Search results for: Aspergillus niger
309 Genetic Approach to Target Putative PKS Genes Involved in Ochratoxin a Biosynthesis within Aspergillus Section Nigri, As a Main Cause of Human Nephropathy
Authors: Sabah Ben Fredj Melki, Yves Brygoo, Ahmed Mliki
Abstract:A 700 pb PCR-derived DNA fragment was isolated from Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus tubingensis using degenerated primers (LC1-LC2c) and two newly designed primer pairs (KSLB-LC6) for Aspergillus niger and (AFl1F-LC2) for Aspergillus tubingensis developed for the acyl transferase (AT) and the KS domains of fungal PKSs. DNA from the most of black Aspergillus species currently recognized was tested. Herein, we report on the identification and characterisation of a part of the novel putative OTA-polyketide synthase gene in A. carbonarius “ACPks”, A. niger “ANPks” and A. tubingenis “ATPks”. The sequences were aligned and analyzed using phylogenetic methods. Primers used in this study showed general applicability and other Aspergillus species belonging to section Nigri were successfully amplified especially in A. niger and A. tubingenis. The predicted amino acid sequences “ACPks” displayed 66 to 81% similarities to different polyketide synthase genes while “ANPks” similarities varied from 68 to 71% and “ATPks” were from 81 to 97%. The AT and the KS domains appeared to be specific for a particular type of fungal PKSs and were related to PKSs involved in different mycotoxin biosynthesis pathways, including ochratoxin A. The sequences presented in this work have a high utility for the discovery of novel fungal PKS gene clusters.
Keywords: Pks genes, OTA Biosynthesis, Aspergillus Nigri, sequence analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 4
308 Effect of Some Metal Ions on the Activity of Lipase Produced by Aspergillus Niger Cultured on Vitellaria Paradoxa Shells
Authors: Abdulhakeem Sulyman, Olukotun Zainab, Hammed Abdulquadri
Abstract:Lipases (triacylglycerol acyl hydrolases) (EC 126.96.36.199) are class of enzymes that catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids. They account for up to 10% of the enzyme in the market and have a wide range of applications in biofuel production, detergent formulation, leather processing and in food and feed processing industry. This research was conducted to study the effect of some metal ions on the activity of purified lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells. Purified lipase in 12.5 mM p-NPL was incubated with different metal ions (Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺, Fe²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺). The final concentrations of metal ions investigated were 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 mM. The results obtained from the study showed that Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ ions increased the activity of lipase up to 3.0, 3.0, 1.0, and 26.0 folds respectively. Lipase activity was partially inhibited by Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ with up to 88.5% and 83.7% loss of activity respectively. Lipase activity was also inhibited by K⁺ with up to 56.7% loss in the activity as compared to in the absence of metal ions. The study concluded that lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells can be activated by the presence of Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ and inhibited by Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Vitellaria paradoxa, lipase, metal ionsProcedia PDF Downloads 83
307 Effect of Water Activity, Temperature, and Incubation Time on Growth and Ochratoxin a Production by Aspergillus fresenii and Aspergillus sulphureus on Niger Seeds
Authors: Yung-Chen Hsu, Juan Hernandez, W. T. Evert Ting, Dawit Gizachew
Abstract:Mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds poses a high risk for human and animal health. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a ubiquitous mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. It exhibits nephrotoxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and immunotoxicity in both humans and animals. OTA has been detected in foods such as cereals, coffee, grapes, cocoa, wine, and spices. Consumption of food contaminated with OTA has been linked to kidney and liver diseases. Niger (Guizotia abyssinica) is an oil seed that is used for extracting cooking oil in countries like Ethiopia and India. The seed cake (a byproduct from oil extraction) is also used as dairy cattle feed in Ethiopia. It is also exported to North America and Europe to be used mainly as bird feed. To our knowledge, there have been no studies on the growth and production of OTA on niger seeds. In this study, the environment conditions that support OTA production including effects of water activity, temperature, and incubation time on growth and OTA production by A. fresenii and A. sulphureus were investigated.
Keywords: mycotoxin, ochratoxin A, aspergillus, niger seedProcedia PDF Downloads 307
306 Using Submerge Fermentation Method to Production of Extracellular Lipase by Aspergillus niger
Authors: Masoumeh Ghasemi, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Arman Farahbakhsh, Ali Asghar Safari
Abstract:In this study, lipase production has been investigated using submerge fermentation by Aspergillus niger in Kilka fish oil as main substrate. The Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of parameters and their levels on lipase productivity. The optimum conditions for Kilka fish oil concentration, incubation temperature and pH were obtained 3 gr./ml 35°C and 7, respectively. The amount of lipase activity in optimum condition was obtained 4.59IU/ml. By comparing this amount with the amount of productivity in the olive oil medium based on the cost of each medium, it was that using Kilka fish oil is 84% economical. Therefore Kilka fish oil can be used as an economical and suitable substrate in the lipase production and industrial usages.
