Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Isah M. Fakai

21 Assessment of Green Fluorescent Protein Signal for Effective Monitoring of Recombinant Fermentation Processes

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

This research has focused on the application of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a new technique for direct monitoring of fermentation processes involving cultured bacteria. To use GFP as a sensor for pH and oxygen, percentage ratio of red fluorescence to green (% R/G) was evaluated. Assessing the magnitude of the % R/G ratio in relation to low or high pH and oxygen concentration, the bacterial strains were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. SCC1 strains of E. coli were grown in a 5 L laboratory fermenter, and during the fermentation, the pH and temperature were controlled at 7.0 and 370C respectively. Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) was controlled between 15-100% by changing the agitation speed between 20-500 rpm respectively. Effect of reducing the DOT level from 100% to 15% was observed after 4.5 h fermentation. There was a growth arrest as indicated by the decrease in the OD650 at this time (4.5-5 h). The relative fluorescence (green) intensity was decreased from about 460 to 420 RFU. However, %R/G ratio was significantly increased from about 0.1% to about 0.25% when the DOT level was decreased to 15%. But when the DOT was changed to 100%, a little increase in the RF and decrease in the %R/G ratio were observed. Therefore, GFP can effectively detect and indicate any change in pH and oxygen level during fermentation processes.

Keywords: Escherichia coli SCC1, fermentation process, green fluorescent protein, red fluorescence

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20 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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19 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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18 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100 g, acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, physicochemical, iodine value, peroxide value

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17 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Ibrahim Isah Lakan, Nasiru Ibrahim

Abstract:

These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: microbials, mineral, phytochemicals, stachtarpheta indica extracts

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16 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: S. Abdullahi, M. Momoh, K. U. Isah

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

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15 Environmental Sustainability and Energy Consumption: The Role of Financial Development in OPEC-1 Countries

Authors: Isah Wada

Abstract:

The current research investigates the role of financial development in an environmental sustainability-energy consumption nexus for OPEC-1 member countries. The empirical findings suggest that financial development increases environmental sustainability but energy consumption and real output expansion diminishes environmental sustainability, generally. Thus, whilst real output and financial development accelerates energy consumption, environmental sustainability quality diminishes clean energy initiatives. Even more so, energy consumption and financial development stimulates real output growth. The result empirically demonstrates that policy advocates must address broader issues relating to financial development whilst seeking to achieve environmental sustainability due largely to energy consumption.

Keywords: energy consumption, environmental sustainability, financial development, OPEC, real output

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14 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Potential, and Mineral Composition of Dried Abelmoschus esculentus L. Fruits Consume in Gada Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, I. M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is very common especially in northern part of Nigeria, but people are ignorant of its medicinal and pharmacological benefits. Preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant potential and mineral composition of the dried form of this fruit were determined. The Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods. Antioxidant potential screening was carried out using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP) method, while, the mineral compositions were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer by wet digest method. The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that the fruits contain saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and terpenoids, while, anthraquinone, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, and phlobatannins were not detected. The quantitative analysis revealed that the fruits contain saponnins (380 ± 0.020 mg/g), flavonoids (240±0.01 mg/g), and tannins (21.71 ± 0.66 mg/ml). The antioxidant potential was determined to be 54.1 ± 0.19%. The mineral composition revealed that 100 g of the fruits contains 97.52 ± 1.04 mg of magnesium (Mg), 94.53 ± 3.21 mg of calcium (Ca), 77.10 ± 0.79 mg of iron (Fe), 47.14 ± 0.41 mg of zinc (Zn), 43.96 ± 1.49 mg of potassium (K), 42.02 ± 1.09 mg of sodium (Na), 0.47 ± 0.08 mg of copper (Cu) and 0.10 ± 0.02 mg of lead (Pb). These results showed that the Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is a good source of antioxidants, and contains an appreciable amount of phytochemicals, therefore, it has some pharmacological attributes. On the other side, the fruit can serve as a nutritional supplement for Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, K, and Na, but a poor source of Cu, and contains no significant amount of Pb.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Fruits, antioxidant potential, mineral composition, phytochemical screening

