Search results for: date
1016 Comparison of Due Date Assignment Rules in a Dynamic Job Shop
Authors: Mumtaz Ipek, Burak Erkayman
Abstract:Due date is assigned as an input for scheduling problems. At the same time, due date is selected as a decision variable for real time scheduling applications. Correct determination of due dates increases shop floor performance and number of jobs completed on time. This subject has been mentioned widely in the literature. Moreover rules for due date determination have been developed from analytical analysis. When a job arrives to the shop floor, a due date is assigned for delivery. Various due date determination methods are used in the literature. In this study six different due date methods are implemented for a hypothetical dynamic job shop and the performances of the due date methods are compared.
Keywords: scheduling, dynamic job shop, due date assignment, management engineeringProcedia PDF Downloads 488
1015 Biobutanol Production from Date Palm Waste by Clostridium acetobutylicum
Authors: Diya Alsafadi, Fawwaz Khalili, Mohammad W. Amer
Abstract:Butanol is an important industrial solvent and potentially a better liquid transportation biofuel than ethanol. The cost of feedstock is one key problem associated with the biobutanol production. Date palm is sugar-rich fruit and highly abundant. Thousands of tons of date wastes that generated from date processing industries are thrown away each year and imposing serious environmental problems. To exploit the utilization of renewable biomass feedstock, date palm waste was utilized for butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731. Fermentation conditions were optimized by investigating several parameters that affect the production of butanol such as temperature, substrate concentration and pH. The highest butanol yield (1.0 g/L) and acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) content (1.3 g/L) were achieved at 20 g/L date waste, pH 5.0 and 37 °C. These results suggest that date palm waste can be used for biobutanol production.
Keywords: biofuel, acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation, date palm waste, Clostridium acetobutylicumProcedia PDF Downloads 277
1014 The Effects of Planting Date on the Yield and Yield Components of Corn (Zea mays L.) Cultivar, Single Cross 704
Authors: Mehranoosh Gholipoor
Abstract:The effects of planting date on performance and yield components of maize single cross 704 was carried out in 2003.this experiment was designed in randomized complete block pattern with 3 replications in the field of College campus of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in Gorgan. Treatments consisted of four planting dates (May5, May19, June4 and June19) respectively. The results showed that the planting on June4 were the best time for planting date in the field of seed performance and many other measurement qualities while planting date on June19 had the lowest seed performance in corn, due to a severe reduction in seed numbers had the highest In 1000 seed weight. Between the planting date on May 5 and May19 were observed no significant differences
Keywords: corn, planting date, performance and yield componentsProcedia PDF Downloads 303
1013 Analysis of Maize Yield under Climate Change, Adaptations in Varieties and Planting Date in Northeast China in Recent Thirty Years
Authors: Zhan Fengmei Yao, Hui Li, Jiahua Zhang
Abstract:The Northeast China (NEC) was the most important agriculture areas and known as the Golden-Maize-Belt. Based on observed crop data and crop model, we design four simulating experiments and separate relative impacts and contribution under climate change, planting date shift, and varieties change as well change of varieties and planting date. Without planting date and varieties change, maize yields had no significant change trend at Hailun station located in the north of NEC, and presented significant decrease by 0.2-0.4 t/10a at two stations, which located in the middle and the south of NEC. With planting date change, yields showed a significant increase by 0.09 - 0.47 t/10a. With varieties change, maize yields had significant increase by 1.8~ 1.9 t/10a at Hailun and Huadian stations, but a non-significant and low increase by 0.2t /10a at Benxi located in the south of NEC. With change of varieties and planting date, yields presented a significant increasing by 0.53-2.0 t/10a. Their contribution to yields was -25% ~ -55% for climate change, 15% ~ 35% for planting date change, and 20% ~110% for varieties change as well 30% ~135% for varieties with planting date shift. It found that change in varieties and planting date were highest yields and were responsible for significant increases in maize yields, varieties was secondly, and planting date was thirdly. It found that adaptation in varieties and planting date greatly improved maize yields, and increased yields annual variability. The increase of contribution with planting date and varieties change in 2000s was lower than in 1990s. Yields with the varieties change and yields with planting date and varieties change all showed a decreasing trend at Huadian and Benxi since 2002 or so. It indicated that maize yields increasing trend stagnated in the middle and south of NEC, and continued in the north of NEC.