Keywords: lipase, Aspergillus niger, Kilka fish oil, submerge fermentation methodProcedia PDF Downloads 380
305 Treatment of Grey Water from Different Restaurants in FUTA Using Fungi
Authors: F. A. Ogundolie, F. Okogue, D. V. Adegunloye
Abstract:Greywater samples were obtained from three restaurants in the Federal University of Technology; Akure coded SSR, MGR and GGR. Fungi isolates obtained include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these fungi isolates obtained, R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus showed significant degradation ability on grey water and was used for this research. A simple bioreactor was constructed using biodegradation process in purification of waste water samples. Waste water undergoes primary treatment; secondary treatment involves the introduction of the isolated organisms into the waste water sample and the tertiary treatment which involved the use of filter candle and the sand bed filtration process to achieve the end product without the use of chemicals. A. niger brought about significant reduction in both the bacterial load and the fungi load of the greywater samples of the three respective restaurants with a reduction of (1.29 × 108 to 1.57 × 102 cfu/ml; 1.04 × 108 to 1.12 × 102 cfu/ml and 1.72 × 108 to 1.60 × 102 cfu/ml) for bacterial load in SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Reduction of 2.01 × 104 to 1.2 × 101; 1.72 × 104 to 1.1 × 101, and 2.50 × 104 to 1.5 × 101 in fungi load from SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Result of degradation of these selected waste water by the fungi showed that A. niger was probably more potent in the degradation of organic matter and hence, A. niger could be used in the treatment of wastewater.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger, greywater, bacterial, fungi, microbial load, bioreactor, biodegradation, purification, organic matter and filtrationProcedia PDF Downloads 247
304 Efficiency for Enzyme Production of Fungi Isolated from the Stomach of Buffalo
Authors: Suphalucksana, Wichai, Sangsoponjit Settasit, Soytong Kasem
Abstract:A study on the efficiency for enzyme production of fungi isolated from stomach of buffalo was conducted. The fungi were collected from 4 parts of stomach as rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasums. The objective to study the efficiency of fungi from stomach of buffalo had effected to produced enzyme and to selected fungi for their ability to produced enzyme cellulase, hemicellulase and ligninase. Results shown that the fungi isolated from rumen were: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Rhyzopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4) and Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2). From the reticulum, Aspergillus glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus orchraceus (B-RET-02-2) and Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4) were found. In the omasum Aspergillus fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4) and Rhizopus stolonifer (B-OMA-02-3) were isolated and in the abomasums Aspergillus flavas (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillus fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillus niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). Results of enzyme analysis revealed that cellulase was produced by isolated: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4). Hemicellulase was produced Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Rhizopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4), Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA -01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1) Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4), Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). For the enzyme ligninase, two isolates were found to produced this enzyme namely : Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G).
Keywords: enzyme production from fungi, enzyme production, fungi, agricultural technologyProcedia PDF Downloads 284
303 A Viable Approach for Biological Detoxification of Non Edible Oil Seed Cakes and Their Utilization in Food Production Using Aspergillus Niger
Authors: Kshitij Bhardwaj, R.K. Trivedi, Shipra Dixit
Abstract:We used biological detoxification method that converts toxic residue waste of Jatropha curcas oil seeds (non edible oil seed) into industrial bio-products and animal feed material. Present study describes the complete degradation of phorbol esters by Aspergillus Niger strain during solid state fermentation (SSF) of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake. Phorbol esters were completely degraded in 15 days under the optimized SSF conditions viz deoiled cake 5.0 gm moistened with 5.0 ml distilled water; inoculum 2 ml of overnight grown Aspergillus niger; incubated at 30◦ C, pH 7.0. This method simultaneously induces the production of Protease enzyme by Aspergillus Niger which has high potential to be used in feedstuffs .The maximum Protease activities obtained were 709.16 mg/ml in Jatropha curcas oil seed cake. The protein isolate had small amounts of phorbol esters, phytic acid, and saponin without any lectin. Its minimum and maximum solubility were at pH 4.0&12.0. Water and oil binding capacities were 3.22 g water/g protein and 1.86 ml oil/g protein respectively.Emulsion activity showed high values in a range of basic pH. We concluded that Jatropha Curcas seed cake has a potential to be used as a novel source of functional protein for food or feed applications.
Keywords: solid state fermentation, Jatropha curcas, oil seed cake, phorbol esterProcedia PDF Downloads 401
302 Amylase Activities of Mould Isolated from Spoilt Ogi and Eko: Two (2) Fermented Maize Products
Authors: Gafar Bamigbade, Adebunkola Omemu
Abstract:“Ogi” is a fermented cereal gruel prepared from maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) or guinea corn (Sorghum bicolour). It could be boiled to give a thicker consistency wrapped in leaf allowed to cool and set to a gel known as “eko”. The objective of this study is to determine the amylase activities of mould associated with the spoilage of Ogi and eko. Moulds were isolated from spoilt Ogi and eko samples using standard microbiological procedures. The isolate was then screened for amylase production using starch agar medium. Positive isolates were used for amylase production by solid state fermentation (SFF) using rice bran as the medium. An alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activity of the crude enzyme was determined using the DNS method. The mean mold Population ranged from 1.15 X 105cfu/g for raw Ogi to 6.25 X 105cfu/g for Eko (wrapped in Leaves). Twenty-seven (27) moulds isolated from the sample include A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Rhizopus species and Penicillium species. Aspergillus flavus had the highest percentage (51.9%) of incidence while Penicillium species had the least (3.7%). Out of the 27 isolates screened, 19 were found to be amylase positive by showing a clear zone around their colony after flooding with iodine solution. Diameter of clear zone ranged from 3.00mm (Aspergillus niger, C4) to 22.00mm (Aspergillus flavus, A1). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in leaf has the highest percentage alpha-amylase activity (30.8%) and Aspergillus flavus isolated from spoilt raw ogi has the lowest activity (11.4%). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in nylon produces the highest glucoamylase activity (240U/ml) while penicillium specie isolated from spoilt cooked ogi has the lowest activity (100U/ml). This study shows that moulds associated with spoilage of ogi and eko can produce amylase.