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13 Utilization of Learning Resources in Enhancing the Teaching of Science and Technology Courses in Post Primary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Isah Mohammed Patizhiko

Abstract:

This paper aimed at discussing the important role learning resources play in enhancing the teaching and learning of science and technology courses in post primary institution in Nigeria. The paper highlighted the importance learning resources contributed to the effective understanding of the learners. The use of learning resources in the teaching of these courses will encourage teachers to be more exploratory and the learners to have more understanding. In this paper, different range of learning resources particularly common learning resources (learning resources not design primarily for education purposes) to enrich their teaching. The paper also highlighted how ordinary resource can be turned into an educational resource. Recommendations were proffered in the sourcing of learning resources ie from the market, library, institutions, museums, and dump refuse and concluded that good demonstration on the use of resources will engage the learner’s interest and will develop higher level of conceptual understanding in the learning area.

Keywords: enhance, learning, resources, science and technology, teaching

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12 User Guidance for Effective Query Interpretation in Natural Language Interfaces to Ontologies

Authors: Aliyu Isah Agaie, Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad, Nurfadhlina Mohd Sharef, Aida Mustapha

Abstract:

Natural Language Interfaces typically support a restricted language and also have scopes and limitations that naïve users are unaware of, resulting in errors when the users attempt to retrieve information from ontologies. To overcome this challenge, an auto-suggest feature is introduced into the querying process where users are guided through the querying process using interactive query construction system. Guiding users to formulate their queries, while providing them with an unconstrained (or almost unconstrained) way to query the ontology results in better interpretation of the query and ultimately lead to an effective search. The approach described in this paper is unobtrusive and subtly guides the users, so that they have a choice of either selecting from the suggestion list or typing in full. The user is not coerced into accepting system suggestions and can express himself using fragments or full sentences.

Keywords: auto-suggest, expressiveness, habitability, natural language interface, query interpretation, user guidance

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11 Antimicrobial Activity of Nauclea lotifolia (African Peach) Crude Extracts against Some Pathogenic Microorganism

Authors: Muhammad Isah Legbo

Abstract:

The phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Nauclea lotifolia fruit, leaf and stem-bark extracts at various concentration of (20.0,10.0, 5.0, and 2.5 mg/ml) were evaluated against some pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using agar well diffusion method. The result obtained show appreciable inhibitory effort of acetone, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea lotifolia. However, result obtained was less active compared to that of the control antibiotic (Ciprofloxacillin). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial doubling dilution method and ranged from 5.0-10.0mg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by plating various dilution of extracts without turbidity and the result ranged from 5.0-7.5mg/ml. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinones, flavonoids, resin, steroid and saponin. The activities of the plant extract therefore justify their utilization in the treatment of various ailments associated with the test organism.

Keywords: Nauclea, lotifolia, antimicrobial, pathogens, saponin, extract

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10 Analysis of Methodological Issues in the Study of Digital Library Services: A Case Study of Nigeria University Systems

Authors: Abdulmumin Isah

Abstract:

Over the years, researchers have employed different approaches in the study of usage of library services in the traditional library system, such approaches have provided explanations on the users’ perception, attitude, and usage of library services. Findings of such studies which often employed survey research approach have guided librarians and library stakeholders in their drive to improve library services to patrons. However, with the advent of digital library services, librarians and information science researchers have been experiencing methodological issues in the study of digital library services. While some quantitative approaches have been employed to understand adoption and usage of digital library services, conflicting results from such studies have increased the need to employ qualitative approaches. The appropriateness of the qualitative approaches has also been questioned. This study intends to review methodological approaches in the studies of digital libraries and provides a framework for the selection of appropriate research approach for the study of digital libraries using Nigerian university systems as case study.

