Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: I. Sani

59 An Exploration of Anti-Terrorism Laws in Nigeria

Authors: Sani Mohammed Adam

Abstract:

This work seeks to review the security challenges facing Nigeria and explore the relevance of laws and policies in tackling the menace. The work looks at the adequacy of available legislations and the functionality of relevant institutions such as the Armed Forces, the Nigeria Police Force, the State Security Service, the Defence Intelligence Agency and the Nigerian Intelligence Agency etc. Comparisons would be made with other jurisdictions, such as inter alia, the Homeland Security in the USA and Counter Terrorism Laws of the United Kingdom. Recommendations would be made on how to strengthen both institutions and laws to curtail the growth of Terrorism in Nigeria.

Keywords: legislations, Nigeria, security, terrorism

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58 Structural and Leaching Properties of Irradiated Lead Commercial Glass by Using XRD, Ultrasonic, UV-VIS and AAS Technique

Authors: N. H. Alias, S. A. Aziz, Y. Abdullah, H. M. Kamari, S. Sani, M. P. Ismail, N. U. Saidin, N. A. A. Salim, N. E. E. Abdullah

Abstract:

Gamma (γ) irradiation study has been investigated on the 6 rectangular shape of the standard X-Ray lead glass with 5/16” thick, providing 2.00 mm lead shielding value; at selected Sievert doses (C1; 0, C2; 0.07, C3; 0.035, C4; 0.07, C5; 0.105 and C6; 0.14) by using (XRD) X-ray Diffraction techniques, ultrasonic and (UV-VIS) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. Concentration of lead in 0.5 N acid nitric (HNO3) environments is then studied by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) as to observe the glass corrosion behavior after irradiation at room temperature. This type of commercial glass is commonly used as radiation shielding glass in medical application.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, lead glass, leaching, structural

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
57 The Role of Thermo Priming on Improving Seedling Production Technology (ISPT) in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Seed's

Authors: Behzad Sani, Vida Jodaeian

Abstract:

In order to determine the impact of thermo priming on germination of soybean seeds, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors of studied included different time thermo priming (control, 5 and 10 minutes) through the placing seeds were exposed to oven. The results showed that the effect of thermo priming was significant on germination percentage, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour in P ≤ 0.05. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (77 %), seedling dry weight (1.39 g) and seedling vigour (107.03) were achieved by 10 minutes thermo priming.

Keywords: thermo priming, seedling, seedling production, seedling growth, soybean

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56 Concentration of Some Hazardous Metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) in Egg Samples Analysed from Poultry Farms Located near Automechanics Workshops, Industrial Areas and Roadsides in Kano and Kaduna

Authors: M. I. Mohammed, A. M. Sani, A. S. Bayero

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the effect of farm site location by determining the levels of hazardous metals in poultry eggs samples collected near auto mechanics, industrial areas and roadsides in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for the analysis of the metals. The mean concentration ranges of the metals analysed in egg white and egg yolk were Pb: 0.05-0.10mgkg⁻¹, Ni: 0.10-0.30mgkg⁻¹ and Cd: not detected -0.03mgkg⁻¹. It was concluded that farm site locations has very low significant effect on the concentration of hazardous metals level.

Keywords: albumen, Egg, hazardous metals, poultry farms

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
55 The Roles of ECOWAS Parliament on Regional Integration of the West African Sub-Region

Authors: Sani Shehu, Mohd Afandi Salleh

Abstract:

Parliament is a law making body which provided at national, state, province and territorial level playing a parliamentary role of representing people, law making, peace, and conflict resolution, ratifying and incorporating international convention into municipal law. Parliaments are created globally to give solid legitimacy to good governance under democratic system of government, and the representatives must be elected by the people, so the ECOWAS parliament is entitled to have this legitimacy, where members must be elected by adult people among the citizens of ECOWAS member states. This paper will discuss on the roles that ECOWAS parliament plays for the achievement of regional integration and economic goals of development and cooperation in the sub-region.