Keywords: glucoamylase, alpha amylase, ogi, ekoProcedia PDF Downloads 218
301 Kinetics Analysis of Lignocellulose Hydrolysis and Glucose Consumption Using Aspergillus niger in Solid State
Authors: Akida Mulyaningtyas, Wahyudi Budi Sediawan
Abstract:One decisive stage in bioethanol production from plant biomass is the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials into simple sugars such as glucose. The produced glucose is then fermented into ethanol. This stage is popularly done in biological method by using cellulase that is produced by certain fungi. As it is known, glucose is the main source of nutrition for most microorganisms. Therefore, cutting cellulose into glucose is actually an attempt of microorganism to provide nutrition for itself. So far, this phenomenon has received less attention while it is necessary to identify the quantity of sugar consumed by the microorganism. In this study, we examined the phenomenon of sugar consumption by microorganism on lignocellulosic hydrolysis. We used oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) as the source of lignocellulose and Aspergillus niger as cellulase-producing fungus. In Indonesia, OPEFB is plantation waste that is difficult to decompose in nature and causes environmental problems. First, OPEFB was pretreated with 1% of NaOH at 170 oC to destroy lignin that hindered A.niger from accessing cellulose. The hydrolysis was performed by growing A.niger on pretreated OPEFB in solid state to minimize the possibility of contamination. The produced glucose was measured every 24 hours for 9 days. We analyzed the kinetics of both reactions, i.e., hydrolysis and glucose consumption, simultaneously. The constants for both reactions were assumed to follow the Monod equation. The results showed that the reaction constant of glucose consumption (μC) was higher than of cellulose hydrolysis (μH), i.e., 11.8 g/L and 0.62 g/L for glucose consumption and hydrolysis respectively. However, in general, the reaction rate of hydrolysis is greater than of glucose consumption since the cellulose concentration as substrate in hydrolysis is much higher than glucose as substrate in the consumption reaction.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger, bioethanol, hydrolysis, kineticsProcedia PDF Downloads 103
300 Studies on Dye Removal by Aspergillus niger Strain
Authors: M. S. Mahmoud, Samah A. Mohamed, Neama A. Sobhy
Abstract:For color removal from wastewater containing organic contaminants, biological treatment systems have been widely used such as physical and chemical methods of flocculation, coagulation. Fungal decolorization of dye containing wastewater is one of important goal in industrial wastewater treatment. This work was aimed to characterize Aspergillus niger strain for dye removal from aqueous solution and from raw textile wastewater. Batch experiments were studied for removal of color using fungal isolate biomass under different conditions. Environmental conditions like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial dye concentration were studied. Influence of the pH on the removal of azo dye by Aspergillus niger was carried out between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0. The optimum pH for red dye decolonization was 9.0. Results showed the decolorization of dye was decreased with the increase of its initial dye concentration. The adsorption data was analyzed based on the models of equilibrium isotherm (Freundlich model and Langmuir model). During the adsorption isotherm studies; dye removal was better fitted to Freundlich model. The isolated fungal biomass was characterized according to its surface area both pre and post the decolorization process by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Results indicate that the isolated fungal biomass showed higher affinity for dye in decolorization process.
Keywords: biomass, biosorption, dye, isothermsProcedia PDF Downloads 243
299 Bioconversion of Orange Wastes for Pectinase Production Using Aspergillus niger under Solid State Fermentation
Authors: N. Hachemi, A. Nouani, A. Benchabane
Abstract:The influence of cultivation factors such as content of ammonium sulfate, glucose and water in the culture medium and particle size of dry orange waste, on their bioconversion for pectinase production was studied using complete factorial design. a polygalacturonase (PG) was isolated using ion exchange chromatography under gradient elution 0-0,5 m/l NaCl (column equilibrate with acetate buffer pH 4,5), subsequently by sephadex G75 column chromatography was applied and the molecular weight was obtained about 51,28 KDa . Purified PG enzyme exhibits a pH and temperature optima of activity at 5 and 35°C respectively. Treatment of apple juice by purified enzyme extract yielded a clear juice, which was competitive with juice yielded by pure Sigma Aldrich Aspergillus niger enzyme.
Keywords: bioconversion, orange wastes, optimization, pectinaseProcedia PDF Downloads 295
298 Biodegradation Potential of Selected Micromycetes against Dyeing Unit Effluents of Sapphire Industry in Raiwind Road Lahore
Authors: Samina Sarwar, Hajra Khalil
Abstract:Mycoremediation is emerging as a potential approach for eco-friendly and cost-effective remediation of polluted effluents collected from the dyeing unit of the textile industry was examined. This work dealt with the analyses of the bio remedial capability of some potential indigenous six fungal isolates viz., Aspergillus alliaceus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae were identified and selected for studies. All fungal species were known to bring bioremediation, which had been confirmed by measuring the percentage reduction potential in different parameters, i.e., pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Rhizopus oryzae showed the highest reduction in pH, EC, and BOD, while Aspergillus fumigatus showed the highest reduction in TDS and TSS, and COD under the optimal conditions of this study. The biodegradation potential of these fungal species was confirmed, evidenced by excellent evaluation of experimental data to propose Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus as a cost-effective solution to treat the effluents from the dyeing unit of the textile industry.
Keywords: biological reduction, fungal isolates, micromycetes, mycoremediationProcedia PDF Downloads 18
297 Effect of Entomopathogenic Fungi on the Food Consumption of Acrididae Species
Authors: S. Kumar, R. Sultana
Abstract:This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Aspergillus species on acridid populations which are major agricultural pests of rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize and fodder crops in Pakistan. Three and replicates i.e. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger, excluding the control, were held under laboratory conditions. It was observed that consumption faecal production of acridids was significantly reduced after the pathogenic application of Aspergillus. In the control replicate, the mortality ratio for stage (N4-N6) was maximum on day 2nd i.e. [F10.7 = 18.33, P < 0.05] followed by [F4.20 = 07.85, P < 0.05] and [F3.77 = 06.11, P < 0.05] on 4th and 3rd day, respectively. Similarly, it was a minimum i.e. [F0.48 = 84.65, P < 0.05] on the 1st day. It was also noted that faecal production of Acridid nymphs was not significantly affected when treated with conidial concentration in H2O formulation; however, it was significantly reduced after the contamination with conidial concentration in oil. The high morality of acridids after contamination of Aspergillus supports their use as bio-control agent for reducing pest population. The present study recommends that exploration and screening must be conducted to provide additional pathogens for evaluation as potential biological control against grasshoppers and locusts.
