Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 141

Search results for: peroxidase

141 Optimization of Process Parameters for Peroxidase Production by Ensifer Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh

Abstract:

Given the high utility of peroxidase in several industrial processes, the search for novel microorganisms with enhanced peroxidase production capacity is of keen interest. This study investigated the process conditions for optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp, new ligninolytic proteobacteria with peroxidase production potential. Also, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimum at an initial medium pH 7, incubation temperature of 30 °C and agitation speed of 100 rpm using alkali lignin fermentation medium supplemented with guaiacol as the most effective inducer and ammonium sulphate as the best inorganic nitrogen. Optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp. was attained at 48 h with specific productivity of 12.76 ± 1.09 U mg⁻¹. Interestingly, probable laccase production was observed with optimum specific productivity of 12.76 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ at 72 h. The highest peroxidase yield was observed with sawdust as solid substrate under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, Ensifer sp. possesses the capacity for enhanced peroxidase production that can be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

Keywords: catalase-peroxidase, enzyme production, peroxidase, polymerase chain reaction, proteobacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
140 Enhanced Peroxidase Production by Raoultella Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh

Abstract:

Given the high-utility of peroxidase, its production in large amount is of utmost importance. Over the years, actinomycetes have been the major peroxidase-producing bacteria. Consequently, other classes of bacteria with peroxidase production potentials are underexplored. This study, therefore, sought to enhance peroxidase production by a Raoultella species, a new ligninolytic proteobacteria strain, by determining the optimum culture conditions (initial pH, incubation temperature and agitation speed) for peroxidase production under submerged fermentation using the classical process of one variable at a time and supplementing the fermentation medium with some lignin model and inorganic nitrogen compounds. Subsequently, the time-course assay was carried out under optimized conditions. Then, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimal at initial pH 5, incubation temperature of 35 °C and agitation speed of 150 rpm with guaiacol and ammonium chloride as the best inducer and nitrogen supplement respectively. Peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was optimal at 72 h with specific productivity of 16.48 ± 0.89 U mg⁻¹. A simultaneous production of a non-peroxide dependent extracellular enzyme which suggests probable laccase production was observed with specific productivity of 13.63 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ while sawdust gave the best peroxidase yield under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was increased by 3.40-fold.

Keywords: enzyme production, ligninolytic bacteria, peroxidase, proteobacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
139 Detection and Expression of Peroxidase Genes in Trichoderma harzianum KY488466 and Its Response to Crude Oil Degradation

Authors: Michael Dare Asemoloye, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Rafiq Ahmad, Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi, D. O. Adejoye

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Fungi have potentials for degrading hydrocarbons through the secretion of different enzymes. Crude oil tolerance and degradation by Trichoderma harzianum was investigated in this study with its ability to produce peroxidase enzymes (LiP and MnP). Many fungal strains were isolated from rhizosphere of grasses growing on a crude oil spilled site, and the most frequent strain based on percentage incidence was further characterized using morphological and molecular characteristics. Molecular characterization was done through the amplification of Ribosomal-RNA regions of 18s (1609-1627) and 28s (287-266) using ITS1 and ITS4 combinations and it was identified using NCBI BLAST tool. The selected fungus was also subjected to an in-vitro tolerance test at crude oil concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% while 0% served as control. In addition, lignin peroxidase genes (lig1-6) and manganese peroxidase gene (mnp) were detected and expressed in this strain using RT-PCR technique, its peroxidase producing activities was also studied in aliquots (U/ml). This strain had highest incidence of 80%, it was registered in NCBI as Trichoderma harzianum asemoJ KY488466. The strain KY488466 responded to crude oil concentrations as it increase, the dose inhibition response percentage (DIRP) increased from 41.67 to 95.41 at 5 to 25 % crude oil concentrations. All the peroxidase genes are present in KY488466, and expressed with amplified 900-1000 bp through RT-PCR technique. In this strain, lig2, lig4 and mnp genes were over-expressed, lig 6 was moderately expressed, while none of the genes was under-expressed. The strain also produced 90±0.87 U/ml lignin peroxidase and 120±1.23 U/mil manganese peroxidase enzymes in aliquots. These results imply that KY488466 can tolerate and survive high crude oil concentration and could be exploited for bioremediation of oil-spilled soils, the produced peroxidase enzymes could also be exploited for other biotechnological experiments.

Keywords: crude oil, enzymes, expression, peroxidase genes, tolerance, Trichoderma harzianum

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
138 High Catalytic Activity and Stability of Ginger Peroxidase Immobilized on Amino Functionalized Silica Coated Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite: A Promising Tool for Bioremediation

Authors: Misha Ali, Qayyum Husain, Nida Alam, Masood Ahmad

Abstract:

Improving the activity and stability of the enzyme is an important aspect in bioremediation processes. Immobilization of enzyme is an efficient approach to amend the properties of biocatalyst required during wastewater treatment. The present study was done to immobilize partially purified ginger peroxidase on amino functionalized silica coated titanium dioxide nanocomposite. Interestingly there was an enhancement in enzyme activity after immobilization on nanosupport which was evident from effectiveness factor (η) value of 1.76. Immobilized enzyme was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immobilized peroxidase exhibited higher activity in a broad range of pH and temperature as compared to free enzyme. Also, the thermostability of peroxidase was strikingly improved upon immobilization. After six repeated uses, the immobilized peroxidase retained around 62% of its dye decolorization activity. There was a 4 fold increase in Vmax of immobilized peroxidase as compared to free enzyme. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated conformational changes in the secondary structure of enzyme, a possible reason for the enhanced enzyme activity after immobilization. Immobilized peroxidase was highly efficient in the removal of acid yellow 42 dye in a stirred batch process. Our study shows that this bio-remediating system has remarkable potential for treatment of aromatic pollutants present in wastewater.

