Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: A. Lateef

15 Medium Composition for the Laboratory Production of Enzyme Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Authors: O. R. Raimi, A. Lateef


Inoculum developments of A. niger were used for inoculation of medium for submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation. The filtrate obtained were used as sources of the extra-cellular enzymes. The FTase activities and the course of pH in submerged fermentation ranged from 7.53-24.42µ/ml and 4.4-4.8 respectively. The maximum FTase activity was obtained at 48 hours fermentation. In solid state fermentation, FTase activities ranged from 2.41-27.77µ/ml. Using ripe plantain peel and kola nut pod respectively. Both substrates supported the growth of the fungus, producing profuse growth during fermentation. In the control experiment (using kolanut pod) that lack supplementation, appreciable FTase activity of 16.92µ/ml was obtained. The optimum temperature range was 600C. it was also active at broad pH range of 1-9 with optimum obtain at pH of 5.0. FTase was stable within the range of investigated pH showing more than 60% activities. FTase can be used in the production of fructooligosaccharide, a functional food.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, solid state fermentation, kola nut pods, Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

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14 Enhanced of Corrosion Resistance of Carbon Steel C1018 with Nano-Tio2 Films Using Dip-Coating Method

Authors: Mai M. Khalaf, Hany M. Abd El-Lateef


A new good application for the sol gel method is to improve the corrosion inhibition properties of carbon steel by the dip coating method of Nano TiO2 films and its modification with Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). The prepared coating samples were investigated by different techniques, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX). The corrosion inhibition performance of the blank carbon steel and prepared coatings samples were evaluated in 0.5 M H2SO4 by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results showed that corrosion resistance of carbon steel increases with increasing the number of coated layers of both nano–TiO2 films and its modification of PEG. SEM-EDAX analyses confirmed that the percentage atomic content of iron for the carbon steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 is 83% and after the deposition of the steel in nano TiO2 sol and that with PEG are 94.3% and 93.7% respectively.

Keywords: dip-coatings, corrosion protection, sol gel, TiO2 films, PEG

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13 Industrial Practical Training for Mechanical Engineering Students: A Multidisciplinary Approach

Authors: Bashiru Olayinka Adisa, Najeem Lateef


The integrated knowledge in the application of mechanical engineering, microprocessor and electronic sensor technologies is becoming the basic skill of a modern engineer in machinery based processes. To meet this objective, we have developed a cross-disciplinary industrial training to teach essential hard technical and soft project skills to the mechanical engineering students in mid-curriculum. Ten groups of students were selected to participate in a 150 hour program. The students were required to design and build a robot with ability to follow tracks and pick/place target blocks in specific locations. The students were trained to integrate the knowledge of computer aid design, electronics, sensor theories and motor technology to fabricate a workable robot as a major outcome of this course. On completion of the project, students competed for top robot honors by demonstrating their robots' movements and performance in pick/place to a panel of judges.

Keywords: electronics, sensor theories and motor, robot, technology

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12 Assessment of Dose: Area Product of Common Radiographic Examinations in Selected Southern Nigerian Hospitals

Authors: Lateef Bamidele


Over the years, radiographic examinations are the most used diagnostic tools in the Nigerian health care system, but most diagnostic examinations carried out do not have records of patient doses. Lack of adequate information on patient doses has been a major hindrance in quantifying the radiological risk associated with radiographic examinations. This study aimed at estimating dose–area product (DAP) of patient examined in X-Ray units in selected hospitals in Southern Nigeria. The standard projections selected are chest posterior-anterior (PA), abdomen anterior-posterior (AP), pelvis AP, pelvis lateral (LAT), skull AP/PA, skull LAT, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine, LAT. Measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) was carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). Measured ESDs were converted into DAP using the beam area of patients. The results show that the mean DAP ranged from 0.17 to 18.35 Gycm². The results obtained in this study when compared with those of NRPB-HPE were found to be higher. These are an indication of non optimization of operational conditions.