Keywords: acridid, agriculture, formulation, grasshoppersProcedia PDF Downloads 185
296 Potential for Biological Control of Postharvest Fungal Rot of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) Tubers in Storage with Trichoderma harzianum
Authors: Victor Iorungwa Gwa, Ebenezer Jonathan Ekefan
Abstract:Potential of Trichoderma harzianum for biological control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) tubers in storage was studied. Pathogenicity test revealed the susceptibility of healthy looking yam tubers to Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonganae after fourteen days of inoculation. Treatments comprising A. niger, B. theobromae, and F. oxysporum each paired with T. harzianum and were arranged in completely randomized design and stored for five months. Experiments were conducted between December 2015 and April 2016 and December 2016 and April 2017. Results showed that tubers treated with the pathogenic fungi alone caused mean percentage rot of between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 22.22 % (A. niger) while the paired treatments produced only between 2.22 % (T. harzianum by F. oxysporum) and 6.67 % (T. harzianum by A. niger). In the second year of storage, mean percentage rot was found to be between 13.33 % (F. oxysporum) and 28.89 % (A. niger) while in the paired treatment rot was only between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 8.89% (A. niger). Tubers treated with antagonist alone produced 0.00 % and 2.22 % in the first and second year, respectively. Result revealed that there was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in mean percentage rot between the first year and the second year except where B. theobromae was inoculated alone, A. niger and T. harzianum paired and B. theobromae and T. harzianum paired. The most antagonised fungus in paired treatment for both years was F. oxysporum f. sp. melonganae, while the least antagonised, was A. niger and B. theobromae. It is, therefore, concluded that T. harzianum has potentials to control rot causing pathogens of yam tubers in storage. This can compliment or provide better alternative ways of reducing rot in yam tubers than by the use of chemical fungicides which are not environmentally friendly.
Keywords: biological control, fungal rot, postharvest, Trichoderma harzianum, white yamProcedia PDF Downloads 70
295 Assessment of Bio-Control Quality of Ethanolic Extracts of Some Tropical Plants on Fruit Rot Pathogens of Pineapple Fruits in Ado Ekiti
Authors: J. Y. Ijato, A. Adewumi, H. O Yakubu, O. O. Olajide, B. O. Ojo, B. A. Adanikin
Abstract:Post-harvest fruit rot pathogens are one of the major factors that are responsible for food security challenges in developing countries like Nigeria. These pathogens also cause fruit food poisoning. Biocidal effects of ethanolic extracts of Khaya grandifoliola, Hyptis suaveolens, Zingiber officinale, Calophyllum inophyllum, Datura stramonium on the mycelia growth of fungal rot pathogens of pineapple fruit was investigated, the ethanolic extracts of these test plants exhibited high significant inhibitory effects on the rot pathogens, the highest ethanolic extract inhibition of Zingiber officinale was on Aspergillus flavus (38.40%) at 1.0g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was on Aspergillus fumigatus (23.10%) at 1.0g/ml, the highest ethanol extract inhibition of Datura stramonium was on Aspergillus tubingensis (24.00%) at 1.0g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was 10.00% on Colletotrichum fruticola at 1.0g/ml, the highest ethanol extract inhibition of Calophyllum inophyllum was on Trichoderma harzianum (18.50%) at 1.0g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was on Aspergillus flavus (15.00%) at 1.0g/ml, the highest ethanol extract inhibition of Hyptis suaveolens was on Aspergillus fumigatus (35.00%) at 1.0g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was on Aspergillus niger (20.00%) at 1.0g/ml, the highest ethanol extract inhibition of Khaya grandifoliola was on Aspergillus flavus (35.00%) at 1.00g/ml while the least inhibitory effect was on Aspergillus fumigates (22.00%) at 1.0g/ml, the antifungal capacity of these test plant extracts on rot causing fungi on pineapple fruit reveals the possibility of their use by farmers and fruit traders as alternative to chemical fungicide that portends great threat to human and environmental health.
Keywords: fruit rot, pathogens, plant extracts, pineapple, food poisoningProcedia PDF Downloads 25
294 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Insilco Docking of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors
Authors: Suman Bala, Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini
Abstract:Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis has been developed to relate antifungal activity of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using computer assisted multiple regression analysis. The study has shown the better relationship between antifungal activities with respect to various descriptors established by multiple regression analysis. The analysis has shown statistically significant correlation with R2 values 0.932 and 0.782 against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. These derivatives were further subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the target compounds and amino acid residues present in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. All the synthesized compounds have better docking score as compared to standard fluconazole. Our results could be used for the further design as well as development of optimal and potential antifungal agents.
Keywords: 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole, QSAR, multiple linear regression, docking, glucosamine-6-phosphate synthaseProcedia PDF Downloads 193
293 Aflatoxin Contamination of Abattoir Wastes in Ogun State, Nigeria
Authors: A. F. Gbadebo, O. O. Atanda, M. C. Adetunji
Abstract:The study investigated the level of aflatoxin contamination of abattoir wastes in Ogun State, Nigeria, due to continued complaints of poor hygiene of abattoir centers in the states as a result of improper disposal of abattoir wastes. Wastes from the three senatorial districts of the state were evaluated for their levels of aflatoxin contamination. The moisture content, total plate count, fungal counts, percentage frequency of fungal occurrence as well as the level of aflatoxin contamination of the abattoir wastes were determined by standard methods. The moisture content of the wastes ranged between 79.10-87.46 %, total plate count from 1.37-3.27×10³cfu/ml, and fungal counts from 2.73-3.30×10²cfu/ml. Four fungal species: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Penicillium citrinum were isolated from the wastes, with Aspergillus flavus having the highest percentage frequency of occurrence of 29.76%. The aflatoxin content of the samples was found to range between 3.20-4.80 µg/kg. These findings showed that abattoir wastes from Ogun State are contaminated with aflatoxins and pose a health risk to humans and animals.