Keywords: ECOWAS parliament, composition, competence, power

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54 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura

Abstract:

We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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53 Preparation and Characterization of Copper-Nanoparticle on Extracted Carrageenan and Its Catalytic Activity for Reducing Aromatic Nitro Group

Authors: Vida Jodaeian, Behzad Sani

Abstract:

Copper nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and characterized on green-extracted Carrageenan from seaweed by precipitation method without using any supporter and template with precipitation method. The crystallinity, optical properties, morphology, and composition of products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The effects of processing parameters on the size and shape of Cu- nanostructures such as effect of pH were investigated. It is found that the reaction at lower pH values (acidic) could not be completed and pH = 8.00 was the best pH value to prepare very fine nanoparticles. They as synthesized Cu-nanoparticles were used as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds in presence of NaBH4. The results showed that Cu-nanoparticles are very active for reduction of these nitro aromatic compounds.

Keywords: nanoparticles, carrageenan, seaweed, nitro aromatic compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
52 Intrapreneurship Discovery: Standard Strategy to Boost Innovation inside Companies

Authors: Chiara Mansanta, Daniela Sani

Abstract:

This paper studies the concept of intrapreneurship discovery for innovation and technology development related to the manufacturing industries set up in the center of Italy, in Marche Region. The study underlined the key drivers of the innovation process and the main factors that influence innovation. Starting from a literature study on open innovation, this paper examines the role of human capital to support company’s development. The empirical part of the study is based on a survey to 151 manufacturing companies that represent the 34% of that universe at the regional level. The survey underlined the main KPI’s that influence companies in their decision processes; then tools for these decision processes are presented.

Keywords: business model, decision making, intrapreneurship discovery, standard methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
51 Comparative Analysis between Wired and Wireless Technologies in Communications: A Review

Authors: Jafaru Ibrahim, Tonga Agadi Danladi, Haruna Sani

Abstract:

Many telecommunications industry are looking for new ways to maximize their investment in communication networks while ensuring reliable and secure information transmission. There is a variety of communications medium solutions, the two must popularly in used are wireless technology and wired options, such as copper and fiber-optic cable. Wired network has proven its potential in the olden days but nowadays wireless communication has emerged as a robust and most intellect and preferred communication technique. Each of these types of communication medium has their advantages and disadvantages according to its technological characteristics. Wired and wireless networking has different hardware requirements, ranges, mobility, reliability and benefits. The aim of the paper is to compare both the Wired and Wireless medium on the basis of various parameters such as usability, cost, efficiency, flexibility, coverage, reliability, mobility, speed, security etc.

Keywords: cost, mobility, reliability, speed, security, wired, wireless

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
50 The Law of Treaties and National Security of Islamic Republic of Iran

Authors: S. M. Tavakoli Sani, M. Sabbet Moghadam, Y. Khorram Farhadi, Iraj Rezayi Nejad

Abstract:

The concept of national security in Iran is a permanently effective factor in acceptance or rejection of many international obligations. These obligations had been defined according to the type of legislation of Iran in many aspects. Therefore, there are several treaties at international level which requires Iran’s security to come in contact with obligations in these treaties in a way that an obstacle to join to them and their passage in parliament. This issue is a typical category which every country pays attention to be accepted in treaties or to include their national security in that treaties and also they can see the related treaties from this perspective, but this issue that 'what is the concept of Iran’s national security', and 'To what extent it is changed in recent years, especially after Islamic Revolution' are important issues that can be criticized. Thus, this study is trying to assess singed treaties from the perspective of Iran’s national security according of the true meaning of treaty and to investigate how the international treaties may be in conflict with Iran’s national security.

Keywords: treaties, national security, Iran, Islamic Revolution

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49 Communicative Roles of English Discourse Markers on Facebook among Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University Members of Academic Staff

Authors: Ibrahim Sani

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of English discourse markers with the aim of investigating their communicative functions on Facebook as used by UMYUK members of academic staff. The paper uses the qualitative approach and relevance theory by Sperber and Wilson (1995) to highlight and examine DMs in different communicative contexts. In the course of data collection, five (5) academic staff from the five faculties of the university who are already Facebook friends of the researcher are used as the participants with their consent. The paper examines the communicative functions of English DMs among UMYUK academic staff on Facebook and reveals a number of communicative functions used in different contexts. One of the major findings indicates that 'contrastive markers' such as 'but', 'however', 'although' etc. are the dominant communicative functions employed by UMYUK academic staff on Facebook with 42% occurrence; it also shows that a single DM can function differently in the same linguistic environment.