Keywords: dose–area product, radiographic examinations, patient doses, optimization

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11 Electrochemical and Theoretical Quantum Approaches on the Inhibition of C1018 Carbon Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium Containing Chloride Using Newly Synthesized Phenolic Schiff Bases Compounds

Authors: Hany M. Abd El-Lateef


Two novel Schiff bases, 5-bromo-2-[(E)-(pyridin-3-ylimino) methyl] phenol (HBSAP) and 5-bromo-2-[(E)-(quinolin-8-ylimino) methyl] phenol (HBSAQ) have been synthesized. They have been characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, IR and NMR). Moreover, the molecular structure of HBSAP and HBSAQ compounds are determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The inhibition activity of HBSAP and HBSAQ for carbon steel in 3.5 %NaCl+0.1 M HCl for both short and long immersion time, at different temperatures (20-50 ºC), was investigated using electrochemistry and surface characterization. The potentiodynamic polarization shows that the inhibitors molecule is more adsorbed on the cathodic sites. Its efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentrations (92.8 % at the optimal concentration of 10-3 M for HBSAQ). Adsorption of the inhibitors on the carbon steel surface was found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm with physical/chemical nature of the adsorption, as it is shown also by scanning electron microscopy. Further, the electronic structural calculations using quantum chemical methods were found to be in a good agreement with the results of the experimental studies.

Keywords: carbon steel, Schiff bases, corrosion inhibition, SEM, electrochemical techniques

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10 Empowering Nigerian Rural Women through Ownership of Productive Resources

Authors: Sidiqat A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, Lateef L. Adefalu, Rashid S. Adisa, Felix O. Oladipo, Tawakalitu A. Dolapo


This study investigates whether the rural women in Nigeria have access to productive resources such as land, livestock, and capital in order to determine their level of socio-economic empowerment. The study adopted a case study design while employing qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to identify 7 locations, where 88 women were selected based on simple random sampling technique. Focus group discussions and questionnaire were used to elicit information. Gender analysis framework was used to explore and analyse the data generated for the study. The study found that the rural women desire to engage in gainful economic activities. However, cultural barriers prevent them from adequately exploring livelihood-improving opportunities. It was established that ownership of productive resources such as land and livestock can enhance their livelihoods provided cultural and governance issues do not deter them from accessing the services. It was therefore recommended that appropriate policies that will favour the access and ownership of assets by women so as to empower them need to be in place. The study provides a nuanced perspective on the influence and relevance of possession of physical assets in enhancing women’s livelihood diversification and overall development of rural livelihoods.

Keywords: livelihoods, productivity, development, economic activities, socio-economic empowerment

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9 Impact of Extension Services Pastoralists’ Vulnerability to Climate Change in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors: Sidiqat A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, Lateef L. Adefalu, Jubril O. Animashaun


Pastoralists in Nigeria are situated in dry regions - where water and pasture for livestock are particularly scarce, as well as areas with poor availability of social amenities and infrastructure. This study therefore explored how extension service could be used to reduce the exposure of nomads to effects of seasonality, climate change, and the poor environmental conditions. The study was carried out in Northern guinea Savannah region of Nigeria because pastoralists have settled there in large numbers due to desertification and low rainfall in the arid regions. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to arrive at the selection of two states (Kwara and Nassarawa) in the region. A total of 63 respondents were randomly chosen using simple random sampling. Focus group discussions and questionnaire were used to gather information while the data was analysed using content analysis. The facilities required by the sampled households are milking machine, cheese making machine, and preservatives to increase the shelf life of cheese. Whilst, the extension service required are demonstration on cheese making, training and seminars on animal husbandry. Additionally, livestock of pastoralists often encroach on farmers’ plots which usually result in pastoralist-farmer conflicts. The study thus recommends diversification of economic activity from livestock to non-livestock related activities as well as creation of grazing routes to reduce pastoralist/farmer conflict.

