 113 Escherichia coli isolates from cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Canada was investigated. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test with 18 antibiotics and microdilution method with three heavy metals (copper, zinc, and silver) was performed to determine the antibiotic and heavy-metal susceptibility. Resistant strains were assessed for efflux and ß-lactamase activities besides assessing biofilm formation and hemolysis. Whole-genome sequences for each of the isolates were examined to detect the presence of genes corresponding to the observed AMR and virulence factors. Phenotypic analysis revealed that 32 isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 107 showed resistance against at least one heavy metal. Quinolones and silver were the most efficient against the tested isolates. Among the AMR isolates, AcrAB-TolC efflux activity and ß-lactamase enzyme activities were detected in 13 and 14 isolates, respectively. All isolates produced biofilm but with different capacities, and 33 isolates showed α-hemolysin activity. A positive correlation (Pearson r = +0.89) between efflux pump activity and quantity of biofilm was observed. Genes associated with aggregation, adhesion, cyclic di-GMP, quorum sensing were detected in the AMR isolates, corroborating phenotype observations. This investigation showed the prevalence of AMR in E. coli isolates from bovine clinical mastitis. The results also suggest the inadequacy of antimicrobials with a single mode of action to curtail AMR bacteria with multiple mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Therefore, it calls for combinatorial therapy for the effective management of AMR infections in dairy farms and combats its potential transmission to the food supply chain through milk and dairy products.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, E. coli, bovine mastitis, antibiotics, heavy-metals, efflux pump, ß-lactamase enzyme, biofilm, whole-genome sequencing

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2 Polymeric Composites with Synergetic Carbon and Layered Metallic Compounds for Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Anukul K. Thakur, Ram Bilash Choudhary, Mandira Majumder

Abstract:

In this technologically driven world, it is requisite to develop better, faster and smaller electronic devices for various applications to keep pace with fast developing modern life. In addition, it is also required to develop sustainable and clean sources of energy in this era where the environment is being threatened by pollution and its severe consequences. Supercapacitor has gained tremendous attention in the recent years because of its various attractive properties such as it is essentially maintenance-free, high specific power, high power density, excellent pulse charge/discharge characteristics, exhibiting a long cycle-life, require a very simple charging circuit and safe operation. Binary and ternary composites of conducting polymers with carbon and other layered transition metal dichalcogenides have shown tremendous progress in the last few decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymer, these days conducting polymers have gained more attention because of their high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short length for the ion transport and superior electrochemical activity. These properties make them very suitable for several energy storage applications. On the other hand, carbon materials have also been studied intensively, owing to its rich specific surface area, very light weight, excellent chemical-mechanical property and a wide range of the operating temperature. These have been extensively employed in the fabrication of carbon-based energy storage devices and also as an electrode material in supercapacitors. Incorporation of carbon materials into the polymers increases the electrical conductivity of the polymeric composite so formed due to high electrical conductivity, high surface area and interconnectivity of the carbon. Further, polymeric composites based on layered transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are also considered important because they are thin indirect band gap semiconductors with a band gap around 1.2 to 1.9eV. Amongst the various 2D materials, MoS2 has received much attention because of its unique structure consisting of a graphene-like hexagonal arrangement of Mo and S atoms stacked layer by layer to give S-Mo-S sandwiches with weak Van-der-Waal forces between them. It shows higher intrinsic fast ionic conductivity than oxides and higher theoretical capacitance than the graphite.

Keywords: supercapacitor, layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, conducting polymer, ternary, carbon

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1 Altering the Solid Phase Speciation of Arsenic in Paddy Soil: An Approach to Reduce Rice Grain Arsenic Uptake

Authors: Supriya Majumder, Pabitra Banik

Abstract:

Fates of Arsenic (As) on the soil-plant environment belong to the critical emerging issue, which in turn to appraises the threatening implications of a human health risk — assessing the dynamics of As in soil solid components are likely to impose its potential availability towards plant uptake. In the present context, we introduced an improved Sequential Extraction Procedure (SEP) questioning to identify solid-phase speciation of As in paddy soil under variable soil environmental conditions during two consecutive seasons of rice cultivation practices. We coupled gradients of water management practices with the addition of fertilizer amendments to assess the changes in a partition of As through a field experimental study during monsoon and post-monsoon season using two rice cultivars. Water management regimes were varied based on the methods of cultivation of rice by Conventional (waterlogged) vis-a-vis System of Rice Intensification-SRI (saturated). Fertilizer amendment through the nutrient treatment of absolute control, NPK-RD, NPK-RD + Calcium silicate, NPK-RD + Ferrous sulfate, Farmyard manure (FYM), FYM + Calcium silicate, FYM + Ferrous sulfate, Vermicompost (VC), VC + Calcium silicate, VC + Ferrous sulfate were selected to construct the study. After harvest, soil samples were sequentially extracted to estimate partition of As among the different fractions such as: exchangeable (F1), specifically sorbed (F2), As bound to amorphous Fe oxides (F3), crystalline Fe oxides (F4), organic matter (F5) and residual phase (F6). Results showed that the major proportions of As were found in F3, F4 and F6, whereas F1 exhibited the lowest proportion of total soil As. Among the nutrient treatment mediated changes on As fractions, the application of organic manure and ferrous sulfate were significantly found to restrict the release of As from exchangeable phase. Meanwhile, conventional practice produced much higher release of As from F1 as compared to SRI, which may substantially increase the environmental risk. In contrast, SRI practice was found to retain a significantly higher proportion of As in F2, F3, and F4 phase resulting restricted mobilization of As. This was critically reflected towards rice grain As bioavailability where the reduction in grain As concentration of 33% and 55% in SRI concerning conventional treatment (p <0.05) during monsoon and post-monsoon season respectively. Also, prediction assay for rice grain As bioavailability based on the linear regression model was performed. Results demonstrated that rice grain As concentration was positively correlated with As concentration in F1 and negatively correlated with F2, F3, and F4 with a satisfactory level of variation being explained (p <0.001). Finally, we conclude that F1, F2, F3 and F4 are the major soil. As fractions critically may govern the potential availability of As in soil and suggest that rice cultivation with the SRI treatment is particularly at less risk of As availability in soil. Such exhaustive information may be useful for adopting certain management practices for rice grown in contaminated soil concerning to the environmental issues in particular.

Keywords: arsenic, fractionation, paddy soil, potential availability

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