Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: germinated

36 Antioxidant Activity of Germinated African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa) in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Uchegbu Nneka


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the antioxidant activity of germinated African Yam Bean (AYB) on oxidative stress markers in alloxan-induced diabetic rat. Rats were randomized into three groups; control, diabetic and germinated AYB–treated diabetic rats. The Total phenol and flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging activity before and after germination were investigated. The glucose level, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione of the animals were also determined using the standard technique for four weeks. Germination increased the total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of AYB extract by 19.14%, 32.28%, and 57.25% respectively. The diabetic rats placed on germinated AYB diet had a significant decrease in the blood glucose and lipid peroxidation with a corresponding increase in glutathione (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that consumption of germinated AYB can be a good dietary supplement in inhibiting hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia and the prevention of diabetic complication associated with oxidative stress.

Keywords: African yam bean, antioxidant, diabetes, total phenol

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35 Immune Activity of Roman Hens as Influenced by the Feed Formulated with Germinated Paddy Rice

Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong, Pisit Poolprasert, Tossaporn Incharoen


Germinated paddy rice (GPR) has the potential to be used as a feed ingredient. However, their properties have not been fully investigated. This paper examined the nutrient digestibility and the relationship to immune activity in Roman hens fed with GPR. It was found that true and apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values of GPR were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/g air dry, respectively. GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients, especially GABA. GPR showed similar protein profiles in comparison to non-germinated paddy rice. For immune activity, the feed with GPR enhanced the immune activity of Roman hens under high stocking density stress as evidenced by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity. In this study, GPR is proved to be a good source of functional ingredient for chicken feed.

Keywords: germinated paddy rice, nutrient digestibility, immune activity, functional property

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34 Comparative Study of Bread Prepared with and without Germinated Soyabean (Glycine Max) Flour

Authors: Muhammad Arsalan Mahmoo, Allah Rakha, Muhammad Sohail


The supplementation of wheat flour with high lysine legume flours has positive effects on the nutritional value of bread. In present study, germinated and terminated soya flour blends were prepared and supplemented in bread in variable proportions (10 % and 20 % of each) to check its impact on quality and sensory attributes of bread. The results showed that there was a significant increase in protein, ash and crude fat contents due to increase in the level of germinated and ungerminated soya flour. However, the moisture and crude fiber contents of composite flours containing germinated and ungerminated soya flour decreased with increased level of supplementation. Mean values for physical analysis (loaf volume, specific volume, weight loss and force for texture) were significantly higher in breads prepared with germinated soya bean flour.The scores assigned to sensory parameters of breads like volume, color of crust, symmetry, color of crumb, texture, taste and aroma decreased significantly by increasing the level of germinated and ungerminated soya flour in wheat flour while color of crust and taste slightly improved. The scores given to overall acceptability of bread prepared from composite flour supplemented with 10 % germinated soya flour.

Keywords: composite bread, protein energy malnutrition, supplementation, amino acid profile, grain legumes

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33 The Composition and Activity of Germinated Broccoli Seeds and Their Extract

Authors: Boris Nemzer, Tania Reyes-Izquierdo, Zbigniew Pietrzkowski


Glucosinolate is a family of glucosides that can be found in a family of brassica vegetables. Upon the damage of the plant, glucosinolate breakdown by an internal enzyme myrosinase (thioglucosidase; EC into isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane. Sulforaphane is formed by glucoraphanin cleaving the sugar off by myrosinase and rearranged. Sulforaphane nitrile is formed in the same reaction as sulforaphane with the active of epithiospecifier protein (ESP). Most common food processing procedure would break the plant and mix the glucoraphanin and myrosinase together, and the formed sulforaphane would be further degraded. The purpose of this study is to understand the glucoraphanin/sulforaphane and the myrosinase activity of broccoli seeds germinated at a different time and technological processing conditions that keep the activity of the enzyme to form sulforaphane. Broccoli seeds were germinated in the house. Myrosinase activities were tested as the glucose content using glucose assay kit and measured UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Glucosinolates were measured by HPLC/DAD. Sulforaphane was measured using HPLC-DAD and GC/MS. The 6 hr germinated sprouts have a myrosinase activity 32.2 mg glucose/g, which is comparable with 12 and 24 hour germinated seeds and higher than dry seeds. The glucoraphanin content in 6 hour germinated sprouts is 13935 µg/g which is comparable to 24 hour germinated seeds and lower than the dry seeds. GC/MS results show that the amount of sulforaphane is higher than the amount of sulforaphane nitrile in seeds, 6 hour and 24 hour germinated seeds. The ratio of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile is high in 6 hour germinated seeds, which indicates the inactivated ESP in the reaction. After evaluating the results, the short time germinated seeds can be used as the source of glucoraphanin and myrosinase supply to form potential higher sulforaphane content. Broccoli contains glucosinolates, glucoraphanin (4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate), which is an important metabolite with health-promoting effects. In the pilot clinical study, we observed the effects of a glucosinolates/glucoraphanin-rich extract from short time germinated broccoli seeds on blood adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate levels. A single dose of 50 mg of broccoli sprouts extract increased blood levels of ATP up to 61% (p=0.0092) during the first 2 hours after the ingestion. Interestingly, this effect was not associated with an increase in blood ROS or lactate. When compared to the placebo group, levels of lactate were reduced by 10% (p=0.006). These results indicate that broccoli germinated seed extract may positively affect the generation of ATP in humans. Due to the preliminary nature of this work and promising results, larger clinical trials are justified.