Keywords: arid region, coping strategies, livestock, livelihood

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8 Thrombocytopenia and Prolonged Prothrombin Time in Neonatal Septicemia

Authors: Shittu Bashirat, Shittu Mujeeb, Oluremi Adeolu, Orisadare Olayiwola, Jikeme Osameke, Bello Lateef


Septicemia in neonates refers to generalized bacterial infection documented by positive blood culture in the first 28 days of life and is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in sub-Sahara Africa. Thrombocytopenia in newborns is a result of increased platelet consumption; sepsis was found to be the most common risk factor. The objective of the study was to determine if there are organism-specific platelet responses among the 2 groups of bacterial agents: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also to examine the association of platelet count and prothrombin time with neonatal septicemia. 232 blood samples were collected for this study. The blood culture was performed using Bactec 9050, an instrumented blood culture system. The platelet count and prothrombin time were performed using Abacus Junior 5 hematology analyzer and i-STAT 1 analyzer respectively. Of the 231 neonates hospitalized with clinical sepsis, blood culture reports were positive in 51 cases (21.4%). Klebsiella spp. (35.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%) were the most common Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates respectively. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 30 (58.8%) of the neonates with septicemia. Of the 9 (17.6%) patients with severe thrombocytopenia, seven (77.8%) had Klebsiella spp. septicemia. Out of the 21(63.6%) of thrombocytopenia produced by Gram-negative isolate, 17 (80.9) had increased prothrombin time. In conclusion, Gram-negative organisms showed the highest cases of severe thrombocytopenia and prolonged PT. This study has helped to establish a disturbance in hemostatic systems in neonates with septicemia. Further studies, however, may be required to assess other hemostasis parameters in order to understand their interaction with the infectious organisms in neonates.

Keywords: neonates, septicemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, platelet count

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7 Sustainable Use of Agricultural Waste to Enhance Food Security and Conserve the Environment

Authors: M. M. Tawfik, Ezzat M. Abd El Lateef, B. B. Mekki, Amany A. Bahr, Magda H. Mohamed, Gehan S. Bakhoom


The rapid increase in the world’s population coupled by decrease the arable land per capita has resulted into an increased demand for food which has in turn led to the production of large amounts of agricultural wastes, both at the farmer, municipality and city levels. Agricultural wastes can be a valuable resource for improving food security. Unfortunately, agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health. This calls for increased public awareness on the benefits and potential hazards of agricultural wastes, especially in developing countries. Agricultural wastes (residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husks, shells etcetera) and animal waste (manures) are widely available, renewable and virtually free, hence they can be an important resource. They can be converted into heat, steam, charcoal, methanol, ethanol, bio diesel as well as raw materials (animal feed, composting, energy and biogas construction etcetera). agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health, if it is not used in a sustainable manner. Organic wastes could be considered an important source of biofertilizer for enhancing food security in the small holder farming communities that would not afford use of expensive inorganic fertilizers. Moreover, these organic wastes contain high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter important for improving nutrient status of soils in urban agriculture. Organic compost leading to improved crop yields and its nutritional values as compared with inorganic fertilization. This paper briefly reviews how agricultural wastes can be used to enhance food security and conserve the environment.

Keywords: agricultural waste, organic compost, environment, valuable resources

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6 Biodiversity Interactions Between C3 and C4 Plants under Agroforestry Cropping System