Keywords: abattoir wastes, aflatoxin, microbial load, Ogun stateProcedia PDF Downloads 21
292 Optimizing Cellulase Production from Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) Following a Solid State Fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger
Authors: Jwan J. Abdullah, Greetham Darren, Gregory A, Tucker, Chenyu Du
Abstract:Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is an alternative to liquid fermentations for the production of commercially important products such as antibiotics, single cell proteins, enzymes, organic acids, or biofuels from lignocellulosic material. This paper describes the optimisation of SSF on municipal solid waste (MSW) for the production of cellulase enzyme. Production of cellulase enzymes was optimised by Trichoderma reesei or Aspergillus niger for temperature, moisture content, inoculation, and period of incubation. Also, presence of minerals, and alternative carbon and nitrogen sources. Optimisation revealed that production of cellulolytic enzymes was optimal when using Trichoderma spp at 30°C with an incubation period of 168 hours with a 60% moisture content. Crude enzymes produced from MSW, by Trichoderma were evaluated for the saccharification of MSW and compared with activity of a commercially available enzyme, results demonstrated that MSW can be used as inexpensive lignocellulosic material for the production of cellulase enzymes using Trichoderma reesei.
Keywords: SSF, enzyme hydrolysis, municipal solid waste (MSW), optimizing conditions, enzyme hydrolysisProcedia PDF Downloads 471
291 An Approach to Study the Biodegradation of Low Density Polyethylene Using Microbial Strains of Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence in Different Media Form and Salt Condition
Authors: Monu Ojha, Rahul Rana, Satywati Sharma, Kavya Dashora
Abstract:The global production rate of plastics has increased enormously and global demand for polyethylene resins –High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is expected to rise drastically, with very high value. These get accumulated in the environment, posing a potential ecological threat as they are degrading at a very slow rate and remain in the environment indefinitely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of commonly found soil microbes like Bacillus subtilus, Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas fluroscence for their ability to biodegrade LDPE in the lab on solid and liquid media conditions as well as in presence of 1% salt in the soil. This study was conducted at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India from July to September where average temperature and RH (Relative Humidity) were 33 degrees Celcius and 80% respectively. It revealed that the weight loss of LDPE strip obtained from market of approximately 4x6 cm dimensions is more in liquid broth media than in solid agar media. The percentage weight loss by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus observed after 80 days of incubation was 15.52, 9.24 and 8.99% respectively in broth media and 6.93, 2.18 and 4.76 % in agar media. The LDPE strips from same source and on the same were subjected to soil in presence of above microbes with 1% salt (NaCl: obtained from commercial table salt) with temperature and RH 33 degree Celcius and 80%. It was found that the rate of degradation increased in the soil than under lab conditions. The rate of weight loss of LDPE strips under same conditions given in lab was found to be 32.98, 15.01 and17.09 % by P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. The breaking strength was found to be 9.65N, 29N and 23.85 N for P. fluroscence, A. niger and B. subtilus respectively. SEM analysis conducted on Zeiss EVO 50 confirmed that surface of LDPE becomes physically weak after biological treatment. There was the increase in the surface roughness indicating Surface erosion of LDPE film. FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis of the degraded LDPE films showed stretching of aldehyde group at 3334.92 and 3228.84 cm-1,, C–C=C symmetric of aromatic ring at 1639.49 cm-1.There was also C=O stretching of aldehyde group at 1735.93 cm-1. N=O peak bend was also observed which corresponds to 1365.60 cm-1, C–O stretching of ether group at 1217.08 and 1078.21 cm-1.
Keywords: microbial degradation, LDPE, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilus, Peudomonas fluroscence, common saltProcedia PDF Downloads 86
290 Characterization of Pectinase from Local Microorganisms to Support Industry Based Green Chemistry
Authors: Sasangka Prasetyawan, Anna Roosdiana, Diah Mardiana, Suratmo
Abstract:Pectinase are enzymes that hydrolyze pectin compounds. The use of this enzyme is primarily to reduce the viscosity of the beverage thus simplifying the purification process. Pectinase activity influenced by microbial sources . Exploration of two types of microbes that Aspergillus spp. and Bacillus spp. pectinase give different performance, but the use of local strain is still not widely studied. The aim of this research is exploration of pectinase from A. niger and B. firmus include production conditions and characterization. Bacillus firmus incubated and shaken at a speed of 200 rpm at pH variation (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) °C and incubation time (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 ) hours. Media was centrifuged at 3000 rpm, pectinase enzyme activity determined. Enzyme production by A. niger determined to variations in temperature and pH were similar to B. firmus, but the variation of the incubation time was 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours. Pectinase crude extract was further purified by precipitation using ammonium sulfate saturation in fraction 0-20 %, 20-40 %, 40-60 %, 60-80 %, then dialyzed. Determination of optimum conditions pectinase activity performed by measuring the variation of enzyme activity on pH (4, 6, 7, 8, 10), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) °C, and the incubation time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) minutes . Determination of kinetic parameters of pectinase enzyme reaction carried out by measuring the rate of enzyme reactions at the optimum conditions, but the variation of the concentration of substrate (pectin 0.1 % , 0.2 % , 0.3 % , 0.4 % , 0.5 % ). The results showed that the optimum conditions of production of pectinase from B. firmus achieved at pH 7-8.0, 40-50 ⁰C temperature and fermentation time 18 hours. Purification of pectinase showed the highest purity in the 40-80 % ammonium sulfate fraction. Character pectinase obtained : the optimum working conditions of A. niger pectinase at pH 5 , while pectinase from B. firmus at pH 7, temperature and optimum incubation time showed the same value, namely the temperature of 50 ⁰C and incubation time of 30 minutes. The presence of metal ions can affect the activity of pectinase , the concentration of Zn 2 + , Pb 2 + , Ca 2 + and K + and 2 mM Mg 2 + above 6 mM inhibit the activity of pectinase .