Keywords: role, communicative, discourse markers, facebook, academic staff

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48 Clinical Case Report of Fulminating Leptospirosis in a 4-Months Old Caucasian Dog: Public Health Significance and Ramifications

Authors: N. N. Pilau, M. S. Abubakar, A. Danmaigoro, P. C. Mshelia, Y. Sani

Abstract:

A severely debilitated 4months old Caucasian male dog presented dehydration, emaciation, vomiting, icteric ocular and oral mucous membranes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hematuria, anorexia and prolonged recumbency. Clinical workup was done in established protocols for diagnosis based on history, clinical signs and selected laboratory tests. Treatment course were administered over 48hours during which the patient died of overwhelming hepatopathy, nephropathy and pneumonia. Postmortem findings supported by ante mortem laboratory test results tentatively diagnosed leptospirosis, a disease endemic and presenting potentially fatal epidemics and zoonoses in some countries amongst the developing regions of the world. This disease is reviewed and a call for attention on the public health significance of the disease is hereby presented through this case report.

Keywords: canine, endemic, leptospirosis, prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
47 The Linear Combination of Kernels in the Estimation of the Cumulative Distribution Functions

Authors: Abdel-Razzaq Mugdadi, Ruqayyah Sani

Abstract:

The Kernel Distribution Function Estimator (KDFE) method is the most popular method for nonparametric estimation of the cumulative distribution function. The kernel and the bandwidth are the most important components of this estimator. In this investigation, we replace the kernel in the KDFE with a linear combination of kernels to obtain a new estimator based on the linear combination of kernels, the mean integrated squared error (MISE), asymptotic mean integrated squared error (AMISE) and the asymptotically optimal bandwidth for the new estimator are derived. We propose a new data-based method to select the bandwidth for the new estimator. The new technique is based on the Plug-in technique in density estimation. We evaluate the new estimator and the new technique using simulations and real-life data.

Keywords: estimation, bandwidth, mean square error, cumulative distribution function

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46 Evaluating the Impact of Replacement Policies on the Cache Performance and Energy Consumption in Different Multicore Embedded Systems

Authors: Sajjad Rostami-Sani, Mojtaba Valinataj, Amir-Hossein Khojir-Angasi

Abstract:

The cache has an important role in the reduction of access delay between a processor and memory in high-performance embedded systems. In these systems, the energy consumption is one of the most important concerns, and it will become more important with smaller processor feature sizes and higher frequencies. Meanwhile, the cache system dissipates a significant portion of energy compared to the other components of a processor. There are some elements that can affect the energy consumption of the cache such as replacement policy and degree of associativity. Due to these points, it can be inferred that selecting an appropriate configuration for the cache is a crucial part of designing a system. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different cache replacement policies on both cache’s performance and energy consumption. Furthermore, the impact of different Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs) on cache’s performance and energy consumption has been investigated.

Keywords: energy consumption, replacement policy, instruction set architecture, multicore processor

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45 An Assessment of Pre-Weaning Performance of Red Sokoto Goat Kids Raised on Complete Diet of Different Energy Levels

Authors: Aliyu Suleiman, Gaddafi Sani, Muhammad Muhammad

Abstract:

This study was conducted at the Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University Dutsin-Ma to determine the pre-weaning performance of red Sokoto Goat kids raised on a complete diets containing different energy levels. Four experimental diets were formulated containing graded energy level 2400, 2200, 2000, 1800kcal ME/kg designated as treatment T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively, in a completely randomized design (CRD). Result obtained indicated no significant (P>0.05) difference in terms of morphometric characteristics, milk consumed, though treatment T4 recorded the highest value. Conversely significant (P<0.05) were recorded in terms of average daily gain (ADG), with treatment T1 having the highest value followed by treatment T4. Similarly, result of the cost of feed formulated (N/kg) showed significant (P<0.05) that treatment T1 had the highest cost (₦ 49.14) followed by treatment D (₦ 42.46); while treatment T2 had the least cost (₦ 40.78).