Keywords: broccoli glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, germinated seeds, myrosinase, adenosine triphosphate

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32 Treatments for Overcoming Dormancy of Leucaena Seeds (Leucaena leucocephala)

Authors: Tiago Valente, Erico Lima, Bruno Deminicis, Andreia Cezario, Wallacy Santos, Fabiane Brito


Introduction: The Leucaena leucocephala known as leucaena is a perennial legume shrub of subtropical regions in which the forage shows favorable characteristics for livestock production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of methods for overcoming dormancy the seeds of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.). Materials and Methods: The number of germinated seeds was evaluated daily at the germination criterion radicle protrusion (growth, with about 2 cm long, the emerged seedlings of all). After the counting of the number of germinated seeds daily, the following characteristics were evaluated: Step 1: Germination count which represents the cumulative percentage of germinated seeds on the third day after the start of the test (Germ3); Step 2: Percentage of germinated seeds that correspond to the total percentage of seeds that germinate until the a seventh day after start of the test (Germ7); Step 3: Percentage of germinated seeds that correspond to the total percentage of seeds that germinate until the fifteenth day after start of the test (Germ15);Step 4: Germination speed index (GSI), which was calculated with number of germinated seeds to the nth observation; divided by number of days after sowing. Step 5: Total count of seeds do not germinate after 15 days (NGerm).The seed treatments were: (T1) water at 100 ºC/10 min; (T2) water at 100 ºC/1 min; (T3) Acetone (10 min); (T4) Ethyl alcohol (10 minutes); and (T5) intact seeds (control). Data were analyzed using a completely randomized design with eight replications, and it was adopted the Tukey test at 5% significance level. Results and Discussion: The treatment T1, had the highest speed of germination of seeds GSI, differed (P < 0.05). The T5 treatment (control) was the slowest response, between treatments until the seventh day after the beginning of the test (Germ7), with an amount of 20% accumulation of germinated seeds. The worst result of germination it was T5, with 30% of non-germinated seeds after 15 days of sowing. Acknowledgments: IFGoiano and CNPq (Brazil).

Keywords: acetone, boiling water, germination, seed physiology

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31 Quantitative Analysis of the High-Value Bioactive Components of Pre-Germinated and Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Superjami and Superhongmi)

Authors: Lara Marie Pangan Lo, Soo Im Chung, Yao Cheng Zhang, Xingyue Jin, Mi Young Kang


Being the world’s most consumed grain crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) demands’ have increase and this prompted the development of new rice cultivars with high bio-functional properties than the commonly used white rice. Ordinary rice variety is already known to be a potential source for a number of nutritional as well as bioactive compounds. To further enhance the rice’s nutritive values, germination is done in addition to making it more tasty and palatable when cooked. Pigmented rice, on the other hand, has become increasingly popular in the recent years for their greater antioxidant potential and other nutraceutical properties which can help alleviate the occurrence of the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases. Combining these two (2) parameters, this research study is sought to quantitatively determine the pre-germinated and germinated quantities of the major bioactive compounds of South Korea’s newly developed purplish pigmented rice grain cultivar Superjami (SJ) and red pigmented rice grain Superhongmi (SH) and compare them against the non-pigmented Normal Brown (NB) rice variety. Powdered rice grain cultivars were subjected to 72-hour germination period and the quantities of GABA, γ-oryzanol, ferulic acid, tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues were compared against their pre-germinated condition using γ- amino butyric acid (GABA) analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results revealed the effectiveness of germination in enhancing the bioactive components in all rice samples. GABA contents in germinated rice cultivars increased by more than 10-fold following the order: SJ >SH >NB. In addition, purple rice variety (SJ) has higher total γ-oryzanol and ferulic acid contents which increased by > 2-fold after germination followed by the red cultivar SH then the control, NB. Germinated varieties also possess higher total tocotrienol content than their pre-germinated state. As for the total tocopherol content, SJ has higher quantity, but the red-pigmented SH (0.16 mg/kg) is shown to have lower total tocopherol content than the control rice NB (0.86 mg/kg). However, all tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues were present only in small amounts ( < 3.0 mg/kg) in all pre-germinated and germinated samples. In general, all of the analyzed pigmented rice cultivars were found to possess higher bioactive compounds than the control NB rice variety. Also, regardless of their strain, germinated rice samples have higher bioactive compounds than their pre-germinated counterparts. This only shows the effectiveness of germinating rice in enhancing bioactive constituents. Overall, these results suggest the potential of the pigmented rice varieties as natural source of nutraceuticals in bio-functional food development.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, germinated rice, superhongmi, superjami

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30 Spectrophotometric Determination of L-Dopa in Germinated and Non-Germinated Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) and Chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.)

Authors: Wissame Gouigah, Amina Medellel, Mahmoud Trachi, Djedjiga Benamara, Salem Benamara


The purpose of this work is to investigate, by UV/VIS spectrophotometry, the distribution of L-dopa, known as precursor of dopamine which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in broad beans (Vicia faba) (Vf) and chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.) (CA). In the case of Vf, the different organs were analyzed separately: 1) First, in the fresh state: pod (GF), cotyledons (CF), green shell (EF) and placenta (PF) which is the organ through which the seed is attached to the pod, 2) in the dry state (S): peel of the dry seed (ES) and cotyledons (CS), and 3) in the germinated state: peel (EGe), cotyledons (CGe) and germ (GeVf). Results showed that the content of L-dopa is unevenly distributed between different parts of fresh Vf. But the most important result concerns the predominance of L-dopa in placenta with an L-dopa content (~ 60 mg/g of wet weight, ww) sometimes 7-fold higher (p≤0.05) than those of other considered parts of fresh Vf. In the case of CA, the L-dopa concentration in germinated gains was higher than those found in all analyzed Vf organs, excepted PF.