Keywords: climate change, maize yields, varieties, planting date, impactsProcedia PDF Downloads 288
1012 Date Palm Compreg: A High Quality Bio-Composite of Date Palm Wood
Authors: Mojtaba Soltani, Edi Suhaimi Bakar, Hamid Reza Naji
Abstract:Date Palm Wood (D.P.W) specimens were impregnated with Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at 15% level, using vacuum/pressure method. Three levels of moisture content (MC) (50%, 60%, and 70% ) before pressing stage and three hot pressing times (15, 20, and 30 minutes) were the variables. The boards were prepared at 20% compression rate. The physical properties of specimens such as spring back, thickness swelling and water absorption, and mechanical properties including MOR, MOE were studied and compared between variables. The results indicated that the percentage of MC levels before compression set was the main factor on the properties of the Date Palm Compreg. Also, the results showed that this compregnation method can be used as a good method for making high-quality bio-composite from Date Palm Wood.
Keywords: Date palm, phenol formaldehyde resin, high-quality bio-composite, physical and mechanical propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 274
1011 Date Palm Insects and Mite Pests at Biskra Oasis, South Algeria
Authors: N. Tarai, S. Seighi, S. Doumandji
Abstract:The date palm trees Phoenix dactylifera L. are subject to infestation with a variety of insect pests and mite associated, the Carob moth Ectomyelois ceatoniae (Zeller)(Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) is a key pest. Survey of the insect and mite pests associated with date palm trees in the seven stations at Biskra Oasis, throughout two successive years, from October 2011 until September 2012 revealed twelve insect pests belonging to ten families and six orders in addition to one mite belonging to one family from order Acari.
Keywords: date palm, insect, pests, infestation, mit, Biskra, OasisProcedia PDF Downloads 382
1010 Solving Process Planning and Scheduling with Number of Operation Plus Processing Time Due-Date Assignment Concurrently Using a Genetic Search
Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Alper Goksu, Onur Canpolat, Caner Erden, Melek Nur
Abstract:Traditionally process planning, scheduling and due date assignment are performed sequentially and separately. High interrelation between these functions makes integration very useful. Although there are numerous works on integrated process planning and scheduling and many works on scheduling with due date assignment, there are only a few works on the integration of these three functions. Here we tested the different integration levels of these three functions and found a fully integrated version as the best. We applied genetic search and random search and genetic search was found better compared to the random search. We penalized all earliness, tardiness and due date related costs. Since all these three terms are all undesired, it is better to penalize all of them.
Keywords: process planning, scheduling, due-date assignment, genetic algorithm, random searchProcedia PDF Downloads 308
1009 Solving Process Planning, Weighted Earliest Due Date Scheduling and Weighted Due Date Assignment Using Simulated Annealing and Evolutionary Strategies
Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Abdullah Hulusi Kokcam, Fuat Simsir, Özer Uygun
Abstract:Traditionally, three important manufacturing functions which are process planning, scheduling and due-date assignment are performed sequentially and separately. Although there are numerous works on the integration of process planning and scheduling and plenty of works focusing on scheduling with due date assignment, there are only a few works on integrated process planning, scheduling and due-date assignment. Although due-dates are determined without taking into account of weights of the customers in the literature, here weighted due-date assignment is employed to get better performance. Jobs are scheduled according to weighted earliest due date dispatching rule and due dates are determined according to some popular due date assignment methods by taking into account of the weights of each job. Simulated Annealing, Evolutionary Strategies, Random Search, hybrid of Random Search and Simulated Annealing, and hybrid of Random Search and Evolutionary Strategies, are applied as solution techniques. Three important manufacturing functions are integrated step-by-step and higher integration levels are found better. Search meta-heuristics are found to be very useful while improving performance measure.
Keywords: process planning, weighted scheduling, weighted due-date assignment, simulated annealing, evolutionary strategies, hybrid searchesProcedia PDF Downloads 396
1008 Management of Jebusaea hammerschmidtii and Batrachedra amydraula on Date Palm Trees in UAE
Authors: Mohammad Ali Al-Deeb, Hamda Ateeq Al Dhaheri
Abstract:Insects cause major damage to crops and fruit trees worldwide. In the United Arab Emirates, the date palm tree is the most economically important tree which is used for date production as well as an ornamental tree. In 2002, the number of date palm trees in UAE was 40,700,000 and it is increasing over time. The longhorn stem borer (Jebusaea hammerschmidtii) and the lesser date month (Batrachedra amydraula) are important insect pests causing damage to date palm trees in UAE. Population dynamics of the Jebusaea hammerschmidtii and Batrachedra amydraula were studied by using light and pheromons traps, respectively in Al-Ain, UAE. The first trap catch of B. amydraula adults occurred on 19 April and the insect population peaked up on 26 April 2014. The first trap catch of J. hammerschmidtii occurred in April 2014. The numbers increased over time and the population peak occurred in June. The trapping was also done in 2015. The changes in insect numbers in relation to weather parameters are discussed. Also, the importance of the results on the management of these two pests is highlighted.