Keywords: acid yellow 42, decolorization, ginger peroxidase, immobilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
137 Influence of Salicylic Acid Seed Priming on Catalase and Peroxidase in Zea mays L. Plant (Var- Sc.704) under Water Stress Condition and Different Irrigation Regimes

Authors: Arash Azarpanah, Masoud Zadehbagheri, Shorangiz Javanmardi

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Abiotic stresses are the principle threat to plant growth and crop productivity all over the world. In order to improve the germination of corn seeds in drought stress conditions, effect of seed priming by various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) (0.8 and 0.2 mM) on activities of catalase and peroxidase in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) was evaluated at Agriculture Research Center located in Arsenjan city in Iran, during summer 2013. A farm research was done in RCBD as factorial with three replications. We considered four irrigation was carried out once the cumulative evaporation from Pan Class A come to 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm. Results illustrated that drought stress significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase and also treatment with salicylic acid significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase. In addition, treatment with salicylic acid enhances drought tolerance in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) with increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: catalase, corn, salicylic acid, water deficits stress, cumulative evaporation, Pan Class A

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
136 Effect of Cadmium on Oxidative Enzymes Activity in Persian Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.)

Authors: Homayun Ghasemi, Mojtaba Yousefirad, Mozhgan Farzamisepehr

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Heavy metals are among soil pollutant resources that in case of accumulation in the soil and absorption by the plant, enter into the food chain and poison the plants or the people who consume those plants. This research was performed in order to examine the role of cadmium as a heavy metal in the activity of catalase and peroxidase as well as protein concentration in Trifolium resupinatum L. based on a randomized block design with three repetitions. The used treatments included consumption of Cd (NO3)2 at four levels, namely, 0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm. The plants under study were treated for 10 days. The results of the study showed that catalase activity decreased by the increase of cadmium. Moreover, peroxidase activity increased by an increase inthe consumption of cadmium. The analysis of protein level showed that plantlet protein decreased in high cadmium concentrations. The findings also demonstrated that cadmium concentration in roots was higher than in shoots.

Keywords: catalase, heavy metal, peroxidase, protein

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
135 Bienzymatic Nanocomposites Biosensors Complexed with Gold Nanoparticles, Polyaniline, Recombinant MN Peroxidase from Corn, and Glucose Oxidase to Measure Glucose

Authors: Anahita Izadyar

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Using a recombinant enzyme derived from corn and a simple modification, we are fabricating a facile, fast, and cost-beneficial novel biosensor to measure glucose. We are applying Plant Produced Mn Peroxidase (PPMP), glucose oxidase (GOx), polyaniline (PANI) as conductive polymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Au electrode using electrochemical response to detect glucose. We applied the entrapment method of enzyme composition, which is generally used to immobilize conductive polymer and facilitate electron transfer from the enzyme oxidation-reduction center to the sample solution. In this work, the oxidation of glucose on the modified gold electrode was quantified with Linear Sweep Voltammetry(LSV). We expect that the modified biosensor has the potential for monitoring various biofluids.

Keywords: plant-produced manganese peroxidase, enzyme-based biosensors, glucose, modified gold nanoparticles electrode, polyaniline

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
134 Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

Authors: Biswabandhu Bankura, Srikanta Guria, Madhusudan Das

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Purpose: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. Methods: 200 hypothyroid patients (case) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control) were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14) was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Results: Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. Key Findings: The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

Keywords: thyroid peroxidase, hypothyroidism, mutation, in vitro assay, transfection

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
133 Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

Authors: Biswabandhu Bankura, Srikanta Guria, Madhusudan Das

Abstract:

Purpose: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. Methods: 200 hypothyroid patients (case) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control) were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14) was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Results: Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. Key Findings: The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

Keywords: thyroid peroxidase, hypothyroidism, mutation, in vitro assay, transfection

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
132 Oxidovanadium(IV) and Dioxidovanadium(V) Complexes: Efficient Catalyst for Peroxidase Mimetic Activity and Oxidation