Keywords: broad bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.), L-dopa, Parkinson disease, placenta

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29 Use of Green Coconut Pulp as Cream, Milk, Stabilizer and Emulsifier Replacer in Germinated Brown Rice Ice Cream

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul, Supitcha Boonchai, Nawapat Pengpengpit


The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical and sensory properties of germinated brown rice ice cream as affected by replacement of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with green coconut pulp. Five different formulations of ice cream were performed. Regular formulation of ice cream consisted of GBR juice, milk cream, milk powder, stabilizer, emulsifier, sucrose and salt. Replacing of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with coconut pulp resulted in an increase in viscosity and overrun, but a decrease in hardness, melting rate, lightness (l*) and redness (a*). However, there was no significant difference among all formulations on any sensory attributes. The results also showed that the ice cream with replacement of coconut pulp contained less fat and protein than those of the regular ice cream. The findings suggested that green coconut pulp can be used as alternative ingredient to replace fat, milk stabilizer and emulsifier even in a high carbohydrate ice cream formulation.

Keywords: ice cream, germinated brown rice, coconut pulp, milk, cream

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28 The Effect of Fermentation and Germination on the Nutrient and Antinutrient Composition of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Flour

Authors: P. N. Okeke


Fermentation and germination of legumes have been an ancient practice. In this study, the influence of fermentation and germination on the chemical properties of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) flour were evaluated. The flours were analyzed for their proximate and mineral composition, using the standard assay methods. The result showed that fermentation and germination increased the moisture, protein and ash content of the flours while fiber, fat and carbohydrate were decreased. The protein level of fermented and germinated lima bean increased from 21.06–26.60%. The minerals: iron, copper, zinc, and phosphorous increased due to germination and fermentation. The phytate and tannin levels were drastically reduced in both the fermented and germinated flours. The result of this study revealed that fermentation and germination makes the nutrient in lima beans more accessible as it reduces the anti-nutrients. It is therefore recommended that lima bean be process accordingly for richer and more bio-availability of the nutrients.

Keywords: nutrient, anti-nutrient, fermented, germinated, lima bean flour

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27 Neuroprotective Effect of Germinated Dolichos lablab on 6-Hydroxy Dopamine (6-OHDA) Induced Toxicity in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cell

Authors: Taek Hwan Lee, Moon Ho Do, Lalita Subedi, Young Un Park, Sun Yeou Kim


Natural and artificial toxic substances namely neurotoxins induce the bitter effect in the nervous system termed as neurotoxicity. It can modulate the normal functioning of the nervous system either hyperactivate it or damage homeostasis of neuronal system. Neurotoxins induced toxicity ultimately kills the neuron. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of germinated Dolichos lablab on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Germination is a process of plant growth from a seed. Sprouting of a seedling from a seed induced many molecular changes in the seed in order to prepare it for further growth. Because of these molecular and chemical changes, the neuroprotective effect of Dolichos lablab is higher in the germinated form than in the normal condition. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with Dolichos lablab extract (50, 100 g/ml) followed by 6-OHDA (25M) induced toxicity. Cell Viability was measured to check the cell survival against 6-OHDA induced toxicity using MTT assay. Dolichos lablab showed a neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA induced neuronal cell death in neuroblastoma cell at a higher concentration of 100g/ml however the effect is much better even at the lower concentration after germination 50g/ml. Cell survival was increased dramatically after 15 h of germination and increased with time of germination in concentration dependent manner. Trigonelline as a representative compound was validated in germinated Dolichos lablab by HPLC analysis that might enhance the neuroprotective effect of Dolichos lablab. This result suggests that Dolichos lablab possess neuroprotective effect in neuroblastoma cells against 6-OHDA however its activity was more potent in the germinated form.

Keywords: dolichos lablab, germination, neuroprotection, trigonelline

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26 Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Capacities of Pre-Germinated and Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Superjami and Superhongmi)

Authors: Soo Im Chung, Lara Marie Pangan Lo, Yao Cheng Zhang, Su Jin Nam, Xingyue Jin, Mi Young Kang


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most widely consumed grains. Due to the growing number of demand as a potential functional food and nutraceutical source and the increasing awareness of people towards healthy diet and good quality of living, more researches dwell upon the development of new rice cultivars for population consumption. However, studies on the antioxidant capacities of newly developed rice were limited as well as the effects of germination in these rice cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed to focus on analysis of the antioxidant potential of pre-germinated and germinated pigmented rice cultivars in South Korea such as purple cultivar Superjami (SJ) and red cultivar Super hongmi (SH) in comparison with the non-pigmented Normal Brown (NB) Rice. The powdered rice grain samples were extracted with 80% methanol and their antioxidant activities were determined. The Results showed that pre-germinated pigmented rice cultivars have higher Fe2+ Chelating Ability (Fe2+), Reducing Power (RP), 2,2´-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging and Superoxide Dismutase activity than the control NB rice. Moreover, it is revealed that germination process induced a significant increased in the antioxidant activities of all the rice samples regardless of their strains. Purple rice SJ showed greater Fe2+ (88.82 + 0.53%), RP (0.82 + 0.01) , ABTS (143.63 + 2.38 mg VCEAC/100 g) and SOD (59.31 + 0.48%) activities than the red grain SH and the control NB having the lowest antioxidant potential among the three (3) rice samples examined. The Effective concentration at 50% (EC50) of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Hydroxyradical (-OH) Scavenging activity for the rice samples were also obtained. SJ showed lower EC50 in terms of its DPPH (3.81 + 0.15 mg/mL) and –OH (5.19 + 0.08 mg/mL) radical scavenging activities than the red grain SH and control NB rice indicating that at lower concentrations, it can readily exhibit antioxidant effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results clearly suggest the higher antioxidant potential of pigmented rice varieties as compared with the widely consumed NB rice. Also, it is revealed in the study that even at lower concentrations, pigmented rice varieties can exhibit their antioxidant activities. Germination process further enhanced the antioxidant capacities of the rice samples regardless of their types. With these results at hand, these new rice varieties can be further developed as a good source of bio functional elements that can help alleviate the growing number of cases of metabolic disorders.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, germinated rice, pigmented rice, super hongmi, superjami