Keywords: date palm, integrated pest management, UAE, light trap, pheromone trapProcedia PDF Downloads 207
1007 Synthesis of Highly Valuable Fuel Fractions from Waste Date Seeds Oil
Authors: Farrukh Jamil, Ala'A H. Al-Muhtaseb, Lamya Al-Haj, Mohab A. Al-Hinai
Abstract:Environmental problems and the security of energy supply have motivated the attention in the expansion of alternatives for fossil based fuels. Biomass has been recognized as a capable resource because it is plentifully available and in principle carbon dioxide neutral. Present study focuses on utilization date seeds oil for synthesizing high value fuels formulations such as green diesel and jet fuel. The hydrodeoxygenation of date seeds oil occurred to be highly efficient at following operating conditions temperature 300°C pressure 10bar with continuous stirring at 500 rpm. Products characterization revealed the efficiency of hydrodeoxygenation by formation of linear hydrocarbons (paraffin) in larger fraction. Based on the type of components in product oil it was calculated that maximum fraction lies within the range of green diesel 72.78 % then jet fuel 28.25 % by using Pt/C catalyst. It can be concluded that waste date seeds oil has potential to be used for obtaining high value products.
Keywords: date seeds, hydrodeoxygenation, paraffin, deoxygenationProcedia PDF Downloads 201
1006 Engineering Study on the Handling of Date Palm Fronds to Reduce Waste and Used as Energy Environmentally Friendly Fuel
Authors: Ayman H. Amer Eissa, Abdul Rahman O. Alghannam
Abstract:The agricultural crop residuals are considered one of the most important problems faced by the environmental life and farmers in the world. A study was carried out to evaluate the physical characteristics of chopped date palm stalks (fronds and leaflets). These properties are necessary to apply normal design procedures such as pneumatic conveying, fluidization, drying, and combustion. The mechanical treatment by cutting, crushing or chopping and briquetting processes are the primary step and the suitable solution for solving this problem and recycling these residuals to be transformed into useful products. So the aim of the present work to get a high quality for agriculture residues such as date palm stalks (fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes. The results obtained from measuring the mechanical properties (average shear and compressive strength) for date palm stalks at different moisture content (12.63, 33.21 and 60.54%) was (6.4, 4.7 and 3.21MPa) and (3.8, 3.18 and 2.86MPa) respectively. The modulus of elasticity and toughness were evaluated as a function of moisture content. As the moisture content of the stalk regions increased the modulus of elasticity and toughness decreased indicating a reduction in the brittleness of the stalk regions. Chopped date palm stalks (palm fronds), date palm leaflets having moisture content of 8, 10 and 12% and 8, 10 and 12.8% w.b. were dandified into briquettes without binder and with binder (urea-formaldehyde) using a screw press machine. Quality properties for briquettes were durability, compression ratio hardness, bulk density, compression ratio, resiliency, water resistance and gases emission. The optimum quality properties found for briquettes at 8 % moisture content and without binder. Where the highest compression stress and durability were 8.95, 10.39 MPa and 97.06 %, 93.64 % for date palm stalks (palm fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes, respectively. The CO and CO2 emissions for date palm stalks (fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes were less than these for loose residuals.
Keywords: residues, date palm stalks, chopper, briquetting, quality propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 453
1005 Synthesis and Characterization of Recycled Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites Containing Date Wood Fiber
Authors: Habib Shaban
Abstract:Nanocomposites of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and date wood fiber were prepared after modification of the host matrix by reactive extrusion grafting of maleic anhydride. Chemical and mechanical treatment of date wood flour (WF) was conducted to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose. Layered silicates (clay) were partially intercalated with date wood fiber, and the modified layered silicate was used as filler in the PP matrix via a melt-blending process. The tensile strength of composites prepared from wood fiber modified clay was greater than that of the iPP-clay and iPP-WF composites at a 6% filler concentration, whereas deterioration of mechanical properties was observed when clay and WF were used alone for reinforcement. The dispersion of the filler in the matrix significantly decreased after clay modification with cellulose at higher concentrations, as shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data.