Authors: Mannar R. Maurya, Bithika Sarkar, Fernando Avecilla

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Peroxidase activity is possibly successfully used for different industrial processes in medicine, chemical industry, food processing and agriculture. However, they bear some intrinsic drawback associated with denaturation by proteases, their special storage requisite and cost factor also. Now a day’s artificial enzyme mimics are becoming a research interest because of their significant applications over conventional organic enzymes for ease of their preparation, low price and good stability in activity and overcome the drawbacks of natural enzymes e.g serine proteases. At present, a large number of artificial enzymes have been synthesized by assimilating a catalytic center into a variety of schiff base complexes, ligand-anchoring, supramolecular complexes, hematin, porphyrin, nanoparticles to mimic natural enzymes. Although in recent years a several number of vanadium complexes have been reported by a continuing increase in interest in bioinorganic chemistry. To our best of knowledge, the investigation of artificial enzyme mimics of vanadium complexes is very less explored. Recently, our group has reported synthetic vanadium schiff base complexes capable of mimicking peroxidases. Herein, we have synthesized monoidovanadium(IV) and dioxidovanadium(V) complexes of pyrazoleone derivateis ( extensively studied on account of their broad range of pharmacological appication). All these complexes are characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, UV-Visible, NMR (1H, 13C and 51V), Elemental analysis, thermal studies and single crystal analysis. The peroxidase mimic activity has been studied towards oxidation of pyrogallol to purpurogallin with hydrogen peroxide at pH 7 followed by measuring kinetic parameters. The Michaelis-Menten behavior shows an excellent catalytic activity over its natural counterparts, e.g. V-HPO and HRP. The obtained kinetic parameters (Vmax, Kcat) were also compared with peroxidase and haloperoxidase enzymes making it a promising mimic of peroxidase catalyst. Also, the catalytic activity has been studied towards the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol in presence of H2O2 as an oxidant. Various parameters such as amount of catalyst and oxidant, reaction time, reaction temperature and solvent have been taken into consideration to get maximum oxidative products of 1-phenylethanol.

Keywords: oxovanadium(IV)/dioxidovanadium(V) complexes, NMR spectroscopy, Crystal structure, peroxidase mimic activity towards oxidation of pyrogallol, Oxidation of 1-phenylethanol

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
131 Detection of Heroin and Its Metabolites in Urine Samples: A Chemiluminescence Approach

Authors: Sonu Gandhi, Neena Capalash, Prince Sharma, C. Raman Suri

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A sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) for heroin and its major metabolites is reported. The method is based on the competitive reaction of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-MAM antibody and free drug in spiked urine samples. A hapten-protein conjugate was synthesized by using acidic derivative of monoacetyl morphine (MAM) coupled to carrier protein BSA and was used as an immunogen for the generation of anti-MAM (monoacetyl morphine) antibody. A high titer of antibody (1:64,0000) was obtained and the relative affinity constant (Kaff) of antibody was 3.1×107 l/mol. Under the optimal conditions, linear range and reactivity for heroin, mono acetyl morphine (MAM), morphine and codeine were 0.08, 0.09, 0.095 and 0.092 ng/mL respectively. The developed chemiluminescence inhibition assay could detect heroin and its metabolites in standard and urine samples up to 0.01 ng/ml.

Keywords: heroin, metabolites, chemiluminescence immunoassay, horse radish peroxidase

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
130 Quantification of Enzymatic Activities of Proteins, Peroxidase and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, in Growing Phaseolus vulgaris L, with Application Bacterial Consortium to Control Fusarium and Rhizoctonia

Authors: Arredondo Valdés Roberto, Hernández Castillo Francisco Daniel, Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Castro Del Angel Epifanio

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The common bean or Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume for direct consumption in the world. Fusarium dry rot in the major fungus disease affects Phaseolus vulgaris L, after planting. In another hand, Rhizoctonia can be found on all underground parts of the plant and various times during the growing season. In recent years, the world has conducted studies about the use of natural products as substitutes for herbicides and pesticides, because of possible ecological and economic benefits. Plants respond to fungal invasion by activating defense responses associated with accumulation of several enzymes and inhibitors, which prevent pathogen infection. This study focused on the role of proteins, peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), in imparting resistance to soft rot pathogens by applied different bacterial consortium, formulated and provided by Biofertilizantes de Méxicanos industries, analyzing the enzyme activity at different times of application (6 h, 12 h and 24 h). The resistance of these treatments was correlated with high POD and PAL enzyme activity as well as increased concentrations of proteins. These findings show that PAL, POD and synthesis of proteins play a role in imparting resistance to Phaseolus vulgaris L. soft rot infection by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia.

Keywords: fusarium, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, rhizoctonia

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
129 Oxidantantioxidant Status in Calves Supplemented with Green Tea Extract

Authors: Ibrahim I. Elshahawy

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The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract on serum oxidant and antioxidant profile, liver and kidney function. 40 Friesian calves are included in this study and allocated into two groups: Group I (n=20) clinically healthy calves showing no clinical abnormalities, not receiving any treatment and served as control; group II (n=20) received green tea extract (GTE) for 30 days. Non-significant changes in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected between groups, on contrary, serum creatinine and activities of liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly different between two groups. There were significant increases in the mean values of serum antioxidative parameters (total antioxidant capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) in group II. Whereas, the activity of lipid peroxidase significantly decreased in GTE treated calves when compared to control.