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25 The Effect of Annual Weather and Sowing Date on Different Genotype of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Germination and Yield

Authors: Ákos Tótin


In crop production the most modern hybrids are available for us, therefore the yield and yield stability is determined by the agro-technology. The purpose of the experiment is to adapt the modern agrotechnology to the new type of hybrids. The long-term experiment was set up in 2015-2016 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (eastern Hungary). The plots were set up in 75 thousand ha-1 plant density. We examined some mainly use hybrids of Hungary. The conducted studies are: germination dynamic, growing dynamic and the effect of annual weather for the yield. We use three different sowing date as early, average and late, and measure how many plant germinated during the germination process. In the experiment, we observed the germination dynamics in 6 hybrid in 4 replication. In each replication, we counted the germinated plants in 2m long 2 row wide area. Data will be shown in the average of the 6 hybrid and 4 replication. Growing dynamics were measured from the 10cm (4-6 leaf) plant highness. We measured 10 plants’ height in two weeks replication. The yield was measured buy a special plot harvester - the Sampo Rosenlew 2010 – what measured the weight of the harvested plot and also took a sample from it. We determined the water content of the samples for the water release dynamics. After it, we calculated the yield (t/ha) of each plot at 14% of moisture content to compare them. We evaluated the data using Microsoft Excel 2015. The annual weather in each crop year define the maize germination dynamics because the amount of heat is determinative for the plants. In cooler crop year the weather is prolonged the germination. At the 2015 crop year the weather was cold in the beginning what prolonged the first sowing germination. But the second and third sowing germinated faster. In the 2016 crop year the weather was much favorable for plants so the first sowing germinated faster than in the previous year. After it the weather cooled down, therefore the second and third sowing germinated slower than the last year. The statistical data analysis program determined that there is a significant difference between the early and late sowing date growing dynamics. In 2015 the first sowing date had the highest amount of yield. The second biggest yield was in the average sowing time. The late sowing date has lowest amount of yield.

Keywords: germination, maize, sowing date, yield

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24 Using Human-Digestive Simulator to Harbor Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 along with Pasteurized-Purple-Rice Drinks for Examination of the Health-Promoting Effects

Authors: Srivilai Worametrachanon, Arunee Apichartsrangkoon, Jiranat Techarang, Boonrak Phanchaisri


A human-digestive simulator consisted of four colon compartments, i.e., stomach, small intestine, proximal colon and distal colon used to harbor L. casei 01 plus either pasteurized ordinary-purple-rice drinks or germinated-purple-rice drinks. Accordingly, three treatment compositions had been set up and the effects of treatments on colon bacterial communities including their by-products were thoroughly examined. L. casei 01 plus purple-rice drinks gave rise to significantly high formation (P ≤ 0.05) of short-chain-fatty acids (SCFA) of which highest acetic acid was found followed by propionic and butyric acids, while the germinated-rice drink showed the greatest impact. Moreover, the effect was more pronounced upon prolonged fermentation. In addition, the influence of treatments on colon microbes was also demonstrated. Accordingly, desirable bacteria including colon Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in both colons in comparison with the control and the effect was more prominent after adding purple-rice drink. On the other hand, undesirable Clostridia and coliforms were apparently diminished by the influence of treatment conditions, in which both compartments exhibited similar results.

Keywords: human-digestive simulator, Lactobacillus casei 01, Pasteurized-purple-rice drinks

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23 Effects of Microbiological and Physicochemical Processes on the Quality of Complementary Foods Based on Maize (Zea mays) Fortification with Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: T. I. Mbata, M. J. Ikenebomeh


Background: The study was aim at formulating a complementary foods based on maize and bambara groundnut with a view of reducing malnutrition in low income families. Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health challenge attributed to the inappropriate complementary feeding practices, low nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods and high cost of quality protein-based complementary foods. Methods: The blends 70% maize, 30% bambara groundnut were evaluated for proximate analyses, minerals, amino acids profile, and antinutritional factors, using proprietary formula (‘Nutrend’) as standard. Antinutritional factors, amino acids, microbiological properties and sensory attributes were determined using standard methods. Results; For Protein, the results were 15.0% for roasted bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (RBMGF), 13.80% for cooked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (CBMGF), 15.18% for soaked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (SBMGF); values for maize flour and nutrend had 10.4% and 23.21% respectively. With respect to energy value, RBMGF, CBMGF, SBMGF, maize flour and nutrend had 494.9, 327.58, 356.49, 366.8 and 467.2 kcal respectively. The percentages of total essential amino acids in the composition of the blends were 36.9%, 40.7% and 38.9% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF, respectively, non-essential amino acids contents were 63.1%, 59.3% and 61.1% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF respectively. The mineral content, that is, calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium, of formulated samples were higher than those obtained for maize flour and Nutrend. The antinutrient composition of RBMGF and CBMGF were lower than of SBMGF. The rats fed with the control diet exhibited better growth performance such as feed intake (1527 g) and body weight gain (93.8 g). For the microbial status, microflora gradually changed from gram negative enteric bacteria, molds, lactic acid bacteria and yeast to be dominated by gram positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. Yeasts and LAB growth counts in the complementary food varied between 4.44 and 7.36 log cfu/ml. LAB number increased from 5.40 to 7.36 log cfu/ml during fermentation. Yeasts increased from 4.44 to 5.60 log cfu/ml. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that the foods were well accepted. Conclusion: Based on the findings the application of bambara groundnut fortification to traditional foods can promote the nutritional quality of African maize - based traditional foods with acceptable rheological and cooking qualities.