Keywords: nanocomposites, isotactic polypropylene, date wood flour, intercalated, melt-blendingProcedia PDF Downloads 323
1004 Integrating Process Planning, WMS Dispatching, and WPPW Weighted Due Date Assignment Using a Genetic Algorithm
Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Tarık Cakar, Ibrahim Cil, Muharrem Dugenci, Caner Erden
Abstract:Conventionally, process planning, scheduling, and due-date assignment functions are performed separately and sequentially. The interdependence of these functions requires integration. Although integrated process planning and scheduling, and scheduling with due date assignment problems are popular research topics, only a few works address the integration of these three functions. This work focuses on the integration of process planning, WMS scheduling, and WPPW due date assignment. Another novelty of this work is the use of a weighted due date assignment. In the literature, due dates are generally assigned without considering the importance of customers. However, in this study, more important customers get closer due dates. Typically, only tardiness is punished, but the JIT philosophy punishes both earliness and tardiness. In this study, all weighted earliness, tardiness, and due date related costs are penalized. As no customer desires distant due dates, such distant due dates should be penalized. In this study, various levels of integration of these three functions are tested and genetic search and random search are compared both with each other and with ordinary solutions. Higher integration levels are superior, while search is always useful. Genetic searches outperformed random searches.
Keywords: process planning, weighted scheduling, weighted due-date assignment, genetic algorithm, random searchProcedia PDF Downloads 288
1003 Selection of Endophytcs Fungi Isolated from Date Palm, Halotolerants and Productors of Secondary Metabolite
Authors: Fadila Mohamed Mahmoud., Derkaoui I., Krimi Z.
Abstract:Date palm is a plant which presents a very good adaptation to the difficult conditions of the environment in particular to the drought and saline stress even at high temperatures. This adaptation is related on the biology of the plant and to the presence of a microflora endophyte which live inside its tissues. Fifteen endophytics fungi isolated from date palm were tested in vitro in the presence of various NaCl concentrations to select halotolerantes isolates. These same endophytes were tested for their colonizing capacity by the description of the production of secondary metabolites more particularly the enzymes (pectinases, proteases, and phosphorylases), and the production of antibiotics and growth hormones. Significant difference was observed between the isolates with respect to the tests carried out.
Keywords: Date palm, Halotolerantes, endophyte, Secondary metabolites.Procedia PDF Downloads 448
1002 Durability of Lightweight Concrete Material Made from Date Palma Seeds
Authors: Mohammed Almograbi
Abstract:Libya is one of the largest producers of dates from date palm, generating about 60000 tonnes of date palm seeds (DPS) annually. This large amount of seeds led to studies into the possible use as aggregates in lightweight concrete for some special structures. The utilization of DPS as aggregate in concrete provides a good solution as alternative aggregate to the stone aggregate. It has been recognized that, DPS can be used as coarse aggregate in structural lightweight concrete industry. For any structure member, the durability is one of the most important considerations during its service life. This paper presents the durability properties of DPS concrete. These include the water permeability, water absorption, sorptivity and chloride penetration. The test results obtained were comparable to the conventional lightweight concrete.
Keywords: date palm seeds, lightweight concrete, durability, sustainability, permeability of concrete, water absorption of concrete, sorptivity of concreteProcedia PDF Downloads 569
1001 Topology-Based Character Recognition Method for Coin Date Detection
Authors: Xingyu Pan, Laure Tougne
Abstract:For recognizing coins, the graved release date is important information to identify precisely its monetary type. However, reading characters in coins meets much more obstacles than traditional character recognition tasks in the other fields, such as reading scanned documents or license plates. To address this challenging issue in a numismatic context, we propose a training-free approach dedicated to detection and recognition of the release date of the coin. In the first step, the date zone is detected by comparing histogram features; in the second step, a topology-based algorithm is introduced to recognize coin numbers with various font types represented by binary gradient map. Our method obtained a recognition rate of 92% on synthetic data and of 44% on real noised data.
Keywords: coin, detection, character recognition, topologyProcedia PDF Downloads 191
1000 Date Pits Oil Used as Potential Source for Synthesizing Jet Fuel and Green Diesel Fractions
Authors: Farrukh Jamil, Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Lamya Al-Haj, Mohab A. Al-Hinai
Abstract:Date pits are major agricultural waste produced in Oman. Current work was conducted to produce jet fuel and green diesel from hydrodeoxygenation of Date pits oil in the presence of Pd/C catalyst. The hydrodeoxygenation of Date pits oil occurred to be highly efficient at following mild operating conditions such as conditions temperature 300°C pressure 10bar with continuous stirring at 500rpm. Detailed product characterization revealed that large fraction of paraffinic hydrocarbons was found which accounts up to 91.1 % which attributed due to efficient hydrodeoxygenation. Based on the type of components in product oil, it was calculated that the maximum fraction of hydrocarbons formed lies within the range of green diesel 72.0 % then jet fuel 30.4% by using Pd/C catalysts. The densities of product oil were 0.88 kg/m³, the viscosity of products calculated was 3.49 mm²/s. Calorific values for products obtained were 44.11 MJ/kg when Pd/C catalyst was used for hydrodeoxygenation. Based on products analysis it can conclude that Date pits oil could successfully utilize for synthesizing green diesel and jet fuel fraction.