Keywords: pectinase, Bacillus firmus, Aspergillus niger, green chemistryProcedia PDF Downloads 316
289 Extremophilic Amylases of Mycelial Fungi Strains Isolated in South Caucasus for Starch Processing
Authors: T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, L. Kutateladze, M. Jobava, T. Burduli, T. Alexidze
Abstract:There is an increasing interest in reliable, wasteless, ecologically friendly technologies. About 40% of enzymes produced all over the world are used for production of syrups with high concentration of glucose-fructose. One of such technologies complies obtaining fermentable sugar glucose from raw materials containing starch by means of amylases. In modern alcohol-producing factories this process is running in two steps, involving two enzymes of different origin: bacterial α-amylase and fungal glucoamylase, as generally fungal amylases are less thermostable as compared to bacterial amylases. Selection of stable and operable at 700С and higher temperatures enzyme preparation with both α- and glucoamylase activities will allow conducting this process in one step. S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology owns unique collection of mycelial fungi, isolated from different ecological niches of Caucasus. As a result of screening our collection 39 strains poducing amylases were revealed. Most of them belong to the genus Aspergillus. Optimum temperatures of action of selected amylases from three producers were estableshed to be within the range 67-80°C. A. niger B-6 showed higher α-amylase activity at 67°C, and glucoamylase activity at 62°C, A. niger 6-12 showed higher α-amylase activity at 72°C, and glucoamylase activity at 65°C, Aspergillus niger p8-3 showed higher activities at 82°C and 70°C, for α-amylase and glucoamylase activities, respectively. Exhaustive hydrolysis process of starch solutions of different concentrations (3, 5, 15, and 30 %) with cultural liquid and technical preparation of Aspergillus niger p8-3 enzyme was studied. In case of low concentrations exhaustive hydrolysis of starch lasts 40–60 minutes, in case of high concentrations hydrolysis takes longer time. 98, 6% yield of glucose can be reached at incubation during 12 hours with enzyme cultural liquid and 8 hours incubation with technical preparation of the enzyme at gradual increase of temperature from 50°C to 82°C during the first 20 minutes and further decrease of temperature to 70°C. Temperature setting for high yield of glucose and high hydrolysis (pasteurizing), optimal for activity of these strains is the prerequisite to be able to carry out hydrolysis of starch to glucose in one step, and consequently, using one strain, what will be economically justified.
Keywords: amylase, glucose hydrolisis, stability, starchProcedia PDF Downloads 298
288 Application of Fatty Acid Salts for Antimicrobial Agents in Koji-Muro
Authors: Aya Tanaka, Mariko Era, Shiho Sakai, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita
Abstract:Objectives: Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji) was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. So this study examined antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus and Bacillus spp. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro as antimicrobial agents. Materials & Methods: A. niger NBRC 31628, A. oryzae NBRC 5238, A. oryzae (Akita Konno store) and Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 were chosen as tested. Nine fatty acid salts including potassium butyrate (C4K), caproate (C6K), caprylate (C8K), caprate (C10K), laurate (C12K), myristate (C14K), oleate (C18:1K), linoleate (C18:2K) and linolenate (C18:3K) at 350 mM and pH 10.5 were used as antimicrobial activity. FASs and spore suspension were prepared in plastic tubes. The spore suspension of each fungus (3.0×104 spores/mL) or the bacterial suspension (3.0×105 CFU/mL) was mixed with each of the fatty acid salts (final concentration of 175 mM). The mixtures were incubated at 25 ℃. Samples were counted at 0, 10, 60, and 180 min by plating (100 µL) on potato dextrose agar. Fungal and bacterial colonies were counted after incubation for 1 or 2 days at 30 ℃. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) is defined as the lowest concentration of drug sufficient for inhibiting visible growth of spore after 10 min of incubation. MICs against fungi and bacteria were determined using the two-fold dilution method. Each fatty acid salt was separately inoculated with 400 µL of Aspergillus spp. or B. subtilis NBRC 3335 at 3.0 × 104 spores/mL or 3.0 × 105 CFU/mL. Results: No obvious change was observed in tested fatty acid salts against A. niger and A. oryzae. However, C12K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against B. subtilis. Thus, C12K suppressed 99.999 % of bacterial growth. Besides, C10K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 180 min against B. subtilis. C18:1K, C18:2K and C18:3K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against B. subtilis. However, compared to saturated fatty acid salts to unsaturated fatty acid salts, saturated fatty acid salts are lower cost. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro. It is necessary to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against other fungi and bacteria, in the future.
Keywords: Aspergillus, antimicrobial, fatty acid salts, koji-muroProcedia PDF Downloads 485
287 Cross-Linked Amyloglucosidase Aggregates: A New Carrier Free Immobilization Strategy for Continuous Saccharification of Starch
Authors: Sidra Pervez, Afsheen Aman, Shah Ali Ul Qader
Abstract:The importance of attaining an optimum performance of an enzyme is often a question of devising an effective method for its immobilization. Cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEAs) is a new approach for immobilization of enzymes using carrier free strategy. This method is exquisitely simple (involving precipitation of the enzyme from aqueous buffer followed by cross-linking of the resulting physical aggregates of enzyme molecules) and amenable to rapid optimization. Among many industrial enzymes, amyloglucosidase is an important amylolytic enzyme that hydrolyzes alpha (1→4) and alpha (1→6) glycosidic bonds in starch molecule and produce glucose as a sole end product. Glucose liberated by amyloglucosidase can be used for the production of ethanol and glucose syrups. Besides this amyloglucosidase can be widely used in various food and pharmaceuticals industries. For production of amyloglucosidase on commercial scale, filamentous fungi of genera Aspergillus are mostly used because they secrete large amount of enzymes extracellularly. The current investigation was based on isolation and identification of filamentous fungi from genus Aspergillus for the production of amyloglucosidase in submerged fermentation and optimization of cultivation parameters for starch saccharification. Natural isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger KIBGE-IB36, Aspergillus fumigatus KIBGE-IB33, Aspergillus flavus KIBGE-IB34 and Aspergillus terreus KIBGE-IB35 on taxonomical basis and 18S rDNA analysis and their sequence were submitted to GenBank. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus KIBGE-IB33 was selected on the basis of maximum enzyme production. After optimization of fermentation conditions enzyme was immobilized on CLEA. Different parameters were optimized for maximum immobilization of amyloglucosidase. Data of enzyme stability (thermal and Storage) and reusability suggested the applicability of immobilized amyloglucosidase for continuous saccharification of starch in industrial processes.