Keywords: bambara groundnut, maize, fortification, complementary food

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22 Assessment of Potential Spontaneous Plants Seed Dispersal in Camels and Small Ruminants Faeces

Authors: H. Trabelsi, A. Chehma, I. Benseddik


Animals can play an important role in the seed dispersal cycle through the active or passive uptake of seeds and the subsequent external (epizoochory) or internal transport (endozoochory) of seeds. In Algeria, small ruminants and camels are generally conducted in extensive livestock exploiting the Saharan and steppe rangelands. To get an idea on the ecological potential role of these animals in the spontaneous plants proliferation, we propose to make a study of seeds dispersal and germination possibilities by camel faeces compared to those of small ruminants. Manual faeces decortication of the two animals categories has allowed to inventory 72 seed which 71% are in good condition, while 29% of the seeds that are encountered are partially altered and could not be identified. The species that have been identified, from small ruminants dung are weeds of cultures, while those identified from camel dung are spontaneous plants of Saharan rangeland. Concerning germination in the laboratory, only 3 species seeds were germinated from camel feces, whose germination rate varies from 25% to 100%. Contrary to Sheep-Goat feces, a single species germinated with 71%. The three months seed germination in greenhouse allowed to identify 10 species belonging to 4 botanical families (5 species from small ruminants dung and 3 species from Camel dung). In general, the results show the positive effect played by two animals categories for plants seed dispersal with the camel particularity for spontaneous plants due to its capacity to cover long distances in different rangeland types.

Keywords: Algeria, camel, endozoochory, seeds, sheep-goat, rangeland

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21 Method Development for the Determination of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in Rice Products by Lc-Ms-Ms

Authors: Cher Rong Matthew Kong, Edmund Tian, Seng Poon Ong, Chee Sian Gan


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that is a functional constituent of certain rice varieties. When consumed, it decreases blood pressure and reduces the risk of hypertension-related diseases. This has led to more research dedicated towards the development of functional food products (e.g. germinated brown rice) with enhanced GABA content, and the development of these functional food products has led to increased demand for instrument-based methods that can efficiently and effectively determine GABA content. Current analytical methods require analyte derivatisation, and have significant disadvantages such as being labour intensive and time-consuming, and being subject to analyte loss due to the increased complexity of the sample preparation process. To address this, an LC-MS-MS method for the determination of GABA in rice products has been developed and validated. This developed method involves a relatively simple sample preparation process before analysis using HILIC LC-MS-MS. This method eliminates the need for derivatisation, thereby significantly reducing the labour and time associated with such an analysis. Using LC-MS-MS also allows for better differentiation of GABA from any potential co-eluting compounds in the sample matrix. Results obtained from the developed method demonstrated high linearity, accuracy, and precision for the determination of GABA (1ng/L to 8ng/L) in a variety of brown rice products. The method can significantly simplify sample preparation steps, improve the accuracy of quantitation, and increase the throughput of analyses, thereby providing a quick but effective alternative to established instrumental analysis methods for GABA in rice.

Keywords: functional food, gamma-aminobutyric acid, germinated brown rice, method development

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20 Germination and Bulb Formation of Allium tuncelianum L. under in vitro Condition

Authors: Suleyman Kizil, Tahsin Sogut, Khalid M. Khawar


Genus Allium includes 600 to 750 species and most of these including Allium tuncelianum (Kollman) N. Ozhatay, B. Mathew & Siraneci; Syn; A. macrochaetum Boiss. and Hausskn. subsp. tuncelianum Kollman] or Tunceli garlic is endemic to Eastern Turkish Province of Tunceli and Munzur mountains. They are edible, bear attractive white-to-purple flowers and fertile black seeds with deep seed dormancy. This study aimed to break seed dormancy of Tunceli garlic and determine the conditions for induction of bulblets on these seeds and increase their diameter by culturing them on MS medium supplemented different strengths of KNO3. Tunceli garlic seeds were collected from field grown plants. They were germinated on MS medium with or without 20 g/l sucrose followed by their culture on 1 × 1900 mg/l, 2 × 1900 mg/l, 4 ×1900 mg/l and 6 × 1900 mg/l mg/l KNO3 supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose to increase bulb diameter. Improved seeds germination was noted on MS medium with and without sucrose but with variation compared to previous reports. The bulb development percentage on each of the sprouted seeds was not parallel to the percentage of seed germination. The results showed 34% and 28.5% bulb induction was noted on germinated seeds after 150 and 158 days on MS medium containing 20 g l-1 sucrose and no sucrose respectively showing a delay of 8 days on the latter compared to the former. The results emphatically noted role of cold stratification on agar solidified MS medium supplemented with sucrose to improve seed germination. The best increase in bulb diameter was noted on MS medium containing 1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3 after 178 days with bulblet diameter and bulblet weight of 0.54 cm and 0.048 g, respectively. Consequently, the bulbs induced on sucrose containing MS medium could be transferred to pots earlier. Increased (>1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3) strengths of KNO3 induced negative effect on growth and development of Tunceli garlic bulbs. The strategy of seed germination and bulblet induction reported in this study could be positively used for conservation of this endemic plant species.