Keywords: digital library, university library, methodological issues, research approaches, quantitative, qualitative, Nigeria

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9 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah

Abstract:

Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

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8 Phytochemical Screening and Hepatotoxic Effect of Datura metel Linn. Aqueous Seed Extract in Albino Wistar Rats

Authors: I. M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid, I. Sani, F. Bello, E. O. Olusesi

Abstract:

The phytochemical screening and hepatotoxic effect of Datura metel aqueous seeds extract in Albino Wistar rats were evaluated. Phytochemicals were screened using standard methods. The enzymes activity and liver function indices were also determined using standard methods of analysis. The phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, glycoside and flavonoid. The organ-body weight decreased significantly (P<0.05) at all the doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. The activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the liver and increased significantly in the serum at all the doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. The activity of serum alanine transaminase increased significantly (P<0.05) while there is no significant difference (P>0.05) in the activity liver alanine transaminase at all the doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. The result also revealed significant increase (P<0.05) in the aspartate transaminase activity in both liver and serum at all doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and total bilirubin concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05), while direct bilirubin concentration increased significantly (P<0.05) at all the doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. The present study therefore revealed that, the present of some phytochemicals in the plant extract attributed the plant to its hepatotoxic effects as revealed in the alteration of marker enzymes and some liver function indices analyzed.

Keywords: datura metel, transaminases, hepatotoxic effect, phytochemicals, rats

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7 Integrating Sustainable Construction Principles into Curriculum Design for Built Environment Professional Programs in Nigeria

Authors: M. Yakubu, M. B. Isah, S. Bako

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of a research which sought to investigate the readiness to integrate sustainable construction principles into curriculum design for built environment professional programs in the Nigerian Universities. Developing the knowledge and understanding that construction professionals acquire of sustainable construction practice leads to considerable improvement in the environmental performance of the construction sector. Integrating sustainable environmental issues within the built environment education curricula provide the basis of this research. An integration of sustainable development principles into the universities built environment professional programmes are carried out with a view of finding solutions to the key issues identified. The perspectives of academia have been assessed and findings tested for validity through the analysis of primary quantitative data that has been collected. The secondary data generated has shown that there are significant differences in the approach to curriculum design within the built environment professional programmes, and this reveals that there is no ‘best practice’ that is clearly identifiable. Sequel to the above, this research reveals that engaging all stakeholders would be a useful component of built environment curriculum development, and that the curriculum be negotiated with interested parties. These parties have been identified as academia, government, construction industry and built environment professionals.

Keywords: built environment, curriculum development, sustainable construction, sustainable development

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6 An Examination of Changes on Natural Vegetation due to Charcoal Production Using Multi Temporal Land SAT Data

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. Isah, A. K. Muktari, R. Y. Abdullahi

Abstract:

The increased in demand of fuel wood for heating, cooking and sometimes bakery has continued to exert appreciable impact on natural vegetation. This study focus on the use of multi-temporal data from land sat TM of 1986, land sat EMT of 1999 and lands sat ETM of 2006 to investigate the changes of Natural Vegetation resulting from charcoal production activities. The three images were classified based on bare soil, built up areas, cultivated land, and natural vegetation, Rock out crop and water bodies. From the classified images Land sat TM of 1986 it shows natural vegetation of the study area to be 308,941.48 hectares equivalent to 50% of the area it then reduces to 278,061.21 which is 42.92% in 1999 it again depreciated to 199,647.81 in 2006 equivalent to 30.83% of the area. Consequently cultivated continue increasing from 259,346.80 hectares (42%) in 1986 to 312,966.27 hectares (48.3%) in 1999 and then to 341.719.92 hectares (52.78%). These show that within the span of 20 years (1986 to 2006) the natural vegetation is depreciated by 119,293.81 hectares. This implies that if the menace is not control the natural might likely be lost in another twenty years. This is because forest cleared for charcoal production is normally converted to farmland. The study therefore concluded that there is the need for alternatives source of domestic energy such as the use of biomass which can easily be accessible and affordable to people. In addition, the study recommended that there should be strong policies enforcement for the protection forest reserved.