Keywords: pre-weanign, morphometric test, red Sokoto kids, energy levels

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
44 Effects of Dimensional Sizes of Mould on the Volumetric Shrinkage Strain of Lateric Soil

Authors: John E. Sani, Moses George

Abstract:

The paper presents the result of a laboratory study carried out on lateritic soil to determine the effects of dimensional size on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) using three mould sizes i.e. split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio (CBR) mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL), West African standard (WAS) and British standard heavy (BSH) respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2 % to +6 % optimum moisture content (OMC). At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS value.

Keywords: lateritic soil, volumetric shrinkage strain, molding water content, compactive effort

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43 Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of White and Brown Sesame Seed Oils

Authors: Fatima Bello, Ibrahim Sani

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are the most important sources of life saving drugs for the majority of world’s population. People of all continents have used hundreds to thousands of indigenous plants in curing and management of many diseases. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most widely cultivated species for its nutritious and medicinal seeds and oil. This research was carried out to determine the flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of two varieties of sesame seeds oil. Oil extraction was done using Soxhlet apparatus. The percentage oil yield for white and brown seeds were 47.85% and 20.72%, respectively. Flavonoid was present in both seeds with concentration of 480 mg/g and 360 mg/g in white and brown sesame seeds, respectively. The antioxidant potential was determined at different oil volume; 1.00, 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25ml. The results for the white and brown sesame seed oils were 96.8 and 70.7, 91.0 and 65.2, 83.1 and 55.4, 77.9 and 50.2, respectively. The white seed oil has higher oil yield than the brown seed oil. Likewise, the white seed oil has more flavonoid content than the brown seed oil and also better reducing power than the brown seed oil.

Keywords: antioxidant potential, brown sesame seeds, flavonoid content, sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum L., white sesame seeds

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42 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100 g, acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, physicochemical, iodine value, peroxide value

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41 The Application of Nuclear Energy for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security: A Review

Authors: Gholamreza Farrokhi, Behzad Sani

Abstract:

The goals of sustainable agricultural are development, improved nutrition, and food security. Sustainable agriculture must be developed that will meet today’s needs for food and other products, as well as preserving the vital natural resource base that will allow future generations to meet their needs. Sustainable development requires international cooperation and the effective use of technology. Access to sustainable sources of food will remain a preeminent challenge in the decades to come. Based upon current practice and consumption, agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% by 2050 to meet demand. Nuclear techniques are used in developing countries to increase production sustainably by breeding improved crops, enhancing livestock reproduction and nutrition, as well as controlling animal and plant pests and diseases. Post-harvest losses can be reduced and safety increased with nuclear technology. Soil can be evaluated with nuclear techniques to conserve and improve soil productivity and water management.

Keywords: food safety, food security, nuclear techniques, sustainable agriculture, sustainable future

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
40 Land Use Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Authors: Naser Ahmadi Sani, Karim Solaimani, Lida Razaghnia, Jalal Zandi

Abstract:

In recent decades, rapid and incorrect changes in land-use have been associated with consequences such as natural resources degradation and environmental pollution. Detecting changes in land-use is one of the tools for natural resource management and assessment of changes in ecosystems. The target of this research is studying the land-use changes in Haraz basin with an area of 677000 hectares in a 15 years period (1996 to 2011) using LANDSAT data. Therefore, the quality of the images was first evaluated. Various enhancement methods for creating synthetic bonds were used in the analysis. Separate training sites were selected for each image. Then the images of each period were classified in 9 classes using supervised classification method and the maximum likelihood algorithm. Finally, the changes were extracted in GIS environment. The results showed that these changes are an alarm for the HARAZ basin status in future. The reason is that 27% of the area has been changed, which is related to changing the range lands to bare land and dry farming and also changing the dense forest to sparse forest, horticulture, farming land and residential area.