Keywords: Tunceli garlic, seed, dormancy, bulblets, bulb growth

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19 Comparision of Neutrophil Response to Curvularia, Bipolaris and Aspergillus Species

Authors: Eszter J. Tóth, Alexandra Hoffmann, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp


Members of the genera Curvularia and Bipolaris are closely related melanin producing filamentous fungi; both of them have the teleomorph states in genus Cochliobolus. While Bipolaris species infect only plants and may cause serious agriculture damages, some Curvularia species was recovered from opportunistic human infections. The human pathogenic species typically cause phaeohyphomycoses, i.e. mould infections caused by melanised fungi, which can manifest as invasive mycoses with frequent involvement of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients or as local infections (e.g. keratitis, sinusitis, and cutaneous lesions) in immunocompetent people. Although their plant-fungal interactions have been intensively studied, there is only little information available about the human pathogenic feature of these fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the neutrophil granulocytes’ response to hyphal forms of Curvularia and Bipolaris in comparison with the response to Aspergillus. In the present study Curvularia lunata SZMC 23759 and Aspergillus fumigatus SZMC 23245 both isolated from human eye infection, and Bipolaris zeicola BRIP 19582b isolated from plant leaf were examined. Neutrophils were isolated from heparinised venous blood of healthy donors with dextran sedimentation followed by centrifugation over Ficoll and hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Viability and purity of the cells were checked with trypan blue and Wright staining, respectively. Infection of neutrophils was carried out with germinated conidia in a ratio of 5:1. Production of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, and nitrogen monoxide was measured both intracellularly and extracellularly in response to the germinated spores with or without the supernatant and after serum treatment. ROS and NOS production of neutrophils in interaction with the three fungi were compared. It is already known that Aspergillus species induce ROS production of neutrophils only after serum treatment. Although, in case of C. lunata, serum opsonisation also induced an intensive production of reactive species, lower level of production was measured in the lack of serum as well. After interaction with the plant pathogenic B. zeicola, amount of reactive species found to be similar with and without serum treatment. The presence of germination supernatant decreased the reactive species production in case of each fungus. Interaction with Curvularia, Bipolaris and Aspergillus species induced different response of neutrophils. It seems that recognition of C. lunata and B. zeicola is independent of serum opsonisation, albeit it increases the level of the produced reactive species in response for C. lunata. The study was supported by the grant LP2016-8/2016.

Keywords: Curvularia, neutrophils, NOS, ROS, serum opsonisation

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18 Potential of ᵞ-Polyglutamic Acid for Cadmium Toxicity Alleviation in Rice

Authors: N. Kotabin, Y. Tahara, K. Issakul, O. Chunhachart


Cadmium (II) (Cd) is one of the major toxic elemental pollutants which is hazardous for humans, animals and plants. γ-Polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) is an extracellular biopolymer produced by several species of Bacillus which has been reported to be an effective biosorbent for metal ions. The effect of γ-PGA on growth of rice grown under laboratory conditions was investigated. Rice seeds were germinated and then grown at 30±1°C on filter paper soaked with Cd solution and γ-PGA for 7 days. The result showed that Cd significantly inhibited the growth of roots and shoots by reducing root and shoot lengths. Fresh and dry weights also decreased compared with control; however, the addition of 500 mg•L-1 γ-PGA alleviated rice seedlings from the adverse effects of Cd. The analysis of physiological traits revealed that Cd caused a decrease in the total chlorophyll and soluble protein contents and amylase activities in all treatments. The Cd content in seedling tissues increased for the Cd 250 μM treatment (P < 0.05) but the addition of 500 mg•L-1 γ-PGA resulted in a noticeable decrease in Cd (P < 0.05).

Keywords: polyglutamic acid, cadmium, rice, bacillus subtilis

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17 Seed Germination and Recovery Responses of Suaeda Heterophylla to Abiotic Stresses

Authors: Abdul Hameed, Muhammad Zaheer Ahmed, Salman Gulzar, Bilquees Gul, Jan Alam, Ahmad K. Hegazy, Abdel Rehman A. Alatar, M. Ajmal Khan


Seed germination and recovery from salt stress of an annual halophyte Suaeda heterophylla (Kar. and Kir.) Bunge to different iso-osmotic concentrations (0, -0.46, -0.92, -1.38, -1.84, and -2.30 MPa) of NaCl and PEG-6000 at 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35°C in both 12-h temperature and light regimes and in complete darkness were studied. Maximum number of seeds germinated in distilled water and increase in concentrations of both NaCl and PEG-6000 decreased germination at all temperature regimes, light and dark conditions, with higher inhibition in NaCl than PEG-6000. Recovery of germination and viability of seeds were lower in NaCl than PEG-6000 both in the light and dark. Moderate alternate temperatures (20/30°C) and 12-h photoperiod were found to be the optimal for seed germination and recovery. Better seed germination of S. heterophylla when osmotic potential caused both by NaCl and PEG 6000 is lower, temperature regime of 20/30°C and light regime is for 12 h.

Keywords: seed germination, abiotic stresses, Suaeda heterophylla, molecular biology

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16 Regeneration of Plantlets via Direct Somatic Embryogenesis from Different Explants of Murraya koenigii

Authors: Nisha Khatik, Ramesh Joshi


An in vitro plant regeneration system was developed via direct somatic embryogenesis from different seedling explants of an important medicinal plant Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng. Cotyledons (COT), Hypocotyle (HYP)(10 to 15 mm) and Root (RT) segments (10 to 20 mm) were excised from 60 days old seedlings as explants. The somatic embryos induction was achieved on MS basal medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP 1.33 to 8.40 µM and TDZ 1.08 to 9.82 µM. The globular embryos originated from cut ends and entire surface of the root, hypocotyle explants and margins of cotyledons within 30-40days. The percentage of somatic embryos induction per explant was significantly higher in HYP explants (94.21±5.77%) in the MS basal medium supplemented with 6.20 µM BAP and 8.64 µM TDZ. The highest rate of conversion of torpedo, heart and cotyledonary stages from globular stage was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 8.64 µM TDZ. The matured somatic embryos were transferred to the MS basal medium without PGRs. Highest 88% of the matured embryos were germinated on transfer to the PGR free medium where they grew for a further 3-4 weeks. Out of seventy six hardened plants seventy (92%) plantlets were found healthy under field conditions.

