Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 135

Search results for: lactobacillus plantarum CK10

135 Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Puree

Authors: So Yae Koh, YeonWoo Song, Ji-Yeon Ryu, Jeong Yong Moon, Somi Kim Cho

Abstract:

Blueberry, a perennial shrub, is one of the most popular fruits due to its flavor and strong free radical scavenging properties. In this study, the blueberry puree was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 and the antioxidant activities of fermentation products were examined. Various conditions with different supplements (5% sucrose or 10% skim milk) were evaluated for fermentation efficiency and the effects on antioxidant properties. The viable cell count of lactic acid bacteria, pH, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were measured after 7 days of fermentation. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging activities were highly enhanced compared to non-fermented blueberry puree after fermentation. Interestingly, the antioxidant activities were greatly increased in the fermentation of blueberry puree alone without supplements. The present results indicate that the blueberry puree fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants and these findings will facilitate the utilization of blueberry as a resource for food additive.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, blueberry, lactobacillus plantarum CK10, fermentation

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134 Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activities of the Chocolate Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10

Authors: Hye Rim Kang, So Yae Koh, Ji-Yeon Ryu, Chang Kyu Lee, Ji Hee Lim, Hyeon A. Kim, Geun Hyung Im, Somi Kim Cho

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In this study, antioxidant properties and compositional analysis of fermented chocolate were examined. Chocolate was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum CK10. As fermentation time went by, pH was decreased (5.26±0.02 to 3.98±0.06) while titratable acidity was increased (5.36±0.19 to 13.31±0.34). The total polyphenol contents were maintained through the fermentation. The contents of total polyphenol were slightly increased at 8 hr (6.34±0.12 mg GAE (Gallic acid equivalent)/g), and it reached to comparable levels of the control at 24 hr (control, 5.47±0.36 mg GAE/g); 24 hr, 5.19±0.23 mg GAE/g). Similarly, the total flavonoid contents were not significantly changed during fermentation. The pronounced radical scavenging activities of chocolate, against DPPH-, ABTS-, and Alkyl radical, were observed. The levels of antioxidant activities were not dramatically altered in the course of fermentation. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the increase in lactic acid was measured and four major compounds, HMF, xanthosine, caffeine, and theobromine, were identified. The relative peak area of caffeine and theobromine was considerably changed during fermentation. However, no significant difference in the levels of caffeine and theobromine were observed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

Keywords: antioxidant, chocolate, compositional analysis, fermentation, Lactobaillus plantarum

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133 Probiotics’ Antibacterial Activity on Beef and Camel Minced Meat at Altered Ranges of Temperature

Authors: Rania Samir Zaki

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Because of their inhibitory effects, selected probiotic Lactobacilli may be used as antimicrobial against some hazardous microorganisms responsible for spoilage of fresh minced beef (cattle) minced meat and camel minced meat. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from camel meat. These included 10 isolates; 1 Lactobacillus fermenti, 4 Lactobacillus plantarum, 4 Lactobacillus pulgaricus, 3 Lactobacillus acidophilus and 1 Lactobacillus brevis. The most efficient inhibitory organism was Lactobacillus plantarum which can be used as a propiotic with antibacterial activity. All microbiological analyses were made at the time 0, first day and the second day at altered ranges of temperature [4±2 ⁰C (chilling temperature), 25±2 ⁰C, and 38±2 ⁰C]. Results showed a significant decrease of pH 6.2 to 5.1 within variant types of meat, in addition to reduction of Total Bacterial Count, Enterococci, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli together with the stability of Coliforms and absence of Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antibacterial, camel meat, inhibition, probiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
132 Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from Northeastern Thai Fermented Vegetable Brassica juncea (L.)

Authors: T. Warinpramote, J. Sanguanjeen, P. Pholphakwaen, S. Kittisorayut, J. Kerdtubtim, S. Palachote, M. Taweechotipatr

Abstract:

Cholesterol is a type of lipid molecule which is the significant risk factor for coronary heart disease. Currently, there are many cholesterol-lowering alternative treatments especially bile salt hydrolase positive lactobacilli. BSH can cleave the peptide linkage of bile salt, which results in removal of the amino acid group from the steroid core and increases production of the new bile acid by using more cholesterol. The purpose of this study was to isolate, and screen probiotic characteristics of lactobacilli from fermented Thai foods and further investigated for their comparative BSH activity. The result showed that 2 of 81 Lactobacillus strains, JPK2-2 and JPK3-2, isolated from Brassica juncea (L.) had significantly exhibited high BSH activity. In addition, these Lactobacillus strains showed their results that the ability to tolerate acid and bile salt. Furthermore, the using of 16S rDNA sequencing for definitive microbial identifications showed that these 2 strains belong to Lactobacillus plantarum. In the future, the L. plantarum with BSH activity strains JPK2-2 and JPK3-2 may be the candidate probiotics for application in functional foods and dairy products to improve in the patient with cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, probiotics, bile salt hydrolase, cholesterol-lowering, fermented Thai food

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131 Survey of the Effect of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans on Casp3, AKT/PTEN, and MAPK Signaling Pathways at Co-Culture with KB Oral Cancer Cell Line and HUVEC Cells

