Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: blueberry

10 Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Puree

Authors: So Yae Koh, YeonWoo Song, Ji-Yeon Ryu, Jeong Yong Moon, Somi Kim Cho

Abstract:

Blueberry, a perennial shrub, is one of the most popular fruits due to its flavor and strong free radical scavenging properties. In this study, the blueberry puree was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 and the antioxidant activities of fermentation products were examined. Various conditions with different supplements (5% sucrose or 10% skim milk) were evaluated for fermentation efficiency and the effects on antioxidant properties. The viable cell count of lactic acid bacteria, pH, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were measured after 7 days of fermentation. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging activities were highly enhanced compared to non-fermented blueberry puree after fermentation. Interestingly, the antioxidant activities were greatly increased in the fermentation of blueberry puree alone without supplements. The present results indicate that the blueberry puree fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants and these findings will facilitate the utilization of blueberry as a resource for food additive.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, blueberry, lactobacillus plantarum CK10, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
9 Plackett-Burman Design for Microencapsulation of Blueberry Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Feyza Tatar, Alime Cengiz, Dilara Sandikçi, Muhammed Dervisoglu, Talip Kahyaoglu

Abstract:

Blueberries are known for their bioactive properties such as high anthocyanin contents, antioxidant activities and potential health benefits. However, anthocyanins are sensitive to environmental conditions during processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray drying conditions on the blueberry microcapsules by Plackett-Burman experimental design. Inlet air temperature (120 and 180°C), feed pump rate (20% and 40%), DE of maltodextrin (6 and 15 DE), coating concentration (10% and 30%) and source of blueberry (Duke and Darrow) were independent variables, tested at high (+1) and low (-1) levels. Encapsulation efficiency (based on total phenol) of blueberry microcapsules was the dependent variable. In addition, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility, water activity and bulk density were measured for blueberry powders. The antioxidant activity of blueberry powders ranged from 72 to 265 mmol Trolox/g and anthocyanin content was changed from 528 to 5500 mg GAE/100g. Encapsulation efficiency was significantly affected (p<0.05) by inlet air temperature and coating concentration. Encapsulation efficiency increased with increasing inlet air temperature and decreasing coating concentration. The highest encapsulation efficiency could be produced by spray drying at 180°C inlet air temperature, 40% pump rate, 6 DE of maltodextrin, 13% maltodextrin concentration and source of duke blueberry.

Keywords: blueberry, microencapsulation, Plackett-Burman design, spray drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
8 Variation of Biologically Active Compounds and Antioxidancy in the Process of Blueberry Storage

Authors: Meri Khakhutaishvili, Indira Djaparidze, Maia Vanidze, Aleko Kalandia

Abstract:

Cultivation of blueberry in Georgia started in 21st century. There are more than 20 species of blueberry cultivated in this region from all other the world. The species are mostly planted on acidic soil, previously occupied by tea plantations. Many of the plantations have pretty good yield. It is known that changing the location of a plant to a new soil or climate effects chemical compositions of the plant. However, even though these plants are brought from other countries, no research has been conducted to fully examine the blueberry fruit cultivated in Georgia. Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation Grant FR/335/10-160/14, gave us an opportunity to continue our previous works and conduct research on several berries, among them of course the chemical composition of stored Blueberry. We were able to conduct the first study that included examining qualitative and quantitative features of bioactive compounds in Georgian Blueberry. This experiments were held in the ‘West Georgia Regional Chromatography center’ (Grant AP/96/13) of our university, that is equipped with modern equipment like HPLC UV-Vis, RI-detector, HPLC-conductivity detector, UPLC-MS-detector. Biochemical analysis was conducted using different physico-chemical and instrumental methods. Separation-identification and quantitative analysis were conducted using UPLC-MS (Waters Acquity QDa detector), HPLC (Waters Brceze 1525, UV-Vis 2489 detectors), pH-meters (Mettler Toledo). Refractrometer -Misco , Spectrometer –Cuvette Changer (Mettler Toledo UV5A), C18 Cartridge Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Waters Sep-Pak C18 (500 mg), Chemicals – stability radical- 2,2-Diphenil-1-picrilhydrazyl (Aldrich-germany), Acetonitrile, Methanol, Acetic Acid (Merck-Germany), AlCl3, Folin Ciocalteu reagent (preparation), Standarts –Callic acid, Quercetin. Carbohydrate HPLC-RI analysis used systems acetonitrile-water (80-20). UPLC-MS analysis used systems- solvent A- Water +1 % acetic acid და solvent -B Methanol +1% acetic acid). It was concluded that the amount of sugars was in range of 5-9 %, mostly glucose and fructose. Also, the amount of organic acids was 0.2-1.2% most of which was malic and citric acid. Anthocians were also present in the sample 200-550mg/100g. We were able to identify up to 15 different compounds, most of which were products of delphinidine and cyanide. All species have high antioxidant level(DPPH). By rapidly freezing the sample and then keeping it in specific conditions allowed us to keep the sample for 12 months.