Keywords: Murraya koenigii, somatic embryogenesis, thidiazuron, regeneration, rutaceae

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15 Multiple Shoot Induction and Plant Regeneration of Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) Tissue Culture

Authors: Titin Handayani, Endang Yuniastuti


Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) is a potential plant contain mainly oil seeds that can be used as a source of alternative bioenergy and medicine. The main problem of kepuh cultivation is the limited supply of seed plants. Seeds development were very easy, but to produce fruit have to wait for approximately 5 years. The objective of this research was to obtain kepuh plants through direct in vitro regeneration. Hypocotyls and shoot tips explants were excised from sterile germinated seedlings and placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that shoots induction from the apical and axillary buds on MS medium + 1.5 and 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 and 1 mg/L IAA was growth very slowly. Increasing of BAP concentrations was increased shoot formation. The first subcultures were increased the rate of shoots growth on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L IAA. The second of shoots subculture on MS medium + 1.5 to 2 mg/L BAP + 0.5 mg/L IAA was increased the number of shoots up to 4.8 in average. The best medium of shoots elongation were MS + 1 mgL-1 kinetin + 5 mg/L GA3. The highest percentage of roots (65%) occurred on MS medium with 5 mg/L IBA which average number of roots was 3.1. High percentages of survival and plants of normal appearance were obtained after five weeks of acclimatization.

Keywords: Kepuh, Sterculia foetida L, shoot multiplication, rooting, acclimatization, bioenergy, medicine

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14 Allelopathic Effect of Duranta Repens on Salinity-Stressed Solanum Lycopersicum Seedlings

Authors: Olusola Nafisat Omoniyi


Aqueous extract of Duranta repens leaves was investigated for its allelopathic effect on Solanum lycopersicum Seedlings germinated and grown under salinity condition. The study was carried out using both laboratory petri dish and pot assays to simulate the plant’s natural environmental conditions. The experiment consisted of 5 groups (1-5), each containing 5 replicates (of 10 seeds). Group 1 was treated with distilled water; Group 2 was treated with 5 mM NaCl; Group 3 was treated with the Extract, Group 4 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (2:1 v/v), and Group 5 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (1:2 v/v). The results showed that treatment with NaCl caused significant reductions in germination, growth parameters (plumule and radicle lengths), and chlorophyll concentration of S. lycopersicum seedlings when compared to those treated with D. rupens aqueous leaf extract. Salinity also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and proline concentrations and lowered the activity of superoxide dismutase. However, in the presence of the extract, the adverse effects of the NaCl were attenuated, implying that the extract improved tolerance of S. lycopersicum seedlings. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that the extract is very important in the optimal growth of the plant in saline soil, which has become useful for the management of soil salinity problems.

Keywords: agriculture, allelopathic, salinity, soil, tomato, production, photosynthesis

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13 Germination Behavior of Tricholaena teneriffae L. a perennial Grass Species

Authors: Imed Mezghani, Yousra Ben Salah, Mohamed Chaieb


Tricholaena teneriffae L. is a xerophytic perennial herb that belongs to the Poaceae family likely to be used for ecological restoration programs. It's a dominant and economically important species widely distributed in the Bou-Hedma National Park, Tunisia. Reintroduction and expansion of T. teneriffae depend solely on sexual reproduction. This makes the understanding of its germination requirements vital for conservation and management. To provide basic information for its conservation and reintroduction, we studied the influence of environmental factors on seed germination patterns. The germination responses of seeds were determined over a wide range of constant temperatures (15–35°C), polyethylene glycol solutions of different osmotic potentials (0 to −2 MPa) and salt solution (0 to 150 mM of NaCl). Results indicated that the optimum temperature germination was attained at 25°C which corresponds to temperatures prevailing during mid spring season in the Mediterranean area. Seeds germinated in Polyethylene Glycol solutions exhibited significantly lower germination than control especially when water potential fell below -0.6 MPa. Germination percentage and rate decreased with an increase NaCl concentration. Seeds germination was substantially delayed and reduced with an increase in NaCl to levels above 50 mM. T. teneriffae is moderately salt tolerant at germination stage.

Keywords: germination, temperature, Tricholaena teneriffae L., salt stress, water stress, rehabilitation

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12 Plasma Treatment of Poppy and Flax Seeds in Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Jakub Perner, Jindrich Matousek, Hana Malinska


Adverse environmental conditions at planting (especially water shortage) can lead into reduced germination rate of seeds. The plasma treatment is one of the possibilities that can solve this problem. Such treatment can increase the germination rate of seeds and make germs grow faster due to increased wettability of seeds surface or disrupted seed coat. This could lead to enhanced oxygen and water transport into the seed and improve germination. Poppy and flax seeds were treated in fluidized bed reactor, and discharge power ranging from 10 to 40 W was used. The working gas was air at pressure 100 Pa. Poppy seeds were then planted into Petri dishes on 7 layers of filter paper saturated with water, and the number of germinated seeds was observed from 3 to 6 days after planting. Every plasma treated sample showed improved germination rate compared to untreated seeds (75.5%) six days after planting. Samples treated in 40W discharge had the highest germination rate (81.2%). The decreased contact angle of water on treated poppy seeds was observed from 85° (untreated) to 30–35° (treated). Untreated flax seeds have a germination rate over 98%; therefore, the weight of seeds was taken to be a measure of the successful germination. Treated flax seeds had a slightly higher weight than untreated. Also, the contact angle of water decreased from 99° (untreated) to 65-73° (treated); therefore the treatment of both species is considered to be successful.