Authors: Negar Zaheddoust, Negin Zaheddoust, Abbas Asoudeh-Fard

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Probiotic bacteria have been employed as a novel and less side-effect strategy for anticancer therapy. Since the oral cavity is a host for probiotic and pathogen bacteria to colonize, more investigation is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this novel adjunctive treatment for oral cancer. We considered Lactobacillus plantarum as a probiotic and Streptococcus mutans as a pathogen bacterium in our study. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans on Casp3, AKT / PTEN, and MAPK signaling pathway, which is involved in apoptosis or survival of oral cancer KB cells. On the other hand, to study the effects of these bacteria on normal cells, we used HUVEC cells. The KB and HUVEC cell lines were co-cultured with Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans isolated from traditional Iranian dairy and dental plaque, respectively. The growth-inhibitory effects of these two bacteria on KB and HUVEC cells were determined by (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay. MTT results demonstrated that the proliferation of KB cells was affected in a time, dose, and strain-dependent manner. In the following, the examination of induced apoptosis or necrosis in co-cultured KB cells with the best IC50 concentration of the Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus mutans will be analyzed by FACS flow cytometry, and the changes in gene expression of Casp3, AKT / PTEN, MAPK genes will be evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Keywords: cancer therapy, induced apoptosis, oral cancer, probiotics

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130 The Influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria Combinations on Wheat Bread Quality

Authors: Vita Lele, Vadims Bartkevics, Iveta Pugajeva, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Daiva Zadeike, Grazina Juodeikiene, Elena Bartkiene

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Different combinations of appropriate technological properties showing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Enterococcus pseudoavium VLGL 234, Lactobacillus plantarum VLGL135 and Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Lactobacillus brevis VLGL173, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides VLGL242, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Lactobacillus curvatus VLGL51, Lactobacillus plantarum VLGL135 and Lactobacillus curvatus VLGL51) for wheat sourdough production were used, and the influence of different sourdoughs on wheat bread quality parameters was evaluated. The highest overall acceptability (135.8 mm in 140 mm hedonic scale) of the bread produced with L. plantarum VLGL135 and P. pentosaceus VLGL183 sourdough was established. Also, bread produced with above mention sourdough, has the highest specific volume, shape coefficient, moisture content, and porosity, 3.40 ml /g; 2.59, 33.7 %, and 76.6 %, respectively. It was found, that the used sourdoughs reduce acrylamide content in bread (from 29.5 to 67.2%), just, the isolated lactic acid bacteria strains could be recommended for higher quality and safer bread production.

Keywords: acrylamide, lactic acid bacteria, quality, sourdough, wheat bread

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129 Survival of Micro-Encapsulated Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mutton Nuggets and Their Assessments in Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Conditions

Authors: Rehana Akhter, Sajad A. Rather, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani, S. M. Wani

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During recent years probiotic food products receive market interest as health-promoting, functional foods, which are believed to contribute health benefits. In order to deliver the health benefits by probiotic bacteria, it has been recommended that they must be present at a minimum level of 106 CFU/g to 107 CFU/g at point of delivery or be eaten in sufficient amounts to yield a daily intake of 108 CFU. However a major challenge in relation to the application of probiotic cultures in food matrix is the maintenance of viability during processing which might lead to important losses in viability as probiotic cultures are very often thermally labile and sensitive to acidity, oxygen or other food constituents for example, salts. In this study Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads with the objective of enhancing their survivability and preventing exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and where then inoculated in mutton nuggets. Micro encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2 h) resulting in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survivability when compared with free cell counterparts. A high encapsulation yield was found due to the encapsulation procedure. After incubation at low pH-values, micro encapsulation yielded higher survival rates compared to non-encapsulated probiotic cells. The viable cell numbers of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were 107-108 CFU/g higher compared to free cells after 90 min incubation at pH 2.5. The viable encapsulated cells were inoculated into mutton nuggets at the rate of 108 to 1010 CFU/g. The micro encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei achieved higher survival counts (105-107 CFU/g) than the free cell counterparts (102-104 CFU/g). Thus micro encapsulation offers an effective means of delivery of viable probiotic bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric, intestinal juice and processing conditions during nugget preparation.

Keywords: survival, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, micro-encapsulation, nugget

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
128 Evaluation of the Capabilities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in Improvement of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Carob Kibble

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

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Carob kibble has recently received attention due to the presence of high level of polyphenol antioxidants. The capacity of microorganisms to improve antioxidant activities and total phenolics in carob kibble was investigated in the study. Two types of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used in single and in their combination as starters. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities were assessed scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study found that S. cerevisiae alone considerably improved 55% total phenolics content at 15 h, while L. plantarum caused in a loss of 20% through the process. Antioxidant capacity of the yeast-fermented samples significantly increased by 43 % and 10 % in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. However, reduction of 13 % and 32 % inhibition were recorded in the carob treated with L. plantarum. In the combination of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum (1:1), both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob kibble were a similar trend as these of S. cerevisiae single, but a lower improvement. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their total phenolic contents (R=0.75). The results suggested that S. cerevisiae alone was the better for enhancement of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in carob kibble using submerged fermentation. The efficiency of fermentation reached the highest at 15h. Thus submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae offers a tool with simple and cost effective to further increase the bioactive potential of carob kibble, which is in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, lactobacillus plantarum, saccharomyces cerevisiae, total phenolics

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127 Antifungal Lactobacilli Affect Mycelium Morphology and Protect Apricot Juice against Mold Spoilage

Authors: Nora Laref, Bettache Guessas

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Preservation of foods mainly depends on delaying or inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria is one of the technological properties researched. The antifungal activity was screened with overlay method of six strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LB54, LB52, LB51, LB20, LB24 Lactobacillus farciminis LB53) isolated from silage, camel milk and carrot against Aspergillus sp. Lactobacillus plantarum and farciminis inhibit spore germination and mycelia growth of Aspergillus sp., the production of antifungal compounds by these strains was detectable after 4h of incubation at 30°C and show total inhibition after 24h in liquid media, but in solid media showed a good inhibition after 96h of incubation, these compounds cause malformations in the thalle, conidiophore and conidia. These strains could be used as agents of biopreservation since have the ability to retard Aspergillus sp., growth in apricot juice with and without sugar conserved in refrigerator but not in bread.