Keywords: charcoal, classification, data, images, land use, natural vegetation

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5 Review of Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in Organisation

Authors: Mariya Salihu Ingawa, Sani Suleiman Isah

Abstract:

The assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organisation is an important initiative to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the success status of their investment in IS integration efforts. However, without a proper assessment, an organisation will not know its IIS status, which may affect their judgment on what action should be taken onwards. Current research on IIS assessment is lacking and those related literature on IIS assessment focus more on assessing the technical aspect of IIS. It is argued that assessing technical aspect alone is inadequate since organisational and strategic aspects in IIS should also be considered. Current methods, techniques and tools used by vendors for IIS assessment also are lack of comprehensive measures to fully assess the Integrated Information System in term of technical, organisational and strategic domains. The purpose of this study is to establish critical success factors for measuring success of an Integrated Information System. These factors are used as the basis for constructing an approach to comprehensively assess IIS in an organisation. A comprehensive list of success factors for IIS assessment, established from literature, was initially presented. An expert surveys using both manual and online methods were conducted to verify the factors. Based on the factors, an instrument for IIS assessment was constructed. The results from a case study indicate that through comprehensive assessment approach, not only the level of success been known, but also reveals the contributing factors. This research contributes to the field of Information Systems specifically in the area of Integrated Information System assessment.

Keywords: integrated information system, expert surveys, organisation, assessment

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4 Knowledge, Attitude and Compliance of Secondary School Students Towards School Discipline Policy in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: S. Yakubu, E. A. Isah

Abstract:

One of the objectives of the school discipline policy is to instill discipline among students. However, despite the availability of this policy in various secondary schools in Nigeria, there seem to be numerous cases of indiscipline among students, which has become a source of concern to all stakeholders in the education sector. In an attempt to proffer possible solutions to this unending challenge, the study investigated the influence of knowledge and attitude on compliance of secondary school students towards school discipline policy in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was employed to collect the requisite data. The multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted to select 570 respondents as the sample for the study. The data collected were analyzed using statistical measures of Mean, Standard deviation and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The findings of the study showed that knowledge and compliance of school discipline policy among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State were significantly related (r =0.330, p<0.05). The study also revealed a significant relationship between attitude and compliance of school discipline policy among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State (r = 0.593, p<0.05). Based on the findings, it was recommended that school rules and regulations should be emphasized and given more awareness for easy compliance. Also, students should be encouraged to portray a positive attitude towards their respective rules and regulations.

Keywords: knowledge, attitude, compliance, school discipline policy

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3 Litho-Structural Variations and Gold Mineralization around Wonaka Schist Belt, North West Nigeria

Authors: Umar Sambo Umar, Ahmad Isah Haruna, Abubakar Sadik Maigari, Muhammad Bello Abubakar

Abstract:

Schist belts in Nigeria occur prominently west of longitude 80 E and sporadic to the east, they are upper Proterozioc low-medium grade deformed metasediments and metavolcanics that were intruded by Pan-African granitoids. The Wonaka schist belt, though reportedly distinctive in composition and metamorphism, is the least understood; the host for primary gold were not defined, structures which may control primary enrichment have not been delineated. The aim of this work is to determine the relationship between litho-structures and the gold around Wonaka schist belt through geological field mapping, petrographic studies and structural data analysis via ArcGis 10.2, Surfer 11.0 and Stereopro 2.0. The results show that the major rock types are mica schist and migmatites, muscovites detected during microstructural analysis suggests low-grade metamorphism in the metapelites. The shear zones identified were trending North Northeast – South Southwest (NNE-SSW), fractures trend mostly Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) perpendicular to planes of gneissic foliations, these conform to the late Pan-African deformational episode. Pegmatite lodes, net self-cross cutting quartz veins as well as the quartz stringers hosted by both migmatites and schist are delineated as targets for primary gold mineralization, while major confluences of the streams serve as zones for secondary (placer) gold targets since the streams are dendritic and intermittent.