Keywords: green tea extract, antioxidants, oxidants, calves

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
128 CCK/Gastrin Immunoreactivity in Gastrointestinal Tract of Vimba vimba

Authors: Nurgül Şenol, Melda Azman

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In this study, gastrointestinal immunohistochemistry in the Vimba vimba and the localization of CCK/gastrin were determined. Although there are a number of studies which relate to the gastrointestinal histochemistry and the localization of the peptides, a literature research in this field revealed that no histochemical or immunohistochemical study covering also the species had been found in our country. In this research, species will be provided from Vimba vimba located in Eğirdir lake. Stomach samples and intestinal samples of these fish will be exposed to routine histological tissue process, embedded in paraffin blocks, and 5-6 μ -thick sections will be taken. Using the PAP (Peroxidase anti-peroxidase) method, localization of the peptides CCK/gastrin was to be found. The densities of peptides of this species were compared, and then the findings obtained were to be evaluated through the statistical analysis methods (SPSS). Endocrine cells reactive to gastrin/CCK antiserum were demonstrated in the stomach and intestinal mucosa. There is a significant difference between gastrin and CCK when compared to regions.

Keywords: CCK, gastrin, immunoreactivity, vimba vimba

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
127 Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose Determination Based on a Recombinant Mn Peroxidase from Corn Cross-linked to a Gold Electrode

Authors: Anahita Izadyar, My Ni Van, Kayleigh Amber Rodriguez, Ilwoo Seok, Elizabeth E. Hood

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Using a recombinant enzyme derived from corn and a simple modification, we fabricated a facile, fast, and cost-beneficial biosensor to measure glucose. The Nafion/ Plant Produced Mn Peroxidase (PPMP)– glucose oxidase (GOx)- Bovine serum albumin (BSA) /Au electrode showed an excellent amperometric response to detect glucose. This biosensor is capable of responding to a wide range of glucose—20.0 µM−15.0 mM and has a lower detection limit (LOD) of 2.90µM. The reproducibility response using six electrodes is also very substantial and indicates the high capability of this biosensor to detect a wide range of 3.10±0.19µM to 13.2±1.8 mM glucose concentration. Selectivity of this electrode was investigated in an optimized experimental solution contains 10% diet green tea with citrus containing ascorbic acid (AA), and citric acid (CA) in a wide concentration of glucose at 0.02 to 14.0mM with an LOD of 3.10µM. Reproducibility was also investigated using 4 electrodes in this sample and shows notable results in the wide concentration range of 3.35±0.45µM to of 13.0 ± 0.81 mM. We also used other voltammetry methods to evaluate this biosensor. We applied linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and this technique shows a wide range of 0.10−15.0 mM to detect glucose with a lower detection limit of 19.5µM. The performance and strength of this enzyme biosensor were the simplicity, wide linear ranges, sensitivities, selectivity, and low limits of detection. We expect that the modified biosensor has the potential for monitoring various biofluids.

Keywords: plant-produced manganese peroxidase, enzyme-based biosensors, glucose, modified gold electrode, glucose oxidase

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
126 The Effect of Metabolites of Fusarium solani on the Activity of the PR-Proteins (Chitinase, β-1,3-Glucanase and Peroxidases) of Potato Tubers

Authors: A. K. Tursunova, O. V. Chebonenko, A. Zh. Amirkulova, A. O. Abaildayev, O. A. Sapko, Y. M. Dyo, A. Sh. Utarbaeva

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Fusarium solani and its variants cause root and stem rot of plants. Dry rot is the most common disease of potato tubers during storage. The causative agents of fusariosis in contact with plants behave as antagonists, growth stimulants or parasites. The diversity of host-parasite relationships is explained by the parasite’s ability to produce a wide spectrum of biologically active compounds including toxins, enzymes, oligosaccharides, antibiotic substances, enniatins and gibberellins. Many of these metabolites contribute to the creation of compatible relations; others behave as elicitors, inducing various protective responses in plants. An important part of the strategy for developing plant resistance against pathogens is the activation of protein synthesis to produce protective ‘pathogenesis-related’ proteins. The family of PR-proteins known to confer the most protective response is chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14, Cht) and β-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39, Glu). PR-proteins also include a large multigene family of peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7, Pod), and increased activity of Pod and expression of the Pod genes leads to the development of resistance to a broad class of pathogens. Despite intensive research on the role of PR-proteins, the question of their participation in the mechanisms of formation of the F.solani–S.tuberosum pathosуstem is not sufficiently studied. Our aim was to investigate the effect of different classes of F. solani metabolites on the activity of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanases and peroxidases in tubers of Solanum tuberosum. Metabolite culture filtrate (CF) and cytoplasmic components were fractionated by extraction of the mycelium with organic solvents, salting out techniques, dialysis, column chromatography and ultrafiltration. Protein, lipid, carbohydrate and polyphenolic fractions of fungal metabolites were derived. Using enzymatic hydrolysis we obtained oligo glycans from fungal cell walls with different molecular weights. The activity of the metabolites was tested using potato tuber discs (d = 16mm, h = 5mm). The activity of PR-proteins of tubers was analyzed in a time course of 2–24 hours. The involvement of the analysed metabolites in the modulation of both early non-specific and late related to pathogenesis reactions was demonstrated. The most effective inducer was isolated from the CF (fraction of total phenolic compounds including naphtazarins). Induction of PR-activity by this fraction was: chitinase - 340-360%, glucanase - 435-450%, soluble forms of peroxidase - 400-560%, related forms of peroxidase - 215-237%. High-inducing activity was observed by the chloroform and acetonitrile extracts of the mycelium (induction of chitinase and glucanase activity was 176-240%, of soluble and bound forms of peroxidase - 190-400%). The fraction of oligo glycans mycelium cell walls of 1.2 kDa induced chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase to 239-320%; soluble forms and related peroxidase to 198-426%. Oligo glycans cell walls of 5-10 kDa had a weak suppressor effect - chitinase (21-25%) and glucanase (25-28%) activity; had no effect on soluble forms of peroxidase, but induced to 250-270% activity related forms. The CF polysaccharides of 8.5 kDa and 3.1 kDa inhibited synchronously the glucanase and chitinase specific response in step (after 24 hours at 42-50%) and the step response induced nonspecific peroxidase activity: soluble forms 4.8 -5.2 times, associated forms 1.4-1.6 times.