Keywords: lactobacillus, antifungal substances, aspergillus, biopreservation

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126 Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Libyan Traditional Fermented Milk "Laban"

Authors: M. H. Nahaisi, N. M. Almaroum

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Laban is a Libyan traditional fermented milk product. This lactic fermentation has been known in many cities of Libya long time ago as stable, nutritious, refreshing drink especially during the summer. 16 naturally fermented milk samples were collected from different cities located in North West of Libya. The average pH, titratable acidity, fat and total solids were 4.16, 0.73%, 1.54% and 8.12 % respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴ and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml. respectively. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of one hundred forty two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests have revealed that the most frequently Lactobacillus species was found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris.

Keywords: traditional fermented milk, laban, lactococcus, streptococcus, mesophilic lactobacillus, thermophilic lactobacillus counts

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125 Some Probiotic Traits of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Pollen

Authors: Hani Belhadj, Daoud Harzallah, Seddik Khennouf, Saliha Dahamna, Mouloud Ghadbane

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In this study, Lactobacillus strains isolated from pollen were identified by means of phenotypic and genotypic methods, At pH 2, most strains proved to be acid resistants, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.77 to 4.04 Log orders. In addition, at pH 3 all strains could grew and resist the acidic conditions, with losses in cell viability ranging from 0.40 to 3.61 Log orders. It seems that, 0.3% and 0.5% of bile salts does not affect greatly the survival of most strains, excluding Lactobacillus sp. BH1398. Survival ranged from 81.0±3.5 to 93.5±3.9%. In contrast, in the presence of 1.0% bile salts, survival of five strains was decreased by more than 50%. Lactobacillus fermentum BH1509 was considered the most tolerant strain (77.5% for 1% bile) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum BH1541 (59.9% for 1% bile). Furthermore, all strains were resistant to colistine, clindamycine, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacine, but most of the strains were susceptible to Peniciline, Oxacillin, Oxytetracyclin, and Amoxicillin. Functionally interesting Lactobacillus isolates may be used in the future as probiotic cultures for manufacturing fermented foods and as bioactive delivery systems.

Keywords: probiotics, lactobacillus, pollen, bile, acid tolerance

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124 Survival of Four Probiotic Strains in Acid, Bile Salt and After Spray Drying

Authors: Rawichar Chaipojjana, Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

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The objective of the study was to select the survival of probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition. Four probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047, Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500, Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 1465) were cultured in MRS broth and incubated at 35ºC for 15 hours before being inoculated into acidic condition (5 M HCl, pH 2) for 2 hours and bile salt (0.3%, pH 5.8) for 8 hour. The survived probiotics were counted in MRS agar. Among four stains, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 was the highest tolerance specie. Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 reduced 6.74±0.07 log CFU/ml after growing in acid and 5.52±0.05 log CFU/ml after growing in bile salt. Then, double emulsion of microorganisms was chosen to encapsulate before spray drying. Spray drying was done with the inlet temperature 170ºC and outlet temperature 80ºC. The results showed that the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 after spray drying decreased from 9.63 ± 0.32 to 8.31 ± 0.11 log CFU/ml comparing with non-encapsulated, 9.63 ± 0.32 to 4.06 ± 0.08 log CFU/ml. Therefore, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047 would be able to survive in gastrointestinal and spray drying condition.

Keywords: probiotic, acid, bile salt, spray drying

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123 Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

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112 lactic isolates were obtained from 15 samples of camel raw milk produced in Laayoune Boujdour Sakia-El Hamra region (South of Morocco). The main objective was the identification of species of lactic flora belonging to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. Data obtained showed predominance of cocci among lactic isolates (86.6%) while lactic rods represented only 13.4%. With regard to genera identified, Enterococcus was the mostly found out (53.57%), followed by Lactococcus (28.57%), Lactobacillus (13.4%) and Leuconostoc (4.4 %). Identification of the lactic isolates according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics led to differentiating 11 species with Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis biovar diacetylactis being the mostly encountered (24.1%) followed by Lactobacillus brevis (3.57%), Lactobacillus plantarum (3.57%), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp lactis (3.57%) and Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris (2.67%).

Keywords: raw camel milk, south of morocco, lactic acid bacteria, identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
122 Property of Fermented Sweet Potato Flour and Its Suitability for Composite Noodle

Authors: Neti Yuliana, Srisetyani, Siti Nurdjanah, Dewi Sartika, Yoan Martiansari, Putri Nabila

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Naturally sweet potato flour usually requires a modification process to improve its inherent property for expanding its application in food system. The study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour (SPF), to increase its utilization for composite noodle production, trough fermentation of sweet potato slices before its flouring process. Fermentation were prepared with five different starters: pickle brine, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides , and mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Samples were withdrawn every 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The fermented flours were characterized for swelling power, solubility, paste transmittance, pH, sensory properties (acidic aroma and whiteness), and the amount of broken composite noodle strips. The results indicated that there was no significant effect of different starters on fermented SPF characteristic and on the amount of broken noodle strip, while length of fermentation significantly affected. Longer fermentation, reaching 48-72 h, increased swelling power, pH, acidic aroma and whiteness of flour and reduced solubility, paste transmittance, and the amount of broken noodle strip. The results suggested that fermentation within 48-72 h period of time could provide great composite SPF for noodle.

Keywords: starters, fermented flour, sweet potato, composite noodle

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121 Antioxidant Activity of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Application in Fermented Milk Products

Authors: Vitheejongjaroen P., Jaisin Y., Pachekrepapol U., Taweechotipatr M.