Keywords: biomass, jet fuel, green diesel, catalystProcedia PDF Downloads 222
999 The Synergistic Effects of Using Silicon and Selenium on Fruiting of Zaghloul Date Palm (Phoenix dectylifera L.)
Authors: M. R. Gad El- Kareem, A. M. K. Abdel Aal, A. Y. Mohamed
Abstract:During 2011 and 2012 seasons, Zaghloul date palms received four sprays of silicon (Si) at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium (Se) at 0.01 to 0.02%. Growths, nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in response to application of silicon and selenium were investigated. Single and combined applications of silicon at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium at 0.01 to 0.02% was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, total chlorophylls, percentages of N, P, and K in the leaves, yield, bunch weight as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to the check treatment. Silicon was superior to selenium in this respect. Combined application was favourable than using each alone in this connection. Treating Zaghloul date palms four times with a mixture of silicon at 0.05% + selenium at 0.01% resulted in an economical yield and producing better fruit quality.
Keywords: date palms, Zaghloul, silicon, selenium, leaf areaProcedia PDF Downloads 316
998 Effects of Different Sowing Dates on Oil Yield of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)
Authors: Özden Öztürk, Gözde Pınar Gerem, Ayça Yenici, Burcu Haspolat
Abstract:Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the important non-edible oilseed crops having immense industrial and medicinal value. Oil yield per unit area is the ultimate target in growing oilseed plants and sowing date is one of the important factors which have a clear role in the production of active substances particularly in oilseeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sowing date on the seed and oil yield of castor in Central Anatolia in Turkey in 2011. The field experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design with three replication. Black Diamond-2 castor cultivar was used as plant material. The treatment was four sowing dates of May 10, May 25, June 10, June 25. In this research; seed yield, oil content and oil yield were investigated. Results showed that the effect of different sowing dates was significant on all of the characteristics. In general; delayed sowing dates, resulted in decreased seed yield, oil content and oil yield. The highest value of seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 2523.7 kg ha-1, 51.18% and 1292.2 kg ha-1) were obtained from the first sowing date (May 10) while the lowest seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 1550 kg ha-1, 43.67%, 677.3 kg ha-1) were recorded from the latest sowing date (June 25). Therefore, it can be concluded that early May could be recommended as an appropriate sowing date in the studied location and similar climates for achieved high oil yield of castor.
Keywords: castor bean, Ricinus communis L., sowing date, seed yield, oil contentProcedia PDF Downloads 318
997 Correlation between the Sowing Date and Yield of Maize on Chernozem Soil, in Connection with the Leaf Area Index and Photosynthesis
Authors: Enikő Bene
Abstract:Our sowing date experiment took place in the Demonstration Garden of Institution of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Center of University of Debrecen, in 2012-2014. The thesis contains data of test year 2014. Our purpose, besides several other examinations, was to observe how sowing date influences leaf area index and activity of photosynthesis of maize hybrids, and how those factors affect fruiting. In the experiment we monitored the change of the leaf area index and the photosynthesis of hybrids with four different growing seasons. The results obtained confirm that not only the environmental and agricultural factors in the growing season have effect on the yield, but also other factors like the leaf area index and the photosynthesis are determinative parameters, and all those factors together, modifying effects of each other, develop average yields
Keywords: sowing date, hybrid, leaf area index, photosynthetic capacityProcedia PDF Downloads 262
996 Significance of Water Saving through Subsurface Drip Irrigation for Date Palm Trees
Authors: Ahmed I. Al-Amoud
Abstract:A laboratory and field study were conducted on subsurface drip irrigation systems. In the first laboratory study, eight subsurface drip irrigation lines available locally, were selected and a number of experiments were made to evaluate line hydraulic characteristics to insure it's suitability for drip irrigation design requirements and high performance to select the best for field experiments. The second study involves field trials on mature date palm trees to study the effect of subsurface drip irrigation system on the yield and water consumption of date palms, and to compare that with the traditional surface drip irrigation system. Experiments were conducted in Alwatania Agricultural Project, on 50 mature palm trees (17 years old) of Helwa type with 10 meters spacing between rows and between trees. A high efficiency subsurface line (Techline) was used based on the results of the first study. Irrigation scheduling was made through a soil moisture sensing device to ensure enough soil water levels in the soil. Experiment layouts were installed during 2001 season, measurements continued till end of 2008 season. Results have indicated that there is an increase in the yield and a considerable saving in water compared to the conventional drip irrigation method. In addition there were high increases in water use efficiency using the subsurface system. The subsurface system proves to be durable and highly efficient for irrigating date palm trees.