Authors: Ezzat Abd El Lateef


Agroforestry means combining the management of trees with productive agricultural activities, especially in semiarid regions where crop yield increases are limited in agroforestry systems due to the fertility and microclimate improvements and the large competitive effect of trees with crops for water and nutrients, in order to assess the effect of agroforestry of some field crops with citrus trees as an approach to establish biodiversity in fruit tree plantations. Three field crops, i.e., maize, soybean and sunflower, were inter-planted with seedless orange trees (4*4 m) or were planted as solid plantings. The results for the trees indicated a larger fruit yield was obtained when soybean and sunflowers were interplant with citrus. Statistically significant effects (P<0.05) were found for maize grain and biological yields, with increased yields when grown as solid planting. There were no differences in the yields of soya bean and sunflower, where the yields were very similar between the two cropping systems. It is evident from the trials that agroforestry is an efficient concept to increase biodiversity through the interaction of trees with the interplant field crop species. Maize, unlike the other crops, was more sensitive to shade conditions under agroforestry practice and not preferred in the biodiversity system. The potential of agroforestry to improve or increase biodiversity is efficient as the understorey crops are usually C4 species, and the overstorey trees are invariably C3 species in agroforestry. Improvement in interplant species is most likely if the understorey crop is a C3 species, which are usually light saturated in the open, and partial shade may have little effect on assimilation or by a concurrent reduction in transpiration. It could be concluded that agroforestry is an efficient concept to increase biodiversity through the interaction of trees with the interplant field crop species. Some field crops could be employed successfully, like soybean or sunflowers, while others like maize are sensitive to incorporate in agroforestry system.

Keywords: agroforestry, field crops, C3 and C4 plants, yield

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5 Combining Ability for Maize Grain Yield and Yield Component for Resistant to Striga hermmonthica (Del) Benth in Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors: Terkimbi Vange, Obed Abimiku, Lateef Lekan Bello, Lucky Omoigui


In 2014 and 2015, eight maize inbred lines resistant to Striga hermonthica (Del) Benth were crossed in 8 x 8 half diallel (Griffing method 11, model 1). The eight parent inbred lines were planted out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications at two different Striga infested environments (Lafia and Makurdi) during the late cropping season. The objectives were to determine the combining ability of Striga resistant maize inbred lines and identify suitable inbreds for hybrids development. The lines were used to estimate general combining ability (GCA), and specific combining ability (SCA) effects for Striga related parameters such as Striga shoot counts, Striga damage rating (SDR), plant height and grain yield and other agronomic traits. The result of combined ANOVA revealed that mean squares were highly significant for all traits except Striga damage rating (SDR1) at 8WAS and Striga emergence count (STECOI) at 8WAS. Mean squares for SCA were significantly low for all traits. TZSTR190 was the highest yielding parent, and TZSTR166xTZST190 was the highest yielding hybrid (cross). Parent TZSTR166, TZEI188, TZSTR190 and TZSTR193 shows significant (p < 0.05) positive GCA effects for grain yield while the rest had negative GCA effects for grain yield. Parent TZSTR166, TZEI188, TZSTR190, and TZSTR193 could be used for initiating hybrid development. Also, TZSTR166xTZSTR190 cross was the best specific combiner followed by TZEI188xTZSTR193, TZEI80xTZSTR193, and TZSTR190xTZSTR193. TZSTR166xTZSTR190 and TZSTR190xTZSTR193 had the highest SCA effects. However, TZEI80 and TZSTR190 manifested a high positive SCA effect with TZSTR166 indicating that these two inbreds combined better with TZSTR166.

Keywords: combining ability, Striga hermonthica, resistance, grain yield

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4 Exploring the Profiles of Juvenile Militants in the Sabaoon De-Radicalization and Emancipation Program in the Swat Valley of Pakistan