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common type of microorganisms that had been used as probiotics also known for many beneficial health effects. The antioxidant activity of LAB is associated with numerous health-protective effects. This research aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai sour pork sausage for their application in fermented milk products. Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay showed that the isolate FN33-7, as 1 of 8 isolated exhibited scavenging activity in intact cell 5-7%, and supernatant 13-16%, intracellular cell free extract 42-48% respectively. This isolate was identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis as Lactobacillus plantarum. The effect of milk fermented with L. plantarum FN33-7 on microbial count, pH and syneresis was assessed during refrigerated storage period of 28 days. The strain showed increased viability, pH level decreased, while syneresis increased. These results are similar to dairy products fermented with commercial starter cultures. Additionally, microstructure analysis of fermented milk by fluorescent microscopy showed that curd structure appeared to be dense and less porous in this fermented milk than commercial yogurt. The results of this study indicated that L. plantarum FN33-7 was a good probiotic candidate to be used in cultured milk products to reduce the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, probiotics, free radical, antioxidant, oxidative stress, fermented milk products

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120 Improvement of Production of γ-Aminobutyric Acid by Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from Indigenous Fermented Durian (Tempoyak)

Authors: Yetti Marlida, Harnentis, Yuliaty Shafan Nur

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Background: Tempoyak is a dish derived from fermented durian fruit. Tempoyak is a food consumed as a side dish when eating rice. Besides being eaten with rice, tempoyak can also be eaten directly. But this is rarely done because many cannot stand the sour taste and aroma of the tempoyak itself. In addition, tempoyak can also be used as a seasoning. The taste of tempoyak is acidic, this occurs because of the fermentation process in durian fruit meat which is the raw material. Tempoyak is already very well known in Indonesia, especially in Padang, Bengkulu, Palembang, Lampung, and Kalimantan. Besides that, this food is also famous in Malaysia. The purpose of this research is to improvement production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from indigenous fermented durian (tempoyak). Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) previously isolated from indigenous fermented durian (tempoyak) that have ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The study was started with identification of selected LAB by 16 S RNA, followed optimation of GABA production by culture condition using different initial pH, temperature, glutamate concentration, incubation time, carbon and nitrogen sources. Results: The result from indentification used polymerase chain reaction of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis was Lactobacillus plantarum (coded as Y3) with a sequenced length of 1400bp. The improvement of Gaba production was found highest at pH: 6.0; temperature: 30 °C; glutamate concentration: 0.4%; incubation time: 60 h; glucose and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources. Conclusions: GABA can be produced with the optimum condition fermentation were 66.06 mM.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, γ-amino butyric acid, indigenous fermented durian, PCR

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119 Relative Expression and Detection of MUB Adhesion Domains and Plantaricin-Like Bacteriocin among Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum-Group Strains Isolated from Fermented Foods

Authors: Sundru Manjulata Devi, Prakash M. Halami

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The immemorial use of fermented foods from vegetables, dairy and other biological sources are of great demand in India because of their health benefits. However, the diversity of Lactobacillus plantarum group (LPG) of vegetable origin has not been revealed yet, particularly with reference to their probiotic functionalities. In the present study, the different species of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum group (LPG) i.e., L. plantarum subsp. plantarum MTCC 5422 (from fermented cereals), L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis FG16 (from fermented bamboo shoot) and L. paraplantarum MTCC 9483 (from fermented gundruk) (as characterized by multiplex recA PCR assay) were considered to investigate their relative expression of MUB domains of mub gene (mucin binding protein) by Real time PCR. Initially, the allelic variation in the mub gene was assessed and found to encode three different variants (Type I, II and III). All the three types had 8, 9 and 10 MUB domains respectively (as analysed by Pfam database) and were found to be responsible for adhesion of bacteria to the host intestinal epithelial cells. These domains either get inserted or deleted during speciation or evolutionary events and lead to divergence. The reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis with mubLPF1+R1 primer pair supported variation in amplicon sizes with 300, 500 and 700 bp among different LPG strains. The relative expression of these MUB domains significantly unregulated in the presence of 1% mucin in overnight grown cultures. Simultaneously, the mub gene expressed efficiently by 7 fold in the culture L. paraplantarum MTCC 9483 with 10 MUB domains. An increase in the expression levels for L. plantarum subsp. plantarum MTCC 5422 and L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis FG16 (MCC 2974) with 9 and 8 repetitive domains was around 4 and 2 fold, respectively. The detection and expression of an integrase (int) gene in the upstream region of mub gene reveals the excision and integration of these repetitive domains. Concurrently, an in vitro adhesion assay to mucin and exclusion of pathogens (such as Listeria monocytogenes and Micrococcus leuteus) was investigated and observed that the L. paraplantarum MTCC 9483 with more adhesion domains has more ability to adhere to mucin and inhibited the growth of pathogens. The production and expression of plantaricin-like bacteriocin (plnNC8 type) in MTCC 9483 suggests the pathogen inhibition. Hence, the expression of MUB domains can act as potential biomarkers in the screening of a novel probiotic LPG strain with adherence property. The present study provides a platform for an easy, rapid, less time consuming, low-cost methodology for the detection of potential probiotic bacteria. It was known that the traditional practices followed in the preparation of fermented bamboo shoots/gundruk/cereals of Indian foods contain different kinds of neutraceuticals for functional food and novel compounds with health promoting factors. In future, a detailed study of these food products can add more nutritive value, consumption and suitable for commercialization.