Keywords: Haraz basin, change detection, land-use, satellite data

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39 Assessment of Green Fluorescent Protein Signal for Effective Monitoring of Recombinant Fermentation Processes

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

This research has focused on the application of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a new technique for direct monitoring of fermentation processes involving cultured bacteria. To use GFP as a sensor for pH and oxygen, percentage ratio of red fluorescence to green (% R/G) was evaluated. Assessing the magnitude of the % R/G ratio in relation to low or high pH and oxygen concentration, the bacterial strains were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. SCC1 strains of E. coli were grown in a 5 L laboratory fermenter, and during the fermentation, the pH and temperature were controlled at 7.0 and 370C respectively. Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) was controlled between 15-100% by changing the agitation speed between 20-500 rpm respectively. Effect of reducing the DOT level from 100% to 15% was observed after 4.5 h fermentation. There was a growth arrest as indicated by the decrease in the OD650 at this time (4.5-5 h). The relative fluorescence (green) intensity was decreased from about 460 to 420 RFU. However, %R/G ratio was significantly increased from about 0.1% to about 0.25% when the DOT level was decreased to 15%. But when the DOT was changed to 100%, a little increase in the RF and decrease in the %R/G ratio were observed. Therefore, GFP can effectively detect and indicate any change in pH and oxygen level during fermentation processes.

Keywords: Escherichia coli SCC1, fermentation process, green fluorescent protein, red fluorescence

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38 Comparative Isotherms Studies on Adsorptive Removal of Methyl Orange from Wastewater by Watermelon Rinds and Neem-Tree Leaves

Authors: Sadiq Sani, Muhammad B. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Watermelon rinds powder (WRP) and neem-tree leaves powder (NLP) were used as adsorbents for equilibrium adsorption isotherms studies for detoxification of methyl orange dye (MO) from simulated wastewater. The applicability of the process to various isotherm models was tested. All isotherms from the experimental data showed excellent linear reliability (R2: 0.9487-0.9992) but adsorptions onto WRP were more reliable (R2: 0.9724-0.9992) than onto NLP (R2: 0.9487-0.9989) except for Temkin’s Isotherm where reliability was better onto NLP (R2: 0.9937) than onto WRP (R2: 0.9935). Dubinin-Radushkevich’s monolayer adsorption capacities for both WRP and NLP (qD: 20.72 mg/g, 23.09 mg/g) were better than Langmuir’s (qm: 18.62 mg/g, 21.23 mg/g) with both capacities higher for adsorption onto NLP (qD: 23.09 mg/g; qm: 21.23 mg/g) than onto WRP (qD: 20.72 mg/g; qm: 18.62 mg/g). While values for Langmuir’s separation factor (RL) for both adsorbents suggested unfavourable adsorption processes (RL: -0.0461, -0.0250), Freundlich constant (nF) indicated favourable process onto both WRP (nF: 3.78) and NLP (nF: 5.47). Adsorption onto NLP had higher Dubinin-Radushkevich’s mean free energy of adsorption (E: 0.13 kJ/mol) than WRP (E: 0.08 kJ/mol) and Temkin’s heat of adsorption (bT) was better onto NLP (bT: -0.54 kJ/mol) than onto WRP (bT: -0.95 kJ/mol) all of which suggested physical adsorption.

Keywords: adsorption isotherms, methyl orange, neem leaves, watermelon rinds

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37 Information Technology (IT) Outsourcing and the Challenges of Implementation in Financial Industries: A Case Study of Guarantee Trust Assurance PLC

Authors: Salim Ahmad, Ahamed Sani Kazaure, Haruna Musa

Abstract:

Outsourcing had been the contractual relationship in which the responsibility for a function or task is handed over to an outside firm for a fixed period of time which is not the same as contracting where a specific one-off task is allocated to an external business; therefore in information technology a specialist area such as maintenance of web servers is controlled by an outside firm or if the department is not a critical factor the whole IT section may be outsourced. Organisation contracts is frequently a major area in successful outsourcing relationship, whereby the contracts specify the right, liability and expectation of the vendor and contracts are mostly of high value and last for very long. Therefore, in this research one particular project that is been outsourced for the financial industry (Guarantee Trust Assurance PlC) is been discussed along with the approach used and the various problems encountered, though Outsourcing is not necessarily a perfect and easy way out for business. It is extremely critical for a company to look at all the aspect of outsourcing before deciding to use it as an instrument for development. Moreover, critical analysis of the management issues encountered while implementing the outsourcing project have been fully discussed in the paper.