Keywords: fusarium solani, PR-proteins, peroxidase, solanum tuberosum

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
125 Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Nano-Nutrient for the Growth and Enhancement of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Plant

Authors: G. Karunakaran, M. Jagathambal, N. Van Minh, E. Kolesnikov, A. Gusev, O. V. Zakharova, E. V. Scripnikova, E. D. Vishnyakova, D. Kuznetsov

Abstract:

Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.

Keywords: catalase, fertilizer, iron oxide nanoparticles, Linum usitatissimum L., nano-nutrient, peroxidase

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124 Glucose Monitoring System Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Sangeeta Palekar, Neeraj Rangwani, Akash Poddar, Jayu Kalambe

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The bio-medical analysis is an indispensable procedure for identifying health-related diseases like diabetes. Monitoring the glucose level in our body regularly helps us identify hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, which can cause severe medical problems like nerve damage or kidney diseases. This paper presents a method for predicting the glucose concentration in blood samples using image processing and machine learning algorithms. The glucose solution is prepared by the glucose oxidase (GOD) and peroxidase (POD) method. An experimental database is generated based on the colorimetric technique. The image of the glucose solution is captured by the raspberry pi camera and analyzed using image processing by extracting the RGB, HSV, LUX color space values. Regression algorithms like multiple linear regression, decision tree, RandomForest, and XGBoost were used to predict the unknown glucose concentration. The multiple linear regression algorithm predicts the results with 97% accuracy. The image processing and machine learning-based approach reduce the hardware complexities of existing platforms.

Keywords: artificial intelligence glucose detection, glucose oxidase, peroxidase, image processing, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
123 The Effect of Taking Heavy Metal on Gastrointestinal Peptides

Authors: Nurgul Senol, Melda Azman

Abstract:

In this study, the rate of release of gastrointestinal peptides heavy metal compounds applied to a certain extent (gastrin/CCK) on immunohistochemical aimed to determine the effect. This study was supported by TÜBİTAK. Subjects were randomly grouped into three. Group I; iron (Fe), Group II; zinc (Zn), Group III; control; gavage technique was applied to each group once a day throughout 30 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and their stomach-intestine tissues removed, Peroxidase anti peroxidase method was applied following the routine histological follow-ups. According to the control group, in the stomach, had more positive cell density of gastrin in Fe groups, it was observed that group followed by Zn. It was found between the groups in the stomach and intestinal gastrin, gastrin-positive cell density decreases towards the intestines from the stomach. Although CCK differences in staining were observed in the control group, the intensity of staining intensity between the two groups in positive cells was determined to be more than the stomach. The group in the intestines, there is no change in terms of positivity CCK. Consequently, there is no significant effect on gastrointestinal peptides in Zn application. It has been identified Fe application has a significant effect on the releasing of CCK/gastrin peptides.

Keywords: alimentary canal, CCK, iron, gastrin, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
122 Effects of Nitrogen and Arsenic on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Photosynthetic Pigments in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Mostafa Heidari

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Nitrogen fertilization has played a significant role in increasing crop yield, and solving problems of hunger and malnutrition worldwide. However, excessive of heavy metals such as arsenic can interfere on growth and reduced grain yield. In order to investigate the effects of different concentrations of arsenic and nitrogen fertilizer on photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzyme activities in safflower (cv. Goldasht), a factorial plot experiment as randomized complete block design with three replication was conducted in university of Zabol. Arsenic treatment included: A1= control or 0, A2=30, A3=60 and A4=90 mg. kg-1 soil from the Na2HASO4 source and three nitrogen levels including W1=75, W2=150 and W3=225 kg.ha-1 from urea source. Results showed that, arsenic had a significant effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. By increasing arsenic levels from A1 to A4, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gayacol peroxidase (GPX) increased and catalase (CAT) was decreased. In this study, arsenic had no significant on chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid content. Nitrogen and interaction between arsenic and nitrogen treatment, except APX, had significant effect on CAT and GPX. The highest GPX activity was obtained at A4N3 treatment. Nitrogen increased the content of chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid.