Keywords: adhesion gene, fermented foods, MUB domains, probiotics

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118 Enhanced Anti-Obesity Effect of Soybean by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum P1201 in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte

Authors: Chengliang Xie, Jinhyun Ryu, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Sang Soo Kang, Kye Man Cho, Dong Hoon Lee

Abstract:

Obesity has become a global health problem and a source of major metabolic diseases like type-2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver and cancer. Synthetic anti-obesity drugs are effective but very costly and with undesirable side effects, so natural products such as soybean are needed as an alternative for obesity treatment. Lactobacillus Plantarum P1201is a probiotic bacterial strain reported to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and increase the ratio of aglycone-isoflavone of soybean, both of which have anti-obesity effect. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of the fermented soybean extract with P1201 (FSE) will be evaluated compared with that of the soybean extract (SE) by 3T3-L1 cells as an in vitro model of adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with SE and FSE during the nine days of the differentiation, lipid accumulation was evaluated by oil-red staining and triglyceride content and the mRNA expression level of adipogenic or lipogenic genes were analyzed by RT-PCR and qPCR. The results showed that formation of lipid droplets in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited and triglyceride content was reduced by 23.1% after treated with 1000 μg/mL of FSE compared with control. For SE-treated groups, no delipidating effect was observed. The effect of FSE on adipogenesis inhibition can be attributed to the down-regulation of mRNA expressionof CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and CoA carboxylase (ACC). Our results demonstrated that the anti-obesity effect of soybean can be improved by fermentation with P1201, and P1201can be used as a potential probiotic bacterial strain to produce natural anti-obesity food.

Keywords: fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum P1201, obesity, soybean

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117 The Effect of Concentrate Containing Probiotics on Fermentation Characteristics and in vitro Nutrient Digestibility

Authors: B. Santoso, B. Tj. Hariadi, H. Abubakar

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The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of probiotic addition in concentrate on fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of the grass Pennisetum purpureophoides. Two strains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidhophilus, and one strain yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as probiotic. The probiotics was added at 2% and 4% (v/w) in the concentrate. The result showed the concentrate containing between 1.5 × 106 and 3 × 107 CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria and 3 × 103 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae. The DM, OM and NDF digestibility were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Addition of probiotic in concentrate increased (P<0.01) DM, OM and NDF compared to concentrate without probiotic. Total VFA and propionic acid concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Concentration of acetic acid decreased (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass substrate alone. Addition of L. plantarum and L. acidophilus and S. cerevisiae in concentrate increased (P<0.01) propionic acid concentration. It was concluded that addition of probiotic in concentrate increased propionic concentration and in vitro nutrient digestibility.

Keywords: by-products, concentrate, digestibility, probiotics

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116 Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Ana M. Guzman, Claudia M. Rodriguez, Pedro F. B. Brandao, Elianna Castillo

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Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogenic metal to which humans are exposed mainly due to its presence in the food chain. Lactic acid bacteria have the capability to bind cadmium and thus the potential to be used as probiotics to treat this metal toxicity in the human body. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of native lactic acid bacteria, isolated from Colombian fermented cocoa, to remove cadmium from aqueous solutions. An initial screening was made with the Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1055 type strain, and Cd was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Lb. plantarum JCM 1055 was grown in ½ MRS medium to follow growth kinetics during 32 h at 37 °C, by measuring optical density at 600 nm. Washed cells, grown for 18 h, were adjusted to obtain dry biomass concentrations of 1.5 g/L and 0.5 g/L for removal assays in 10 mL of Cd(NO₃)₂ solution with final concentrations of 10 mg/Kg or 1.0 mg/Kg. The assays were performed at two different pH values (2.0 and 5.0), and results showed better adsorption abilities at higher pH. After incubation for 1 h at 37 °C and 150 rpm, the removal percentages for 10 mg/Kg Cd with 1.5 g/L and 0.5 g/L biomass concentration at pH 5.0 were, respectively, 71% and 50%, while the efficiency was 9.15 and 4.52 mg Cd/g dry biomass, respectively. For the assay with 1.0 mg/Kg Cd at pH 5.0, the removal was 100% and 98%, respectively for the same biomass concentrations, and the efficiency was 1.63 and 0.56 mg Cd/g dry biomass, respectively. These results suggest the efficiency of Lactobacillus strains to remove cadmium and their potential to be used as probiotics to treat cadmium toxicity and reduce its accumulation in the human body.

Keywords: cadmium removal, fermented cocoa, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics

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115 Antibacterial Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Potential Multidrug - Resistant Pathogens Isolated from Rabbit

Authors: Checkfaith I. Aizebeoje, Temitope O. Lawal, Bolanle A. Adeniyi

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The overuse and abuse of antibiotics in treating zoonotic infections in humans and opportunistic infections in rabbit has contributed to the increase in antimicrobial drug resistance, therefore, an alternative to antibiotics is needed in treating these infections. The study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from rabbit’s faeces against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens isolated from the same rabbit. Twelve faecal samples and twelve swabs from fur samples were randomly collected aseptically from apparently healthy rabbits from Ajibode, Ibadan and University of Ibadan research farm in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. Lactic acid bacteria and multidrug-resistant pathogens were isolated using appropriate agar media and identified by partial sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria and LAB were determined by the agar diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of the LAB against the test pathogens was determined using the agar overlay and agar diffusion methods. The pathogens Myroides gitamensis, Citrobacter rodentium, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter oryzendophyticus and Serratia marcescens as well as twenty-eight (28) species of LAB belonging to Acetobacter and Lactobacillus genera were identified and characterized. Lactobacillus plantarum had the highest (60.71%) occurrence of the LAB. Viable cells and cell free supernatant (CFS) of isolated LAB inhibited the growth of the test organisms with the largest zone of inhibition (40 mm) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum against Citrobacter rodentium. This study showed that LAB from rabbit possess considerable antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria from the same environment.