Keywords: gold mineralization, Nigeria, migmatites, Wonaka schist belt

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2 A Hybrid Block Multistep Method for Direct Numerical Integration of Fourth Order Initial Value Problems

Authors: Adamu S. Salawu, Ibrahim O. Isah

Abstract:

Direct solution to several forms of fourth-order ordinary differential equations is not easily obtained without first reducing them to a system of first-order equations. Thus, numerical methods are being developed with the underlying techniques in the literature, which seeks to approximate some classes of fourth-order initial value problems with admissible error bounds. Multistep methods present a great advantage of the ease of implementation but with a setback of several functions evaluation for every stage of implementation. However, hybrid methods conventionally show a slightly higher order of truncation for any k-step linear multistep method, with the possibility of obtaining solutions at off mesh points within the interval of solution. In the light of the foregoing, we propose the continuous form of a hybrid multistep method with Chebyshev polynomial as a basis function for the numerical integration of fourth-order initial value problems of ordinary differential equations. The basis function is interpolated and collocated at some points on the interval [0, 2] to yield a system of equations, which is solved to obtain the unknowns of the approximating polynomial. The continuous form obtained, its first and second derivatives are evaluated at carefully chosen points to obtain the proposed block method needed to directly approximate fourth-order initial value problems. The method is analyzed for convergence. Implementation of the method is done by conducting numerical experiments on some test problems. The outcome of the implementation of the method suggests that the method performs well on problems with oscillatory or trigonometric terms since the approximations at several points on the solution domain did not deviate too far from the theoretical solutions. The method also shows better performance compared with an existing hybrid method when implemented on a larger interval of solution.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomial, collocation, hybrid multistep method, initial value problems, interpolation

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1 Islam and Globalization: Accommodation or Containment of One by the Other

Authors: Mohammed Isah Shehu

Abstract:

This paper examined the context of globalization and Islam and accommodation or containment of one by the other. The paper is born out of the misconception and misunderstanding among many people that globalization is purely Western, anti-Islam and that Islam, globalization and Islam are diametrically opposed as such have no places for accommodating each other. The study used secondary sources to gather data. The study found that from its origin, Islam is in the whole context, a globalized religion and the contemporary globalization is already contained by Islam; that while contemporary globalization is centered on Western world, values and preferences (Western civilization, information and communication technology, free markets, trade and investments); some of the major foundation works that are aiding globalization were originally handiworks of past great Muslims (Islamic civilizations, Order of Algebra, tools of Navigation, Calligraphy, Medicine, Astronomy et cetera) whose major values are not Islamic; with globalization the Muslims have greater opportunities of spreading of Islam and practicing it in a most conducive atmosphere, easy and fast linkage with their fellow Muslim brothers wherever they may be; easier and freer world of trade and have the best opportunities to most things. The study however observed that Western contemporary globalization poses threats to religions such as those of globalization of immorality, injustice, trade with anti-Islamic terms and conditions, internationalized crime et cetera. Muslims would have to avoid or be cautious of many things for Islam is a complete religion that has what is forbidden and allowed (halaal and haramm) based on principles of (Shariah, justice to all, humanity and compassion, obedience to and seeking Allah’s pleasure); to Muslims, Contemporary globalization has to be in conformity with original provisions of Islam. The study recommended that Muslims must rise up in seeking knowledge on Islam and all other fields, further intellectual explorations of works by Muslim scholars/thinkers so that any advancement in globalization would be properly domesticated within Islam for the Muslims to make optimum use of any advancement to the benefit of Islam.

Keywords: accommodation, containment, Islam, globalization

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