Keywords: arsenic, physiological parameters, oxidative enzymes, nitrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
121 EDTA Assisted Phytoremediation of Cadmium by Enhancing Growth and Antioxidant Defense System in Brassica napus L.

Authors: Mujahid Farid, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Bilal Shakoor

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Heavy metals pollution of soil is a prevalent global problem and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) are considered useful for the restoration of metal contaminated soils. Phytoextraction is an in-situ environment-friendly technique for the clean-up of contaminated soils. Response to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in combination with a chelator, Ethylenediamminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was studied in oilseed rape grown hydroponically in greenhouse conditions under three levels of Cd (0, 10, and 50 µM) and two levels of EDTA (0 and 2.5 mM). Cd decreased plant growth, biomass and chlorophyll concentrations while the application of EDTA enhanced plant growth by reducing Cd-induced effects in Cd-stressed plants. Significant decrease in photosynthetic parameters was found by the Cd alone. Addition of EDTA improved the net photosynthetic and gas exchange capacity of plants under Cd stress. Cd at 10 and 50 μM significantly increased electrolyte leakage, the production of hydrogen peroxidase (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant reduction was observed in the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase under Cd stress plants. Application of EDTA at the rate of 2.5 mM alone and with combination of Cd increased the antioxidant enzymes activities and reduced the electrolyte leakage and production of H2O2 and MDA. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) actively accumulated Cd in roots, stems and leaves and the addition of EDTA boosted the uptake and accumulation of Cd in oil seed rape by dissociating Cd in culture media. The present results suggest that under 8 weeks Cd-induced stress, application of EDTA significantly improve plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic, gas exchange capacity, improving enzymes activities and increased the metal uptake in roots, stems and leaves of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) respectively.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, cadmium, chelator, EDTA, growth, oilseed rape

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120 Growth of Nitella in Response to Cesium Exposure: Implication for Phytoremediation

Authors: Harun Rashid, Keerthi S. S. Atapaththu, Takashi Asaeda

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Cesium (Cs) induced growth and stress response of Nitella were studied after exposure to four concentration of the metal; i.e. 0 (control), 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm Cs in growth media. Each treatment with three replicates were randomly allocated to 12 glass beakers in a complete randomize design and the experiment was continued for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, shoot length, cesium content, total chlorophyll, and plant stress response were compared. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities (peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbic peroxidase) and the concentration of H2O2 were measured to check plant stress. The longest shoot was found in control treatment (0 ppm Cs) and the shoot length of plants exposed to 0.001 ppm was statistically similar to that of control. Concentration of cesium in plants grown at 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm were significantly higher than those in control treatments. The antioxidant enzymes activities of plants exposed to cesium were significantly higher than those grown without any Cs (control). An elevated level of H2O2 concentration was also observed in former groups of plants. Further, the reduction in chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence in response to cesium exposure indicated the chronically damaged photosynthetic efficiency in cesium stressed Nitella.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, cesium, growth, Nitella, oxidative stress

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119 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Modulates Antioxidant Capacity of in vitro Propagated Hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis L.

Authors: Maria P. Geneva, Ira V. Stancheva, Marieta G. Hristozkova, Roumiana D. Vasilevska-Ivanova, Mariana T. Sichanova, Janet R. Mincheva

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Hyssopus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, commonly called hyssop, is an aromatic, semi-evergreen, woody-based, shrubby perennial plant. Hyssop is a good expectorant and antiviral herb commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as influenza, sinus infections, colds, and bronchitis. Most of its medicinal properties are attributed to the essential oil of hyssop. The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of in vitro propagated hyssop plants on the: activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase; accumulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants total phenols and flavonoid, water-soluble soluble antioxidant metabolites expressed as ascorbic acid; the antioxidant potential of hyssop methanol extracts assessed by two common methods: free radical scavenging activity using free stable radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH• and ferric reducing antioxidant power FRAP in flowers and leaves. The successfully adapted to field conditions in vitro plants (survival rate 95%) were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Claroideoglomus claroideum, ref. EEZ 54). It was established that the activities of enzymes with antioxidant capacity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase) were significantly higher in leaves than in flowers in both control and mycorrhized plants. In flowers and leaves of inoculated plants, the antioxidant enzymes activity were lower than in non-inoculated plants, only in SOD activity, there was no difference. The content of low molecular metabolites with antioxidant capacity as total phenols, total flavonoids, and water soluble antioxidants was higher in inoculated plants. There were no significant differences between control and inoculated plants both for FRAP and DPPH antioxidant activity. According to plant essential oil content, there was no difference between non-inoculated and inoculated plants. Based on our results we could suggest that antioxidant capacity of in vitro propagated hyssop plant under conditions of cultivation is determined by the phenolic compounds-total phenols and flavonoids as well as by the levels of water-soluble metabolites with antioxidant potential. Acknowledgments: This study was conducted with financial support from National Science Fund at the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, Project DN06/7 17.12.16.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant metabolites, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Hyssopus officinalis L.