Keywords: antibacterial activities, cell-free supernatant, lactic acid bacteria; multidrug-resistant pathogens, rabbits’ faeces

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114 Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 Improves Animal Behavior and Monoamine Neurotransmission in Germ-Free Mice

Authors: Liu Wei-Hsien, Chuang Hsiao-Li, Huang Yen-Te, Wu Chien-Chen, Chou Geng-Ting, Tsai Ying-Chieh

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Intestinal microflora play an important role in communication along the gut-brain axis. Probiotics, defined as live bacteria or bacterial products, confer a significant health benefit to the host. Here we administered Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) to the germ-free (GF) mouse to investigate the impact of the gut-brain axis on emotional behavior. Administration of live PS128 significantly increased the total distance traveled in the open field test; it decreased the time spent in the closed arm and increased the time spent and total entries into the open arm in the elevated plus maze. In contrast, heat-killed PS128 caused no significant changes in the GF mice. Treatment with live PS128 significantly increased levels of both serotonin and dopamine in the striatum, but not in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. However, live PS128 did not alter pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine production by mitogen-stimulated splenocytes. The above data indicate that the normalization of emotional behavior correlated with monoamine neurotransmission, but not with immune activity. Our findings suggest that daily intake of the probiotic PS128 could ameliorate neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and excessive psychological stress.

Keywords: dopamine, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, intestinal microflora, serotonin

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113 Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria From Human Origin

Authors: Piña-Ronces Laura Gabriela, Reyes-Escogido María de Lourdes

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Exist a large variability in Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by LAB depending on carbon source, they have multiple applications in food industry mainly, but they have become important for the health. In this study, we identified EPS-producing strains belonging to the BAL group; they were previously isolated from humans. After that, we extracted and evaluated the antioxidant activity of EPS produced by all strains. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method using ascorbic acid as standard for both comparison and quantification. 31 strains (51.66 %) produced EPS at concentrations between 451 and 1.561 mg/l, 16 of EPS extracted showed antioxidant effect superior to ascorbic acid at the same concentrations. EPS-producing strains were L. plantarum, L. sp and L. fermentum corresponding to Lactobacillus genus and, E. faecium, E. durans, and E. hirae of Enterococcus genus. Antioxidant activity showed by EPS from 3 strains of L. plantarum and 3 strains of E. faecium was different into specie, while the antioxidant activity determined for EPS obtained from the other strains did not show difference at specie level, but was superior to ascorbic acid. EPS produced by L. plantarum and E. hirae had the best activity, it could be considerate for selection them as a possible new alternative for therapy or treatment of diseases related whit oxidative stress. Further studies about biological functions of EPS have to be conducted for new applications in health.

Keywords: oxidative stress, lactic acid bacteria, exopolysaccharides, antioxidant activity

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112 Production of Soy Yoghurt Using Soymilk-Based Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Culture

Authors: Ayobami Solomon Popoola, Victor N. Enujiugha

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Production of soy-yogurt by fermentation of soymilk with lactic acid bacteria isolated from soymilk was studied. Soymilk was extracted from dehulled soybean seeds and pasteurized at 95 °C for 15 min. The soymilk was left to naturally ferment (temperature 40 °C; time 8 h) and lactic acid bacteria were isolated, screened and selected for yogurt production. Freshly prepared soymilk was pasteurized (95 °C, 15 min), inoculated with the lactic acid bacteria isolated (3% w/v starter culture) and incubated at 40 °C for 8 h. The yogurt produced was stored at 4 °C. Investigations were carried out with the aim of improving the sensory qualities and acceptability of soy yogurt. Commercial yogurt was used as a control. The percentage of soymilk inoculated was 70% of the broth. Soy-yoghurt samples produced were subsequently subjected to biochemical and microbiological assays which included total viable counts of fresh milk and soy-based yoghurt; proximate composition of functional soy-based yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum; changes in pH, Titratable acidity, and lactic acid bacteria during a 14 day period of storage; as well as morphological and biochemical characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated. The results demonstrated that using Lactobacillus plantarum to inoculate soy milk for yogurt production takes about 8 h. The overall acceptability of the soy-based yogurt produced was not significantly different from that of the control sample. The use of isolate from soymilk had the added advantage of reducing the cost of yogurt starter culture, thereby making soy-yogurt, a good source of much desired good quality protein. However, more experiments are needed to improve the sensory qualities such as beany or astringent flavor and color.

Keywords: soy, soymilk, yoghurt, starter culture

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111 Antimicrobial Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Foods and Probiotic Products

Authors: Alec Chabwinja, Cannan Tawonezvi, Jerneja Vidmar, Constance Chingwaru, Walter Chingwaru