Authors: Lateef Hakim Zai Khyber, Syed Rashid Ali


In the post 9/11 era, a new trend has developed of terrorist profiling on the basis of the ethnic, religious, political, psychological, social, and economic background of the terrorists to anticipate and assess the possible risk and to prevent and prosecute the suspected before they commit any violent act. The same profiling approach was adopted in different militant or terrorists’ de-radicalization and rehabilitation programs across the world in order to evaluate and identify the reasons and causes for joining terrorism in terms of push and pull factors. This paper attempts to explore and investigate the profiles of the detainees in the Sabaoon de-radicalization and Emancipation program, which aimed at de-radicalizing the former militants of Tehrik-e-Taliban (TTP) Pakistan in the Swat valley of Pakistan. This research attempted to use a qualitative method for collecting data, including a number of formal and informal open-ended interviews from the former staff members of Sabaoon to explore various aspects of the program, such as various approaches used at Sabaoon for terrorists profiling. It conducts a thorough examination of the profiles of the terrorist through their socio-economic, ideological, emotional, intellectual, and psychological conditions and orientations, their personal details, family issues, and social preferences, etc. The study finds out that the majority of the terrorists belonged to the marginalized groups or lower class, including underprivileged tenants and poor laborers, of the society having no access to land. They possess almost the same profiles, including low socioeconomic status, absence of father or strict behavior of parents, large and combined families, lack of education, lack of religious understanding etc. They also possess some common traits such as anxiety disorder, emotional instability, aggressive impulses and insecurity, depression, inferiority complex, lack of critical thinking and logical reasoning, authority-seeking behavior, and revenge seeking behavior.

Keywords: terrorist profiling, Sabaoon, de-radicalization, rehabilitation, Swat, Pakistan, juvenile militants

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3 Organic Farming for Sustainable Production of Some Promising Halophytic Species in Saline Environment

Authors: Medhat Tawfik, Ezzat Abd El Lateef, Bahr Amany, Mohamed Magda


Applying organic farming systems in biosaline agriculture is unconventional approach for sustainable use of marginal soil and desert land for planting non-traditional halophytic crops such as Leptochloa fusca, Kochia indica, Sporobolus virginicus and Spartina patens. These plants are highly salt tolerant C4 halophytic forage plants grown well in coastal salt marsh. These halophytic plant will take important place in the farming system, especially in the coastal areas and salt-affected land. We can call it environmentally smart crops because they ensure food security, contribute to energy security, guarantee environmental sustainability, and mitigate the negative impacts of climate change. Organic Agriculture is the most important and widely practiced agro-ecological farming system. It is claimed to be the most sustainable approach and long term adaptation strategy. It promotes soil fertility and diversity at all levels and makes soils less susceptible to erosion. It is also reported to be climate change resilience farming systems as it promotes the proper management of soil, water, biodiversity and local knowledge and provides producers with ecologically sound management decisions. A field experiment was carried out at the Model Farm of National Research Centre, El Tour, South Sinai to study the impact of (Mycorrhiza 1kg/fed., charcoal 4 tons/fed., chicken manure 5 tons/fed., in addition to control treatment) on some growth characters, photosynthetic pigments content, and some physiological aspects i.e. prolind and soluble carbohydrates content, succulence and osmotic pressure values, as well as nutritive values i.e. Crude fat (CF), Acid detergent fiber (ADF), Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), Ether extract (EE) and Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) of five halophytic plant species (Leptochloa fusca, Kochia indica, Sporobolus virginicus and Spartina patens). Our results showed that organic fertilizer treatment enhanced all the previous character as compared with control with superiority to chicken manure over the other treatments.

Keywords: organic agriculture, halophytic plants, saline environment, water security

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2 Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Surfactant Concentrations on the Dynamics of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