Keywords: aspergillus, immobilization, industrial processes, starch saccharificationProcedia PDF Downloads 435
286 Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes from Mycelial Fungi
Authors: T. Sadunishvili, L. Kutateladze, T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, N. Zakariashvili, M. Jobava, G. Kvesitadze
Abstract:Multiple repeated soil-climatic zones in Georgia determines the diversity of microorganisms. Hundreds of microscopic fungi of different genera have been isolated from different ecological niches, including some extreme environments. Biosynthetic ability of microscopic fungi has been studied. Trichoderma ressei, representative of the Ascomycetes secrete cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes that act in synergy to hydrolyze polysaccharide polymers to glucose, xylose and arabinose, which can be fermented to biofuels. The other mesophilic strains producing cellulases are Allesheria terrestris, Chaetomium thermophile, Fusarium oxysporium, Piptoporus betulinus, Penicillium echinulatum, P. purpurogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. wentii, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus etc. In the majority of the cases the cellulases produced by strains of genus Aspergillus usually have high β-glucosidase activity and average endoglucanases levels (with some exceptions), whereas strains representing Trichoderma have high endo enzyme and low β-glucosidase, and hence has limited efficiency in cellulose hydrolysis. Six producers of stable cellulases and xylanases from mesophilic and thermophilic fungi have been selected. By optimization of submerged cultivation conditions, high activities of cellulases and xylanases were obtained. For enzymes purification, their sedimentation by organic solvents such as ethyl alcohol, acetone, isopropanol and by ammonium sulphate in different ratios have been carried out. Best results were obtained with precipitation by ethyl alcohol (1:3.5) and ammonium sulphate. The yields of enzyme according to cellulase activities were 80-85% in both cases. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Trichoderma viride X 33 is 126 U/g, from the strain Penicillium canescence D 85–185U/g and from the strain Sporotrichum pulverulentum T 5-0 110 U/g. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus sp. Av10 is 120 U/g, xylanase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus niger A 7-5–1155U/g and from the strain Aspergillus niger Aj 38-1250 U/g. Optimum pH and temperature of operation and thermostability, of the enzyme preparations, were established. The efficiency of hydrolyses of different agricultural residues by the microscopic fungi cellulases has been studied. The glucose yield from the residues as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis is highly determined by the ratio of enzyme to substrate, pH, temperature, and duration of the process. Hydrolysis efficiency was significantly increased as a result of different pretreatment of the residues by different methods. Acknowledgement: The Study was supported by the ISTC project G-2117, funded by Korea.
Keywords: cellulase, xylanase, microscopic fungi, enzymatic hydrolysisProcedia PDF Downloads 333
285 Bismuth-Inhibitory Effects on Bacteria and Stimulation of Fungal Growth In vitro
Authors: Sulaiman B. Ali Alharbi, Bassam H. Mashat, Naif Abdullah Al-Harbi, Milton Wainwright, Abeer S. Aloufi, Sulamain Alnaimat
Abstract:Bismuth salicylate was found to inhibit the growth of a range of bacteria and yeast, Candida albican. In general the growth of bacteria did not result in the increase in bismuth solubilisation, in contrast, bismuth solubilisation increased following the growth of C. albicans. A significant increase in the biomass (dry weight) of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae occurred in vitro when these fungi were grown in the presence of bismuth salicylate. Biomass increase occurred over a range of bismuth compound additions, which in the case of A. oryzae was associated with the increase in the solubilisation of the insoluble bismuth compounds.
Keywords: bacterial inhibition, fungal growth stimulation, medical uses of bismuth, yeast inhibitionProcedia PDF Downloads 282
284 Change of Substrate in Solid State Fermentation Can Produce Proteases and Phytases with Extremely Distinct Biochemical Characteristics and Promising Applications for Animal Nutrition
Authors: Paula K. Novelli, Margarida M. Barros, Luciana F. Flueri
Abstract:Utilization of agricultural by-products, wheat ban and soybean bran, as substrate for solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied, aiming the achievement of different enzymes from Aspergillus sp. with distinct biological characteristics and its application and improvement on animal nutrition. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzea were studied as they showed very high yield of phytase and protease production, respectively. Phytase activity was measure using p-nitrophenilphosphate as substrate and a standard curve of p-nitrophenol, as the enzymatic activity unit was the quantity of enzyme necessary to release one μmol of p-nitrophenol. Protease activity was measure using azocasein as substrate. Activity for phytase and protease substantially increased when the different biochemical characteristics were considered in the study. Optimum pH and stability of the phytase produced by A. niger with wheat bran as substrate was between 4.0 - 5.0 and optimum temperature of activity was 37oC. Phytase fermented in soybean bran showed constant values at all pHs studied, for optimal and stability, but low production. Phytase with both substrates showed stable activity for temperatures higher than 80oC. Protease from A. niger showed very distinct behavior of optimum pH, acid for wheat bran and basic for soybean bran, respectively and optimal values of temperature and stability at 50oC. Phytase produced by A. oryzae in wheat bran had optimum pH and temperature of 9 and 37oC, respectively, but it was very unstable. On the other hand, proteases were stable at high temperatures, all pH’s studied and showed very high yield when fermented in wheat bran, however when it was fermented in soybean bran the production was very low. Subsequently the upscale production of phytase from A. niger and proteases from A. oryzae were applied as an enzyme additive in fish fed for digestibility studies. Phytases and proteases were produced with stable enzyme activity of 7,000 U.g-1 and 2,500 U.g-1, respectively. When those enzymes were applied in a plant protein based fish diet for digestibility studies, they increased protein, mineral, energy and lipids availability, showing that these new enzymes can improve animal production and performance. In conclusion, the substrate, as well as, the microorganism species can affect the biochemical character of the enzyme produced. Moreover, the production of these enzymes by SSF can be up to 90% cheaper than commercial ones produced with the same fungi species but submerged fermentation. Add to that these cheap enzymes can be easily applied as animal diet additives to improve production and performance.