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Objective: To evaluate the potential of commercial fermented / probiotic products available in Zimbabwe or internationally, and strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) as prophylaxis and therapy against diarrhoeal and sexually transmitted infections. Methods: The antimicrobial potential of cultures of lactobacilli enriched from 4 Zimbabwean commercial food/beverage products, namely Dairibord Lacto sour milk (DLSM), Probrand sour milk (PSM), Kefalos Vuka cheese (KVC) and Chibuku opaque beer (COB); three probiotic products obtainable in Europe and internationally; and four strains of L. plantarum obtained from Balkan traditional cheeses and Zimbabwean foods against clinical strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and non-clinical strains of Candida albicans and Rhodotorula spp. was assayed using the well diffusion method. Three commercial Agar diffusion assay and a competitive exclusion assay were carried out on Mueller-Hinton agar. Results: Crude cultures of putative lactobacillus strains obtained from Zimbabwean dairy products (Probrand sour milk, Kefalos Vuka vuka cheese and Chibuku opaque beer) exhibited significantly greater antimicrobial activities against clinical strains of E. coli than strains of L. plantarum isolated from Balkan cheeses (CLP1, CLP2 or CLP3) or crude microbial cultures from commercial paediatric probiotic products (BG, PJ and PL) of a culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the following has high antifungal activities against the two yeasts: supernatant-free microbial pellet (SFMP) from an extract of M. azedarach leaves (27mm ± 2.5) > cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) from Maaz Dairy sour milk and Mnandi sour milk (approximately 26mm ± 1.8) > CFCS and SFMP from Amansi hodzeko (25mm ± 1.5) > CFCS from Parinari curatellifolia fruit (24mm ± 1.5), SFMP from P. curatellifolia fruit (24mm ± 1.4) and SFMP from mahewu (20mm ± 1.5). These cultures also showed high tolerance to acidic conditions (~pH4). Conclusions: The putative lactobacilli from four commercial Zimbabwean dairy products (Probrand sour milk, Kefalos Vuka vuka cheese and Chibuku opaque beer), and three strains of L. plantarum from Balkan cheeses (CLP1, CLP2 or CLP3) exhibited high antibacterial activities, while Maaz Dairy sour-, Mnandi sour- and Amansi hodzeko milk products had high antifungal activities. Our selection of Zimbabwean probiotic products has potential for further development into probiotic products for use in the control diarrhea caused by pathogenic strains of E. coli or yeast infections. Studies to characterise the probiotic potential of the live cultures in the products are underway.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp, yeast, inhibition, acid tolerance

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110 Effect of Iron Fortification on the Antibacterial Activity of Synbiotic Fermented Milk

Authors: Siti Helmyati, Euis Nurdiyawati, Joko Susilo, Endri Yuliati, Siti Fadhilatun Nashriyah, Kurnia Widyastuti

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Background: Iron fortification is one of the most effective and sustainable strategies to overcome anemia. It contradictively, has negative effect on gut microbiota balance. Pathogenic bacteria required iron for their growth. The iron source have greatly affect iron absorption in the intestine. Probiotic can inhibit the growth of pathogen. Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, Indonesian local isolate provides many benefits for health while fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) provides selective substrates for probiotics’ growth. Objective: To determine the effect of iron fortification (NaFeEDTA and FeSO4) on antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk. Methods: The antibacterial activity test was performed using the disc diffusion method. Paper discs were soaked in three kinds of synbiotic fermented milk, which are: 1) fortified with NaFeEDTA, 2) FeSO4 and 3) control. Escherichia coli was inoculated on nutrient agar medium. The ability of inhibition was shown by the formation of clear zone around the paper disc and measured in diameter (mm). Results: Synbiotic fermented milk fortified with iron (either NaFeEDTA or FeSO4) had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with diameter of clear zone were 6.53 mm and 12.3 mm, respectively (p<0.05). Compared to control (10.73 mm), synbiotic fermented milk fortified with FeSO4 had similar antibacterial activity (p>0.05). Conclusions: In vitro, synbiotic fermented milk fortified with NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 had different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. Iron fortification compound affected the antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk.

Keywords: lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, FOS, NaFeEDTA, FeSO4, antibacterial activity

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109 Biotechnological Recycling of Apple By-Products: A Reservoir Model to Produce a Dietary Supplement Fortified with Biogenic Phenolic Compounds

Authors: Ali Zein Aalabiden Tlais, Alessio Da Ros, Pasquale Filannino, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Gobbetti, Raffaella Di Cagno

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This study is an example of apple by-products (AP) recycling through a designed fermentation by selected autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum AFI5 and Lactobacillus fabifermentans ALI6 used singly or as binary cultures with the selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae AYI7. Compared to Raw-, Unstarted- and Chemically Acidified-AP, Fermented-AP promoted the highest levels of total and insoluble dietary fibers, antioxidant activity, and free phenolics. The binary culture of L. plantarum AFI5 and S. cerevisiae AYI7 had the best effect on the bioavailability phenolic compounds as resulted by the Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated method. The accumulation of phenolic acid derivatives highlighted microbial metabolism during AP fermentation. Bio-converted phenolic compounds were likely responsible for the increased antioxidant activity. The potential health-promoting effects of Fermented-AP were highlighted using Caco-2 cells. With variations among single and binary cultures, fermented-AP counteracted the inflammatory processes and the effects of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells and preserved the integrity of tight junctions. An alternative and suitable model for food by-products recycling to manufacture a dietary supplement fortified with biogenic compounds was proposed. Highlighting the microbial metabolism of several phenolic compounds, undoubted additional value to such downstream wastes was created.

Keywords: apple by-products, antioxidant, fermentation, phenolic compounds

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108 Assessment of Lactic Acid Bacteria of Probiotic Potentials in Dairy Produce in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad R. Al-Hindi

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The aim of this study was to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria and evaluate their therapeutic and food preservation importance. Ninety-three suspected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from thirteen different raw and fermented milk of indigenous sources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The identification of forty-six selected LAB strains and genetic relatedness were performed based on 16S rDNA gene sequence comparison. The LAB counts in certain samples were higher under microaerobic than anaerobic conditions. The identified LAB belonged to genera Enterococcus (16 strains), Lactobacillus (9 strains), Weissella (10 strains), Streptococcus (8 strains) and Lactococcus (3 strains). Phylogenetic tree generated from the full-length (~1.6 kb) sequences confirmed previous findings. Utilization of shorter 16S rDNA sequences (~1.0 kb) also discriminated among strains of which V2 region was the most effective. None of the strains exhibited resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics or undesirable hemolytic activity, while they differed in other probiotic characteristics, e.g., tolerance to acidic pH, resistance to bile salt, and antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the isolates Lactobacillus casei MSJ1, Lactobacillus casei Dwan5, Lactobacillus plantarum EyLan2 and Enterococcus faecium Gail-BawZir8 are likely the best probiotic LAB and we speculate that studying the synergistic effects of bacterial combinations might result in the occurrence of more effective probiotic potential. We argue that the raw and fermented milk of animals hosted in Saudi Arabia, especially stirred yogurt (Laban) made from camel milk, are rich in LAB with promising probiotics potential.