Keywords: drip irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, date palm trees, date palm water use, date palm yieldProcedia PDF Downloads 367
995 Produce High-Quality Activated Carbon with a Large Surface Area from Date Seeds Biomass for Water Treatment
Authors: Rashad Al-Gaashani, Viktor Kochkodan, Jenny Lawler
Abstract:Physico-chemical activation method wasused to produce high-quality activated carbon (AC) with a large surface area of about 2000 m2/g from low-cost and abundant biomasswastes in Qatar, namely date seeds. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis were used to evaluate the AC samples. AC produced from date seeds have a wide range of the pores available, including micro- andnano-pores. This type of AC with a well-developed pore structure may be very attractive for different applications, including air and water purification from micro and nano pollutants. Heavy metalsiron (III) and copper (II) ions were removed from wastewater using the AC producedusinga batch adsorption technique. The AC produced from date seeds biomass wastes show high removal of heavy metals such as iron (III) ions (100%) and copper (II) ions (97.25%). The highest removal of copper (II) ions (100%) with AC produced from date seeds was found at pH 8, whereas the lowest removal (22.63%) occurred at pH 2. The effect of adsorption time, adsorbent dose, pH on the removal of heavy metalswere studied.
Keywords: activated carbon, date seeds, biomass, heavy metals removal, water treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 18
994 Comparative Growth Kinetic Studies of Two Strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Dates and a Commercial Strain
Authors: Nizar Chaira
Abstract:Dates, main products of the oases, due to their therapeutic interests, are considered highly nutritious fruit. Several studies on the valuation biotechnology and technology of dates are made, and several products are already prepared. Isolation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, naturally presents in a scrap of date, optimization of growth in the medium based on date syrup and production biomass can potentially expand the range of secondary products of dates. To this end, this paper tries to study the suitability for processing dates technology and biotechnology to use the date pulp as a carbon source for biological transformation. Two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from date syrup (S1, S2) and a commercial strain have used for this study. After optimization of culture conditions, production in a fermenter on two different media (date syrup and beet molasses) was performed. This is followed by studying the kinetics of growth, protein production and consumption of sugars in crops strain 1, 2 and the commercial strain and on both media. The results obtained showed that a concentration of 2% sugar, 2.5 g/l yeast extract, pH 4.5 and a temperature between 25 and 35°C are the optimal conditions for cultivation in a bioreactor. The exponential phase of the specific growth rate of a strain on both media showed that it is about 0.3625 h-1 for the production of a medium based on date syrup and 0.3521 h-1 on beet molasses with a generation time equal to 1.912 h and on the medium based on date syrup, yeast consumes preferentially the reducing sugars. For the production of protein, we showed that this latter presents an exponential phase when the medium starts to run out of reducing sugars. For strain 2, the specific growth rate is about 0.261h-1 for the production on a medium based on date syrup and 0207 h-1 on beet molasses and the base medium syrup date of the yeast consumes preferentially reducing sugars. For the invertase and other metabolits, these increases rapidly after exhaustion of reducing sugars. The comparison of productivity between the three strains on the medium based on date syrup showed that the maximum value is obtained with the second strain: p = 1072 g/l/h as it is about of 0923 g/l/h for strain 1 and 0644 g/l/h for the commercial strain. Thus, isolates of date syrup are more competitive than the commercial strain and can give the same performance in a shorter time with energy gain.
Keywords: date palm, fermentation, molasses, Saccharomyces, syrupProcedia PDF Downloads 230
993 Safety Date Fruits for Human Being as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization Applications in Egypt
Authors: A. M. Attalla, A. F. lbrahim, Laila Y. Mostaffa
Abstract:This study was conducted during three seasons 2010, 2011 and 2012 on Zahhloul date palm cultivar grown in calcareous soil, Alexandria governorate, Egypt. The palms received recommended dose of mineral N only or plus different rates of organic N with or without bio fertilizer to study the effect of such treatments on date palm yield and fruit nitrate and nitrite content due to its negative influence on human, animal and environment. The obtained results clarified that all used treatments of organic and bio fertilizers were effective in improving date palm yield and decreased fruit content of NO2 and NO3 in comparison with 100 % mineral N. It was also noticed that combined treatments of 50 % mineral N + 50 % organic manure with bio fertilizer is the superior treatments for increasing the values of yield and decreasing its content of NO2 and NO3. Hence, it could be concluded that, minimizing the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizer to half of recommended dose through addition of 50 % mineral N + 50 % organic manure with bio fertilizer and also, the utilization of organic and bio fertilizers is considered as a promising alternative for chemical fertilizers to avoid pollution and reduce the costs of mineral fertilizers.