Keywords: flax, germination, plasma treatment, poppy

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11 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu


The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14, and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml, and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5, and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bonny light crude oil, radicle, mitochondria ATPases

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10 Growth and Anatomical Responses of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes) under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

Authors: Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Joseph Omojola, Ezekiel S. Joshua, Seyi C. Adediwura, Elijah T. Adesuji, Michael O. Odey, Oyinade A. Dedeke, Ayo H. Labulo


Microgravity is known to be a major abiotic stress in space which affects plants depending on the duration of exposure. In this work, tomatoes seeds were exposed to long hours of simulated microgravity condition using a one-axis clinostat. The seeds were sown on a 1.5% combination of plant nutrient and agar-agar solidified medium in three Petri dishes. One of the Petri dishes was mounted on the clinostat and allowed to rotate at the speed of 20 rpm for 72 hours, while the others were subjected to the normal gravity vector. The anatomical sections of both clinorotated and normal gravity plants were made after 72 hours and observed using a Phase-contrast digital microscope. The percentage germination, as well as the growth rate of the normal gravity seeds, was higher than the clinorotated ones. The germinated clinorotated roots followed different directions unlike the normal gravity ones which grew towards the direction of gravity vector. The clinostat was able to switch off gravistimulation. Distinct cellular arrangement was observed for tomatoes under normal gravity condition, unlike those of clinorotated ones. The root epidermis and cortex of normal gravity are thicker than the clinorotated ones. This implied that under long-term microgravity influence, plants do alter their anatomical features as a way of adapting to the stress condition.

Keywords: anatomy, clinostat, germination, lycopersicon esculentum, microgravity

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9 Somatic Embryogenesis of Lachenalia viridiflora, a Critically Endangered Ornamental Geophyte with High Floricultural Potential

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Mack Moyo, Johannes Van Staden


Lachenalia viridiflora is a critically endangered bulbous plant with high potential on the international floriculture market. In the present study, an efficient protocol for in vitro plantlet regeneration through somatic embryogenesis was developed. Embryogenic callus was established on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of picloram and thidiazuron (TDZ). A high number of SEs (28.5 ± 1.49) with at different developmental stages of somatic embryos (SEs: globular embryos, torpedo and cotyledon embryo with bipolar characteristics) was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) (Murashige and Skoog 1962) medium with 2.5 μM picloram, and 1.0 μM TDZ. Histological and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis confirmed the presence of somatic embryos. Mature somatic embryos germinated and developed into plantlets after 6 weeks on half/full strength MS medium. High plant regeneration frequency (91.11 %) was achieved on full-strength MS medium supplemented with 5 μM phloroglucinol (PG). Well-developed healthy plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse with a survival rate of 80%. The result of this study is beneficial in the mass propagation of high-quality Lachenalia viridiflora clonal plants for the commercial horticultural market and also provides a platform for future genetic transformation studies on the plant.

Keywords: horticultural plant, Lachenalia viridiflora, phloroglucinol, somatic embryogenesis, thidiazuron

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8 Salinity Effects on Germination of Malaysian Rice Varieties and Weedy Rice Biotypes

Authors: M. Kamal Uddin, H. Mohd Dandan, Ame H. Alidin


Germination and seedling growth of plant species are reduced in saline due to an external osmotic potential. An experiment was conducted at the laboratory, Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, to compare the salt effect on seed germination and growth of weedy rice and cultivated rice. Seeds (10 in each) were placed in petri dishes. Five salinity levels 0 (distilled water), 4, 8, 12 and 16 dSm-1 (NaCl) were applied. The number of germinated seeds was recorded daily. The final germination percentage, germination index (GI), seedling vigour index (SVI) mean germination time (MGT), shoot and root dry weight were estimated. At highest salinity (16 dSm-1) germination percentage was higher (100%) in weedy rice awn and weedy rice compact. Lowest germination percentage was in MR219 and TQR-8 (50-60%). Mean germination time (MGT) was found higher in all weedy rice biotypes compared to cultivated rice. At highest salinity (16dSm-1) weedy rice open produced the highest MGT (9.92) followed by weedy rice compact (9.73) while lowest MGT was in MR219 (9.48). At highest salinity (16dSm-1) germination index was higher in weedy rice awn (11.71) and compact type (9.62). Lowest germination index was in MR219 (5.90) and TQR-8 (8.94). At the highest salinity (16 dSm−1), seedling vigor index was highest in weedy rice awn (6.06) followed by weedy rice compact (5.26); while lowest was in MR219 (2.11) followed by MR269 (3.82).On the basis of Germination index, seedling vigor index and growth related results it could be concluded that weedy rice awn, compact and open biotypes were more salt tolerant compared to other cultivated rice MR219, MR269, and TQR-8.

Keywords: germination, salinity, rice and weedy rice, sustainable agriculture

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7 Application of New Sprouted Wheat Brine for Delicatessen Products From Horse Meat, Beef and Pork

Authors: Gulmira Kenenbay, Urishbay Chomanov, Aruzhan Shoman, Rabiga Kassimbek


The main task of the meat-processing industry is the production of meat products as the main source of animal protein, ensuring the vital activity of the human body, in the required volumes, high quality, diverse assortment. Providing the population with high-quality food products what are biologically full, balanced in composition of basic nutrients and enriched by targeted physiologically active components, is one of the highest priority scientific and technical problems to be solved. In this regard, the formulation of a new brine from sprouted wheat for meat delicacies from horse meat, beef and pork has been developed. The new brine contains flavored aromatic ingredients, juice of the germinated wheat and vegetable juice. The viscosity of meat of horse meat, beef and pork were studied during massaging. Thermodynamic indices, water activity and binding energy of horse meat, beef and pork with application of new brine are investigated. A recipe for meat products with vegetable additives has been developed. Organoleptic evaluation of meat products was carried out. Physicochemical parameters of meat products with vegetable additives are carried out. Analysis of the obtained data shows that the values of the index aw (water activity) and the binding energy of moisture in the experimental samples of meat products are higher than in the control samples. It has been established by investigations that with increasing water activity and the binding energy of moisture, the tenderness of ready meat delicacies increases with the use of a new brine.

Keywords: compounding, functional products, delicatessen products, brine, vegetable additives

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