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118 Preparation, Structure, and Properties of Hydroxyl Containing Acrylate Monomer Grafted Silk Fabrics by HRP-Catalyzed ATRP Method

Authors: Tieling Xing, Jinqiu Yang, Guoqiang Chen

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It is environmentally friendly to use horseradish peroxidase (HRP) instead of the traditional transition metal catalyst for the catalyst of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Silk fabrics were successfully grafted with hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer to improve its crease resistance by HRP-catalyzed ATRP method. Taking grafting yield as the evaluation index, single factor tests revealed that the optimum grafting reaction condition was as follow: monomer mass fraction 120-210%(o.w.f), HRP concentration 360-480U/mL, molar ratio of HRP to NaAsc 1:150, reaction temperature 50-60℃, reaction time 24h. Raman spectra showed hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer were successfully grafted on silk fabrics. SEM figures indicated the surface of grafted silk became rougher, and graft copolymer was distributed evenly on the surface of silk fiber. The crease-resistant recovery property of grafted silk fabric was greatly improved, especially in wet crease recovery angle. The result showed hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer can be successfully grafted onto silk fabric based on HRP-catalyzed ATRP method.

Keywords: atom transfer radical polymerization, catalysis, horseradish peroxidase, hydroxyl-containing acrylate monomer

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117 Serum Anti-Oxidation Enzymes Response to L-Carnitine Supplementation

Authors: Farah Nameni, Hamidreza Poursadra, Maasumeh Nurani Pilehrud

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Exercise training induced Inflammation and stress. Antioxidant, for example L- Carnitine has beneficial effects in immune system and increased antioxidant enzymes activity. L- Carnitine protects the tissue against the oxidative side effect and helps the body to protect against stress during and after acute exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-Carnitine on the blood enzymes: GPX SOD, CAT and GR response. In this study, 20 basketball players girls participated. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; placebo and supplementation. Antioxidadision enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase) evaluated. L-Carnitine supplement group orally daily received 3000 mg powder for 14 dys. Then all participates trained basketball exercise acute. Blood samples were drawn vein before and immediately after exercise. Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase were measured, and data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni and t-test. Our results showed: SOD, GPX and GPX (P < 0.05) have a significant increase. These results suggest L-Carnitine supplementation may increase GPX SOD, CAT, and basal anti oxidative capacity. L-Carnitine can modulate the alterations of exercise oxidative damage in girl basketball players.

Keywords: l-carnitine, GPX, SOD, CAT, exercise, GR, anti-oxidant

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116 Evaluation of Existence of Antithyroid Antibodies, Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase and Anti-Thyroglobulin in Patients with Hepatitis C Viral Infections

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Sana Anwar, Sarah Sughra Asghar

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Chronic hepatitis or Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has been identified as one of the factors that could elicit autoimmune disease resulting in the development of auto-antibodies. Furthermore, HCV is implicated in contravening of forbearance to antigens, therefore, inciting auto-reactivity. In this regard, several near and past studies noted the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and production of anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAb) such as anti-thyroid peroxidase (AntiTPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (AntiTG) in patients with HCV. Likewise, one of the etiologies of augmentation of thyroid disease is basically interferon therapy for HCV infections, for which a number of autoimmune diseases have been noted including Grave’s disease, Hishimoto thyroiditis. A prospectively case-control study was therefore carried out at department of clinical biochemistry lab services and chemical pathology in collaboration with department of clinical microbiology, at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi Pakistan for the period January 2015 to December 2017. Two control groups were inducted for comparison purpose, control group 1 = without HCV infection and with thyroid disorders (n = 20), control group 2 = with HCV infection and without thyroid disorders (n = 20), whereas HCV infected were n = 40 where more than half were noted to be positive for either of HCV IgG and Ag. In HCV group, patients with existing sub-clinical hypothyroidism and clinical hyperthyroidism were less than 5%. Analysis showed the presence of AntiTG in 12 HCV patients (30%), AntiTPO in 15 (37.5%) and both AntiTG and antiTPO in 10 patients (25%). Only 3 patients were found with the history of anti-thyroid auto-antibodies (7.5%) and one with parents and relatives with auto-immune disorders (2.5%). Patients that remained untreated were 12 (30%), under treatment 18 (45%) and with complete-course of treatment 10 (25%). As per review of the literature, meta-analysis of evident data and cross-sectional studies of selective cohorts (as studied in presented research), thyroid connection is designated as one of the most recurrent endocrine ailment associated with chronic HCV infection. Moreover, it also represents an extrahepatic disease in the continuum of HCV syndrome. In conclusion, HCV patients were more likely to encompass thyroid disorders especially related to development of either of ATAb or both antiTG and AntiTPO.