Authors: Bamikole J. Adeyemi, Prashant Jadhawar, Lateef Akanji


Theoretically, there exist two mathematical interfaces (fluid-solid and fluid-fluid) when a liquid film is present on solid surfaces. These interfaces overlap if the mineral surface is oil-wet or mixed wet, and therefore, the effects of disjoining pressure are significant on both boundaries. Hence, dewetting is a necessary process that could detach oil from the mineral surface. However, if the thickness of the thin water film directly in contact with the surface is large enough, disjoining pressure can be thought to be zero at the liquid-liquid interface. Recent studies show that the integration of fluid-fluid interactions with fluid-rock interactions is an important step towards a holistic approach to understanding smart water effects. Experiments have shown that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at oil-water interfaces, and these ion-specific interactions lead to oil emulsion formation. The natural emulsifiers present in crude oil behave as polyelectrolytes when the oil interfaces with low salinity water. Wettability alteration caused by low salinity waterflooding during Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) process results from the activities of divalent ions. However, polyelectrolytes are said to lose their viscoelastic property with increasing cation concentrations. In this work, the influence of cation concentrations on the dynamics of viscoelastic liquid-liquid interfaces is numerically investigated. The resultant ion concentrations at the crude oil/brine interfaces were estimated using a surface complexation model. Subsequently, the ion concentration parameter is integrated into a mathematical model to describe its effects on the dynamics of a viscoelastic interfacial thin film. The film growth, stability, and rupture were measured after different time steps for three types of fluids (Newtonian, purely elastic and viscoelastic fluids). The interfacial films respond to exposure time in a similar manner with an increasing growth rate, which resulted in the formation of more droplets with time. Increased surfactant accumulation at the interface results in a higher film growth rate which leads to instability and subsequent formation of more satellite droplets. Purely elastic and viscoelastic properties limit film growth rate and consequent film stability compared to the Newtonian fluid. Therefore, low salinity and reduced concentration of the potential determining ions in injection water will lead to improved interfacial viscoelasticity.

Keywords: liquid-liquid interfaces, surfactant concentrations, potential determining ions, residual oil mobilization

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1 Numerical Investigation of the Boundary Conditions at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces in the Presence of Surfactants

Authors: Bamikole J. Adeyemi, Prashant Jadhawar, Lateef Akanji


Liquid-liquid interfacial flow is an important process that has applications across many spheres. One such applications are residual oil mobilization, where crude oil and low salinity water are emulsified due to lowered interfacial tension under the condition of low shear rates. The amphiphilic components (asphaltenes and resins) in crude oil are considered to assemble at the interface between the two immiscible liquids. To justify emulsification, drag and snap-off suppression as the main effects of low salinity water, mobilization of residual oil is visualized as thickening and slip of the wetting phase at the brine/crude oil interface which results in the squeezing and drag of the non-wetting phase to the pressure sinks. Meanwhile, defining the boundary conditions for such a system can be very challenging since the interfacial dynamics do not only depend on interfacial tension but also the flow rate. Hence, understanding the flow boundary condition at the brine/crude oil interface is an important step towards defining the influence of low salinity water composition on residual oil mobilization. This work presents a numerical evaluation of three slip boundary conditions that may apply at liquid-liquid interfaces. A mathematical model was developed to describe the evolution of a viscoelastic interfacial thin liquid film. The base model is developed by the asymptotic expansion of the full Navier-Stokes equations for fluid motion due to gradients of surface tension. This model was upscaled to describe the dynamics of the film surface deformation. Subsequently, Jeffrey’s model was integrated into the formulations to account for viscoelastic stress within a long wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations. To study the fluid response to a prescribed disturbance, a linear stability analysis (LSA) was performed. The dispersion relation and the corresponding characteristic equation for the growth rate were obtained. Three slip (slip, 1; locking, -1; and no-slip, 0) boundary conditions were examined using the resulted characteristic equation. Also, the dynamics of the evolved interfacial thin liquid film were numerically evaluated by considering the influence of the boundary conditions. The linear stability analysis shows that the boundary conditions of such systems are greatly impacted by the presence of amphiphilic molecules when three different values of interfacial tension were tested. The results for slip and locking conditions are consistent with the fundamental solution representation of the diffusion equation where there is film decay. The interfacial films at both boundary conditions respond to exposure time in a similar manner with increasing growth rate which resulted in the formation of more droplets with time. Contrarily, no-slip boundary condition yielded an unbounded growth and it is not affected by interfacial tension.

Keywords: boundary conditions, liquid-liquid interfaces, low salinity water, residual oil mobilization

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