Keywords: outsourcing, techniques used in outsourcing, challenges of outsourcing implementation, management issues during implementation of outsourcing project

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36 Instructional Leadership and Competency in Capacity Development among Principals: A Mediation with Self Efficacy in Moderate Performing Schools

Authors: Mohd Ibrahim K. Azeez, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim, Rosemawati Mustapa, Maisarah A. Malik, Chandrakala Varatharajoo, Wee Akina Sia Seng Lee

Abstract:

The leadership of the principals is known to be a key indicator in development and school performance. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the extent of the influence of instructional leadership in the field of supervision and curriculum focus on capacity development competence in the field of communication and teamwork. In addition, this study also examines self-efficacy mediator school leadership in the field of self-improvement and self-management of school principals. The study involved 383 guest teachers from 55 secondary schools for leadership in schools. Data was analyzed using SEM aid program AMOS 21. The final result shows partial mediation model was the best model fit to obtain the best goodness of fit of (X2/df = 4.663, CFI = 0.922, GFI = 0.778, TLI = 0914, NFI = 0.903, and RMSEA = 0.098) compared to the direct effect model of the findings (X2/df = 5.319, CFI = 0.908, GFI = 0755, TLI = 0.899, NFI = 0.889, and RMSEA = 0.106). While the findings of the fully mediator model with a self-efficacy refers principals as a mediator as follows (X2/df = 4.838, CFI = 0918, GFI = 0772, TLI = 0.910, NFI = 0.899, and RMSEA = 0.100). Therefore, it can be concluded that the findings clearly demonstrate self-efficacy variables principals become a mediator in the relationship between instructional leadership capacity and competency development.

Keywords: instructional leadership, capacity development, self-efficacy, competency

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35 Effect of Building Construction Sizes on Project Delivery Methods in Nigeria

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Mohammad Sani

Abstract:

The performance of project delivery methods has been an issue of concern to various stakeholders in the construction industry. The contracting system of project delivery is the traditional system used in the delivery of most public projects in Nigeria. The direct labor system is used most times as an alternative to the traditional system. There were so many complain about the performance of contracting system and the suitability of direct labor as an alternative to the delivery of public projects. Therefore, this paper is aimed at investigating the effect of project size on the project delivery methods in the completed public buildings. Questionnaires were self-administered to managerial staff in the study area and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings reveals that contracting system was choosing for large size building construction project delivery with higher frequency (F) of 40 (76.9%) against direct labor with 12 (23.1%). While the small size project, the result revealed a frequency (F) of 26 (50%) for contracting system and direct labor system respectively. Base on the research findings, the contracting system, was recommended for all sizes of building construction project delivery while direct labor system can only use as an alternative for small size building construction projects delivery.

Keywords: construction size, contracting system, direct labour, effect

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34 Inhibitory Effect of Helichrysum arenarium Essential Oil on the Growth of Food Contaminated Microorganisms

Authors: Ali Mohamadi Sani

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of Helichrysum arenarium L. essential oil in "in-vitro" condition on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cereviciae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration (MBC, MFC) were determined for the essential oil at ten concentrations. Finally, the sensitivity of tested microbes to the essential oil of H. arenarium was investigated. Results showed that Bacillus subtilis (MIC=781.25 and MBC=6250 µg/ml) was more resistance than two other bacterial species. Among the tested yeasts, Saccharomyces cereviciae (MIC=97.65 and MFC=781.25 µg/ml) was more sensitive than Candida albicans, while among the fungal species, growth of Aspergillus parasiticus inhibited at lower concentration of oil than the Aspergillus flavus. The extracted essential oil exhibited the same MIC value in the liquid medium against all fungal strains (48.82 µg/ml), while different activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus was observed in this medium with MFC values of 6250 and 390.625µg/ml, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Helichrysum arenarium L essential oil had significant (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity; therefore, it can be used as a natural preservation to increase the shelf life of food products.

Keywords: Helichrysum arenarium, antimicrobial, essential oil, MIC

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33 Modelling and Simulation of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Single Source Inverter Using PSIM

Authors: Gaddafi Sani Shehu, Tankut Yalcınoz, Abdullahi Bala Kunya

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters such as flying capacitor, diode-clamped, and cascaded H-bridge inverters are very popular particularly in medium and high power applications. This paper focuses on a cascaded H-bridge module using a single direct current (DC) source in order to generate an 11-level output voltage. The noble approach reduces the number of switches and gate drivers, in comparison with a conventional method. The anticipated topology produces more accurate result with an isolation transformer at high switching frequency. Different modulation techniques can be used for the multilevel inverter, but this work features modulation techniques known as selective harmonic elimination (SHE).This modulation approach reduces the number of carriers with reduction in Switching Losses, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), and thereby increasing Power Quality (PQ). Based on the simulation result obtained, it appears SHE has the ability to eliminate selected harmonics by chopping off the fundamental output component. The performance evaluation of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter is performed using PSIM simulation package and THD of 0.94% is obtained.