Keywords: fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, Saudi Arabia

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107 Antagonistic Potential of Epiphytic Bacteria Isolated in Kazakhstan against Erwinia amylovora, the Causal Agent of Fire Blight

Authors: Assel E. Molzhigitova, Amankeldi K. Sadanov, Elvira T. Ismailova, Kulyash A. Iskandarova, Olga N. Shemshura, Ainur I. Seitbattalova

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Fire blight is a very harmful for commercial apple and pear production quarantine bacterial disease. To date, several different methods have been proposed for disease control, including the use of copperbased preparations and antibiotics, which are not always reliable or effective. The use of bacteria as biocontrol agents is one of the most promising and eco-friendly alternative methods. Bacteria with protective activity against the causal agent of fire blight are often present among the epiphytic microorganisms of the phyllosphere of host plants. Therefore, the main objective of our study was screening of local epiphytic bacteria as possible antagonists against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Samples of infected organs of apple and pear trees (shoots, leaves, fruits) were collected from the industrial horticulture areas in various agro-ecological zones of Kazakhstan. Epiphytic microorganisms were isolated by standard and modified methods on specific nutrient media. The primary screening of selected microorganisms under laboratory conditions to determine the ability to suppress the growth of Erwinia amylovora was performed by agar-diffusion-test. Among 142 bacteria isolated from the fire blight host plants, 5 isolates, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus and Pantoea showed higher antagonistic activity against the pathogen. The diameters of inhibition zone have been depended on the species and ranged from 10 mm to 48 mm. The maximum diameter of inhibition zone (48 mm) was exhibited by B. amyloliquefaciens. Less inhibitory effect was showed by Pantoea agglomerans PA1 (19 mm). The study of inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus species against E. amylovora showed that among 7 isolates tested only one (Lactobacillus plantarum 17M) demonstrated inhibitory zone (30 mm). In summary, this study was devoted to detect the beneficial epiphytic bacteria from plants organs of pear and apple trees due to fire blight control in Kazakhstan. Results obtained from the in vitro experiments showed that the most efficient bacterial isolates are Lactobacillus plantarum 17M, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MB40, and Pantoea agglomerans PA1. These antagonists are suitable for development as biocontrol agents for fire blight control. Their efficacies will be evaluated additionally, in biological tests under in vitro and field conditions during our further study.

Keywords: antagonists, epiphytic bacteria, Erwinia amylovora, fire blight

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106 Isolation and Probiotic Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis from Gut Microbiome of Rohu (Labeo rohita)

Authors: Prem Kumar, Anuj Tyagi, Harsh Panwar, Vaneet Inder Kaur

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Though aquaculture started as an occupation for poor and weak farmers for livelihood, it has now acquired the shape of one of the biggest industry to grow live protein in the form of aquatic organisms. Industrialization of the aquaculture sector has led to intensification resulting in stress on aquatic organisms and frequent disease outbreaks leading to huge economic impacts. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics as growth promoter and prophylactic agent in aquaculture has resulted in rapid emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. Over the past few years, use of probiotics (as an alternative of antibiotics) in aquaculture has gained attention due to their immunostimulant and growth promoting properties. It has now well known that after administration, a probiotic bacterium has to compete and establish itself against native microbiota to show its eventual beneficial properties. Due to their non-fish origin, commercial probiotics sometimes may display poor probiotic functionalities and antagonistic effects. Thus, isolation and characterization of probiotic bacteria from same fish host is very much necessary. In this study, attempts were made to isolate potent probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from intestinal microflora of rohu fish. Twenty-five experimental rohu fishes (mean weight 400 ± 20gm, mean standard length 20 ± 3cm) were used in the study to collect fish gut after dissection in a sterile condition. A total of 150 tentative LAB isolates from selective agar media (de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS)) were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Microccocus leuteus. A total of 17 isolates, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, identified by biochemical tests and PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment, displayed promising antimicrobial activity against both the pathogens. Two isolates from each species (FLB1, FLB2 from L. plantarum; and FLC1, FLC2 from L. lactis) were subjected to downstream probiotic potential characterization. These isolates were compared in vitro for their hemolytic activity, acid and bile tolerance for growth kinetics, auto-aggregation, cell-surface hydrophobicity against xylene, and chloroform, tolerance to phenol, cell adhesion, and safety parameters (by intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections). None of the tested isolates showed any hemolytic activity indicating their potential safety. Moreover, these isolates were tolerant to 0.3% bile (75-82% survival), phenol stress (96-99% survival) with 100% viability at pH 3 over a period of 3 h. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that all the tested LAB isolates were resistant to vancomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and erythromycin and sensitive to Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Trimethoprim, and Nitrofurantoin. Tetracycline resistance was found in L. plantarum (FLB1 and FLB2 isolates), whereas L. lactis were susceptible to it. Intramuscular and intraperitoneal challenges to fingerlings of rohu fish (5 ± 1gm weight) with FLB1 showed no pathogenicity and occurrence of disease symptoms in fishes over an observation period of 7 days. The results revealed FLB1 as a potential probiotic candidate for aquaculture application among other isolates.

Keywords: aquaculture, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, probiotics

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