Keywords: organic and bio fertilizers, mineral fertilizer, nitrate, nitrite, zaghloul date palm cvProcedia PDF Downloads 382
992 Development of a New Margarine Added Date Seed Oil: Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Date Seed Oil
Authors: Hamitri-Guerfi Fatiha, Madani Khodir, Hadjal Samir, Kati Djamel, Youyou Ahcene
Abstract:Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a principal fruit that is grown in many regions of the world, resulting in a surplus production of dates. Algeria is considered to be one of the date producing countries. Date seeds (pits) have been a problem to the date industry as a waste stream. However, finding a way to make a profit on the pits would benefit date farmers substantially. This work concentrated on the valorization of date seed oils. A preliminary study was carried out on three varieties (soft, half soft, and dry) and we selected the dry variety. This work concerns the valorization of the date seed oil of the dry variety: ‘Mech Degla’ by its incorporation in a food formulation: margarine of table. Lipid extraction was carried out by hot extraction with the soxhlet; the extracts obtained are rich in fat contents, the results gave outputs of 13.21±0.21 %. The antioxidant activity of extracted oils was studied by the test of DPPH, the content polyphenols as well as the anti-radicalaire activity. The analysis of fatty acids was made by CPG. Thus, it comes out from our results that the recovered fat contents are interesting and considerable. A formulation of the margarine ‘BIO’ was elaborated on the scale industrialist by the addition of the extracts of date seeds ‘Mech-Degla’ oil in order to substitute a synthetic additive. The physicochemical characteristics of the elaborate margarines prove to be in conformity with the standards set by the Algerian companies. The texture of the elaborate margarine has an acceptable color, an aspect brilliant and homogeneous, it is plastic and easy to paste having an index of required SFC and the margarine melts easily in the mouth. Moreover, the evaluation of oxidative stability is carried out by the test of Rancimat. The result obtained reported that the margarine enriched with date seed oil, proved more resistant to oxidation, than the margarine without extract, which is improved much during incorporation of the extracts simultaneously. By conclusion, considering the content of polyphénols noted in the two extracts (aqueous and oily), we can exhort the scientific community to become aware of the treasures of our country especially the wonders of the south which are the dates and theirs under products (pits).
Keywords: antioxydant activity, date seed oil, quality characteristics, margarineProcedia PDF Downloads 351
991 Influence of the Compression Force and Powder Particle Size on Some Physical Properties of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Tablets
Authors: Djemaa Megdoud, Messaoud Boudaa, Fatima Ouamrane, Salem Benamara
Abstract:In recent years, the compression of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit powders (DP) to obtain date tablets (DT) has been suggested as a promising form of valorization of non commercial valuable date fruit (DF) varieties. To further improve and characterize DT, the present study aims to investigate the influence of the DP particle size and compression force on some physical properties of DT. The results show that independently of particle size, the hardness (y) of tablets increases with the increase of the compression force (x) following a logarithmic law (y = a ln (bx) where a and b are the constants of model). Further, a full factorial design (FFD) at two levels, applied to investigate the erosion %, reveals that the effects of time and particle size are the same in absolute value and they are beyond the effect of the compression. Regarding the disintegration time, the obtained results also by means of a FFD show that the effect of the compression force exceeds 4 times that of the DP particle size. As final stage, the color parameters in the CIELab system of DT immediately after their obtaining are differently influenced by the size of the initial powder.
Keywords: powder, tablets, date (Phoenix dactylifera L.), hardness, erosion, disintegration time, colorProcedia PDF Downloads 360
990 Landscape Genetic and Species Distribution Modeling of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
Authors: Masoud Sheidaei, Fahimeh Koohdar
Abstract:Date palms are economically important tree plants with high nutrition and medicinal values. More than 400 date palm cultivars are cultivated in many regions of Iran, but no report is available on landscape genetics and species distribution modeling of these trees from the country. Therefore, the present study provides a detailed insight into the genetic diversity and structure of date palm populations in Iran and investigates the effects of geographical and climatic variables on the structuring of genetic diversity in them. We used different computational methods in the study like, spatial principal components analysis (sPCA), redundancy analysis (RDA), latent factor mixed model (LFMM), and Maxent and Dismo models of species distribution modeling. We used a combination of different molecular markers for this study. The results showed that both global and local spatial features play an important role in the genetic structuring of date palms, and the genetic regions associated with local adaptation and climatic variables were identified. The effects of climatic change on the distribution of these taxa and the genetic regions adaptive to these changes will be discussed.