Keywords: Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection, anti-thyroid antibodies, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies

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115 Production of Lignocellulosic Enzymes by Bacillus safensis LCX Using Agro-Food Wastes in Solid State Fermentation

Authors: Abeer A. Q. Ahmed, Tracey McKay

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The increasing demand for renewable fuels and chemicals is pressuring manufacturing industry toward finding more sustainable cost-effective resources. Lignocellulose, such as agro-food wastes, is a suitable equivalent to petroleum for fine chemicals and fuels production. The complex structure of lignocellulose, however, requires a variety of enzymes in order to degrade its components into their respective building blocks that can be used further for the production of various value added products. This study aimed to isolate bacterial strain with the ability to produce a variety of lignocellulosic enzymes. One bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as Bacillus safensis LCX found to have CMCase, xylanase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and laccase activities. The enzymes production was induced by growing Bacillus safensis LCX in solid state fermentation using wheat straw, wheat bran, and corn stover. The activities of enzymes were determined by specific colorimetric assays. This study presents Bacillus safensis LCX as a promising source for lignocellulosic enzymes. These findings can extend the knowledge on agro-food wastes valorization strategies toward a sustainable production of fuels and chemicals.

Keywords: Bacillus safensis LCX, high valued chemicals, lignocellulosic enzymes, solid state fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
114 The Effect of Bisphenol A and Its Selected Analogues on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Human Erythrocytes

Authors: Aneta Maćczak, Bożena Bukowska, Jaromir Michałowicz

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Bisphenols are one of the most widely used chemical compounds worldwide. They are used in the manufacturing of polycarbonates, epoxy resins and thermal paper which are applied in plastic containers, bottles, cans, newspapers, receipt and other products. Among these compounds, bisphenol A (BPA) is produced in the highest amounts. There are concerns about endocrine impact of BPA and its other toxic effects including hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity on human organism. Moreover, BPA is supposed to increase the incidence the obesity, diabetes and heart disease. For this reason the use of BPA in the production of plastic infant feeding bottles and some other consumers products has been restricted in the European Union and the United States. Nowadays, BPA analogues like bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been developed as alternative compounds. The replacement of BPA with other bisphenols contributed to the increase of the exposure of human population to these substances. Toxicological studies have mainly focused on BPA. In opposite, a small number of studies concerning toxic effects of BPA analogues have been realized, which makes impossible to state whether those substituents are safe for human health. Up to now, the mechanism of bisphenols action on the erythrocytes has not been elucidated. That is why, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of BPA and its selected analogues such as BPF and BPS on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.), glutathione peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.9) and superoxide dismutase (EC.1.15.1.1) in human erythrocytes. Red blood cells in respect to their function (transport of oxygen) and very well developed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative system, are useful cellular model to assess changes in redox balance. Erythrocytes were incubated with BPA, BPF and BPS in the concentration ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/ml for 24 h. The activity of catalase was determined by the method of Aebi (1984). The activity of glutathione peroxidase was measured according to the method described by Rice-Evans et al. (1991), while the activity of superoxide dismutase (EC.1.15.1.1) was determined by the method of Misra and Fridovich (1972). The results showed that BPA and BPF caused changes in the antioxidative enzymes activities. BPA decreased the activity of examined enzymes in the concentration of 100 µg/ml. We also noted that BPF decreased the activity of catalase (5-100 µg/ml), glutathione peroxidase (50-100 µg/ml) and superoxide dismutase (25-100 µg/ml), while BPS did not cause statistically significant changes in investigated parameters. The obtained results suggest that BPA and BPF disrupt redox balance in human erythrocytes but the observed changes may occur in human organism only during occupational or subacute exposure to these substances.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bisphenol A, bisphenol a analogues, human erythrocytes

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113 Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Shoot and Seed Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Osama M. Ahmed, Walaa G. Hozayen, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

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Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, which is commonly used in the treatment of uterine, ovarian, breast and lung cancers, Hodgkin's disease and soft tissue sarcomas as well as in several other cancer types. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w. day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, total protein, and albumin levels were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT were assessed. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, it can be supposed that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX hepatopathy without harmful side effects. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of these extract in human beings.

Keywords: doxorubicin, purslane, hepatotoxicity, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
112 Anthocyanins as Markers of Enhanced Plant Defence in Maize (Zea Mays L.) Exposed to Copper Stress

Authors: Fadime Eryılmaz Pehlivan

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Anthocyanins are important plant pigments having roles in many physiological and ecological functions; that are controlled by numerous regulatory factors. The accumulation of anthocyanins in Z. mays cause the plants stems to exhibit red coloration when encountering gradually increasing copper treatments (1, 5, and 10 mM of Cu in a period of 5 days) on maize seedlings. Stress injury was measured in terms of chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Carotenoid and anthocyanin contents dramatically increased by increasing concentrations of Cu stress. MDA and H2O2 levels were found to significantly increase at high Cu treatments (5 and 10 mM of Cu). Chlorophyll content was observed to be highest at 1 mM Cu and then decreased at 5 and 10 mM of Cu. In addition, significant increases were determined in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under high Cu concentrations, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) and peroxidase (POX) activities showed no change. Treatments above 5 and 10 mM of Cu triggered copper stress in maize seedlings. The results of this study provide evidence that maize seedlings represent a high tolerance to gradually increasing copper treatments. Improved copper tolerance may relate to high anthocyanin, and carotenoid content besides antioxidant enzyme activity may improve the metal chelating ability of anthocyanin pigments. Data presented in this study may also contribute to a better understanding of phytoremediation studies in maize exposed to high copper contenting soils.

Keywords: anthocyanin, copper, maize , antioxidant

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