Keywords: agricultural by-products, animal nutrition, enzymes production, solid state fermentationProcedia PDF Downloads 266
283 Inulinase Immobilization on Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared with Soy Protein Isolate Conjugated Bovine Serum Albumin for High Fructose Syrup Production
Authors: Homa Torabizadeh, Mohaddeseh Mikani
Abstract:Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs/Fe3O4) covered with soy protein isolate (SPI/Fe3O4) functionalized by bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles. MNPs are promising enzyme carriers because they separate easily under external magnetic fields and have enhanced immobilized enzyme reusability. As MNPs aggregate simply, surface coating strategy was employed. SPI functionalized by BSA was a suitable candidate for nanomagnetite coating due to its superior biocompatibility and hydrophilicity. Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles were synthesized as a novel carrier with narrow particle size distribution. Step by step fabrication monitoring of Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles was performed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results illustrated that nanomagnetite with the spherical morphology was well monodispersed with the diameter of about 35 nm. The average size of the SPI-BSA nanoparticles was 80 to 90 nm, and their zeta potential was around −34 mV. Finally, the mean diameter of fabricated Fe3O4@SPI-BSA NPs was less than 120 nm. Inulinase enzyme from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized through gluteraldehyde on Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles successfully. Fourier transform infrared spectra and field emission scanning electron microscopy images provided sufficient proof for the enzyme immobilization on the nanoparticles with 80% enzyme loading.
Keywords: high fructose syrup, inulinase immobilization, functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, soy protein isolateProcedia PDF Downloads 235
282 Bioleaching of Precious Metals from an Oil-fired Ash Using Organic Acids Produced by Aspergillus niger in Shake Flasks and a Bioreactor
Authors: Payam Rasoulnia, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi
Abstract:Heavy fuel oil firing power plants produce huge amounts of ashes as solid wastes, which seriously need to be managed and processed. Recycling precious metals of V and Ni from these oil-fired ashes which are considered as secondary sources of metals recovery, not only has a great economic importance for use in industry, but also it is noteworthy from the environmental point of view. Vanadium is an important metal that is mainly used in the steel industry because of its physical properties of hardness, tensile strength, and fatigue resistance. It is also utilized in oxidation catalysts, titanium–aluminum alloys and vanadium redox batteries. In the present study bioleaching of vanadium and nickel from an oil-fired ash sample was conducted using Aspergillus niger fungus. The experiments were carried out using spent-medium bioleaching method in both Erlenmeyer flasks and also bubble column bioreactor, in order to compare them together. In spent-medium bioleaching the solid waste is not in direct contact with the fungus and consequently the fungal growth is not retarded and maximum organic acids are produced. In this method the metals are leached through biogenic produced organic acids present in the medium. In shake flask experiments the fungus was cultured for 15 days, where the maximum production of organic acids was observed, while in bubble column bioreactor experiments a 7 days fermentation period was applied. The amount of produced organic acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results showed that depending on the fermentation period and the scale of experiments, the fungus has different major lixiviants. In flask tests, citric acid was the main produced organic acid by the fungus and the other organic acids including gluconic, oxalic, and malic were excreted in much lower concentrations, while in the bioreactor oxalic acid was the main lixiviant and it was produced considerably. In Erlenmeyer flasks during 15 days fermentation of Aspergillus niger, 8080 ppm citric acid and 1170 ppm oxalic acid was produced, while in bubble column bioreactor over 7 days of fungal growth, 17185 ppm oxalic acid and 1040 ppm citric acid was secreted. The leaching tests using the spent-media obtained from both of fermentation experiments, were performed at the same conditions of leaching duration of 7 days, leaching temperature of 60 °C and pulp density up to 3% (w/v). The results revealed that in Erlenmeyer flask experiments 97% of V and 50% of Ni were extracted while using spent medium produced in bubble column bioreactor, V and Ni recoveries were achieved to 100% and 33%, respectively. These recovery yields indicate that in both scales almost total vanadium can be recovered, while nickel recovery was lower. With help of the bioreactor spent-medium nickel recovery yield was lower than that of obtained from the flask experiments, which it could be due to precipitation of some values of Ni in presence of high levels of oxalic acid existing in its spent medium.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger, bubble column bioreactor, oil-fired ash, spent-medium bioleachingProcedia PDF Downloads 171
281 Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strains against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance
Authors: Asad Ali, Asif Jamal
Abstract:The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.
Keywords: bacillus species, biocontrol agent, biopesticides, phytopathogensProcedia PDF Downloads 172
280 Fungicidal Action of the Mycogenic Silver Nanoparticles Against Aspergillus niger Inciting Collar Rot Disease in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Authors: R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi B. Bhaskar, S. Khayum Ahammed, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad
Abstract:Use of bioagents and biofungicides is safe to manage the plant diseases and to avoid human health hazards which improves food security. Myconanotechnology is the study of nanoparticles synthesis using fungi and their applications. The present work reports on preparation, characterization and antifungal activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Trichoderma sp. which was collected from groundnut rhizosphere. The culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. was used for the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) in AgNO3 solution to the silver (Ag0) nanoparticles. The different ages (4 days, 6 days, 8 days, 12 days, and 15 days) of culture filtrates were screened for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among all the treatments the silver nitrate solution treated with six days aged culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. showed the UV absorption peak at 440 nm with maximum intensity (0.59) after 24 hrs incubation. The TEM micrographs showed the spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 30 nm. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot disease in groundnut and aspergillosis in humans showed the highest per cent inhibition at 100 ppm concentration (74.8%). The results points to the usage of these mycogenic AgNPs in agriculture to control plant diseases.
Keywords: groundnut rhizosphere, Trichoderma sp., silver nanoparticles synthesis, antifungal activityProcedia PDF Downloads 435