Keywords: antioxidants, bioactive, blueberry, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
7 Characterization of Volatiles Botrytis cinerea in Blueberry Using Solid Phase Micro Extraction, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Ahmed Auda, Manjree Agarwala, Giles Hardya, Yonglin Rena

Abstract:

Botrytis cinerea is a major pest for many plants. It can attack a wide range of plant parts. It can attack buds, flowers, and leaves, stems, and fruit. However, B. cinerea can be mixed with other diseases that cause the same damage. There are many species of botrytis and more than one different strains of each. Botrytis might infect the foliage of nursery stock stored through winter in damp conditions. There are no known resistant plants. Botrytis must have nutrients or food source before it infests the plant. Nutrients leaking from wounded plant parts or dying tissue like old flower petals give the required nutrients. From this food, the fungus becomes more attackers and invades healthy tissue. Dark to light brown rot forms in the ill tissue. High humidity conditions support the growth of this fungus. However, we suppose that selection pressure can act on the morphological and neurophysiologic filter properties of the receiver and on both the biochemical and the physiological regulation of the signal. Communication is implied when signal and receiver evolves toward more and more specific matching, culminating. In other hand, receivers respond to portions of a body odor bouquet which is released to the environment not as an (intentional) signal but as an unavoidable consequence of metabolic activity or tissue damage. Each year Botrytis species can cause considerable economic losses to plant crops. Even with the application of strict quarantine and control measures, these fungi can still find their way into crops and cause the imposition of onerous restrictions on exports. Blueberry fruit mould caused by a fungal infection usually results in major losses during post-harvest storage. Therefore, the management of infection in early stages of disease development is necessary to minimize losses. The overall purpose of this study will develop sensitive, cheap, quick and robust diagnostic techniques for the detection of B. cinerea in blueberry. The specific aim was designed to investigate the performance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the detection and discrimination of blueberry fruits infected by fungal pathogens with an emphasis on Botrytis in the early storage stage of post-harvest.

Keywords: botrytis cinerea, blueberry, GC/MS, VOCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
6 Evaluation of Bioactive Phenols in Blueberries from Different Cultivars

Authors: Christophe Gonçalves, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela Teixeira, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Blueberries are widely valued for their high content in phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, and hence beneficial for the human health. In this way, a study was done to determine the phenolic composition (total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins) and antioxidant activity of blueberries from three cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, and Ozarblue) grown in two different Portuguese farms. Initially two successive extractions were done with methanol followed by two extractions with aqueous acetone solutions. These extracts obtained were then used to evaluate the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. The total phenols were observed to vary from 4.9 to 8.2 mg GAE/g fresh weight, with anthocyanin’s contents in the range 1.5-2.8 mg EMv3G/g and tannins contents in the range 1.5- 3.8 mg/g. The results for antioxidant activity ranged from 9.3 to 23.2 mol TE/g, and from 24.7 to 53.4 mol TE/g, when measured, respectively, by DPPH and ABTS methods. In conclusion it was observed that, in general, the cultivar had a visible effect on the phenols present, and furthermore, the geographical origin showed relevance either in the phenols contents or the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, blueberry cultivar, geographical origin, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
5 Statistical Analysis of the Factors that Influence the Properties of Blueberries from Cultivar Bluecrop