Keywords: cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter, power quality, selective harmonic elimination

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32 Enhanced Test Scheme based on Programmable Write Time for Future Computer Memories

Authors: Nor Zaidi Haron, Fauziyah Salehuddin, Norsuhaidah Arshad, Sani Irwan Salim

Abstract:

Resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are one of the main candidates for future computer memories. However, due to their tiny size and immature device technology, the quality of the outgoing RRAM chips is seen as a serious issue. Defective RRAM cells might behave differently than existing semiconductor memories (Dynamic RAM, Static RAM, and Flash), meaning that they are difficult to be detected using existing test schemes. This paper presents an enhanced test scheme, referred to as Programmable Short Write Time (PSWT) that is able to improve the detection of faulty RRAM cells. It is developed by applying multiple weak write operations, each with different time durations. The test circuit embedded in the RRAM chip is made programmable in order to supply different weak write times during testing. The RRAM electrical model is described using Verilog-AMS language and is simulated using HSPICE simulation tools. Simulation results show that the proposed test scheme offers better open-resistive fault detection compared to existing test schemes.

Keywords: memory fault, memory test, design-for-testability, resistive random access memory

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31 Preparation and Characterization of Bioplastic from Sorghum Husks

Authors: Hannatu Abubakar Sani, Abubakar Umar Birnin Yauri, Aliyu Muhammad, Mujahid Salau, Aminu Musa, Hadiza Adamu Kwazo

Abstract:

The increase in the global population and advances in technology have made plastic materials to have wide applications in every aspect of life. However, the non-biodegradability of these petrochemical-based materials and their increasing accumulation in the environment has been a threat to the planet and has been a source of environmental concerns and hence, the driving force in the search for ‘green’ alternatives for which agricultural waste remains the front liner. Sorghum husk, an agricultural waste with potentials as a raw material in the production of bioplastic, was used in this research to prepare bioplastic using sulphuric acid-catalyzed acetylation process. The prepared bioplastic was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the structure of the prepared bioplastic was confirmed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of the product displayed the presence of OH, C-H, C=O, and C-O absorption peaks. The bioplastic obtained is biodegradable and is affected by acid, salt, and alkali to a lesser extent. Other tests like solubility and swelling studies were carried out to ensure the commercial properties of these bioplastic materials. Therefore, this revealed that new bioplastics with better environmental and sustainable properties could be produced from agricultural waste, which may have applications in many industries.

Keywords: agricultural waste, bioplastic, characterization, Sorghum Husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
30 Changes in the Body Weight and Wound Contraction Rate Following Treatment with Piper betel Extract in Diabetic Wounds

Authors: Nurul Z. Sani, Amalina N. Ghazali, Azree Elmy, Lee C. Yuen, Zar C. Thent

Abstract:

Piper betel (P. betel) leaves is widely used in Asian countries for treating diabetes mellitus and its complication. In our previous study, we observed the positive effect of P.betel extract on diabetic wounds following 3 and 7 days of treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of P.betel leaves extract in the diabetic rats was observed in terms of body weight and wound contraction rates following 5 days of the treatment. Total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the experimental rats received a single dose of 60mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ) injection, intraperitoneally. Four full thickness (6mm) cutaneous wounds were created on dorsum of each rat. The rats were divideid into (n=8): Non-treated Control (NC), Non-treated Diabetic (ND), diabetic treated with commercial cream (SN) and diabetic treated with 50mg/kg of P.betel extract (PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 0 and 5 post wounding. Significant increased in wound closure rate, body weight was observed in PB group compared to ND. Histological deterioration was restored in the P. betel extract treated wounds. It is concluded that topical application with P.betel extract for 5 days of post wounding offers positive scientific value in diabetic rats.

Keywords: diabetes, piper betel, wound healing, body weight, morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 436