Keywords: adaptive genetic regions, genetic diversity, isolation by distance, populations divergenceProcedia PDF Downloads 5
989 Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Sugar Extraction from Phoenix dactylifera L.
Authors: Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Kahina Djaoud, Myriam Tazarourte, Samir Hadjal, Khodir Madani
Abstract:In Algeria, important quantities of secondary date variety (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are generated in each campaign; their chemical composition is similar to that of commercial dates. The present work aims to valorize this common date variety (Degla-Beida) which is often poorly exploited. In this context, we tried to prepare syrup from the secondary date variety and to evaluate the effect of conventional extraction (CE) or water bath extraction (WBE) and alternative extraction (microwaves assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasounds assisted extraction (UAE)) on its total sugar content (TSC), using response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the analysis of individual sugars was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Maximum predicted TSC recoveries under the optimized conditions for MAE, UAE and CE were 233.248 ± 3.594 g/l, 202.889 ± 5.797 g/l, and 233.535 ± 5.412 g/l, respectively, which were close to the experimental values: 233.796 ± 1.898 g/l; 202.037 ± 3.401 g/l and 234.380 ± 2.425 g/l. HPLC analysis revealed high similarity in the sugar composition of date juices obtained by MAE (60.11% sucrose, 16.64% glucose and 23.25% fructose) and CE (50.78% sucrose, 20.67% glucose and 28.55% fructose), although a large difference was detected for that obtained by UAE (0.00% sucrose, 46.94% glucose and 53.06% fructose). Microwave-assisted extraction was the best method for the preparation of date syrup with an optimal recovery of total sugar content. However, ultrasound-assisted extraction was the best one for the preparation of date syrup with high content of reducing sugars.
Keywords: dates, extraction, RSM, sugars, syrupProcedia PDF Downloads 99
988 The Preventive Effect of Date Palm (Phoenixdactylifera) Seed and Fruit Hydroalcoholic Extracts on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Male Rat’s Hind Paw
Authors: Siavash Azarbani
Abstract:Background and Objective: The side effects of NSAIDS drugs have caused the increasing interest of scientists in herbal medicines as alternative treatment. In this study, the effect of anti inflammatory of seed and fruit of date palm hydroalcolic extracts, due to having antioxidants, was studied. Materials and Methods: In this study, the extraxts of date palm seed and fruit were prepared by the maceration method in 70% alcohol. Eighty male rats Wistar, divided into 10 groups of eight in each, 4 groups received different doses (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of seed extract, and 4 other groups different doses (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of fruits extract of the palm, and the positive control aspirin (300mg/kg) and the negative control group saline (5ml/kg) via injection intraperitoneally. Half an hour later, all animals received 100 µl of 1% carrageenan into the rats hind paw subcutaneous. The changes in rats paw edema was measured by plethysmometer every hour for five hours. Results: The effect of all of the doses of date palm seed extract on edema were less than aspirine (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference between the group that received 400 and 600 mg/kg of date palm fruit extract when compared with the aspirin group. The Dose 400 mg/kg of fruit extract showed the most anti-inflammatory effect, and it was assignded as the best dose. Conclusion: It is likely that with further studies on different model of animals and also on the human model, the palm fruit extract could be used for pain treatment.
Keywords: palm, inflamentory, date, aspirin, karageenanProcedia PDF Downloads 47
987 Investigation of Success Rate and Growth Parameters of Five Pistachio Cultivars Transplanted in March and November
Authors: H. Mohammadi Aliabadi, M. S. Mansouri
Abstract:The effect of two different transplanting date (March and November) in five pistachio cultivars ('Ahmad Aghaei', 'Akbri', Momtaz', 'Ghazvini', and 'Ohadi') were evaluated in Rafsanjan Azad University, Iran. Seeds were planted in plastic bags in March 2012. The seedlings were transplanted to a field in November 2012 and March 2013. Vegetative growing factors such as plant length, stem diameter, number of leaves and fresh and dry weight were measured in date. The results obtained from collected data indicated that no significant differences were found for the traits of interest. Therefore, growers should not be concerned regarding these two transplanting dates.
Keywords: pistachio, seedling, success rate, transplanting dateProcedia PDF Downloads 369