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Susana R. Matos, Daniela V. T. A. Costa, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Because blueberries are worldwide recognized as a good source of beneficial components, their consumption has increased in the past decades, and so have the scientific works about their properties. Hence this work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some production and conservation factors on the properties of blueberries from cultivar Bluecrop. The physical and chemical analyses were done according to established methodologies and then all data was treated using software SPSS for assessment of the possible differences among the factors investigated and/or the correlations between the variables at study. The results showed that location of production influenced some of the berries properties (caliber, sugars, antioxidant activity, color and texture) and that the age of the bushes was correlated with moisture, sugars and acidity, as well as lightness. On the other hand, altitude of the farm only was correlated to sugar content. With regards to conservation, it influenced only anthocyanins content and DPPH antioxidant activity. Finally, the type of extract and the order of extraction had a pronounced influence on all the phnolic properties evaluated.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, blueberry, conservation, geographical origin, phenolic compounds, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
4 Natural Preservatives: An Alternative for Chemical Preservative Used in Foods

Authors: Zerrin Erginkaya, Gözde Konuray

Abstract:

Microbial degradation of foods is defined as a decrease of food safety due to microorganism activity. Organic acids, sulfur dioxide, sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, dimethyl dicarbonate and several preservative gases have been used as chemical preservatives in foods as well as natural preservatives which are indigenous in foods. It is determined that usage of herbal preservatives such as blueberry, dried grape, prune, garlic, mustard, spices inhibited several microorganisms. Moreover, it is determined that animal origin preservatives such as whey, honey, lysosomes of duck egg and chicken egg, chitosan have antimicrobial effect. Other than indigenous antimicrobials in foods, antimicrobial agents produced by microorganisms could be used as natural preservatives. The antimicrobial feature of preservatives depends on the antimicrobial spectrum, chemical and physical features of material, concentration, mode of action, components of food, process conditions, and pH and storage temperature. In this review, studies about antimicrobial components which are indigenous in food (such as herbal and animal origin antimicrobial agents), antimicrobial materials synthesized by microorganisms, and their usage as an antimicrobial agent to preserve foods are discussed.

Keywords: animal origin preservatives, antimicrobial, chemical preservatives, herbal preservatives

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
3 Agritourism Development Mode Study in Rural Area of Boshan China

Authors: Lingfei Sun

Abstract:

Based on the significant value of ecology, the strategic planning for ecological civilization construction was mentioned in the 17th and 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. How to generate economic value based on the environmental capacity is not only an economic decision but also a political decision to make. Boshan took the full use of “Ecology” and transformed it as an inexhaustible green resource to benefit people, reflecting the sustainable value of new agriculture development mode. The Strawberry Harvest Festival and Blueberry Harvest Festival hosted approximately 96,000 and 54,000 leisure tourists respectively in 2014. For the Kiwi Harvest Festival in August 2014, in average, it attracted about 4600 tourists per day, which generated daily kiwi sales of 50,000 lbs and 3 million RMB (About 476,000 USD) of daily revenue. The purpose of this study is to elaborate the modes of agritourism development, by analyzing the cases in rural area of Boshan, China. Interviews with the local government officers were applied to discover operation mode of agritourism operation. The financial data was used to demonstrate the strength of government policy and improvement of the income of rural people. The result indicated that there are mainly three types of modes: the Intensive Mode, the Model Mode and the Mixed Mode, supported by case study respectively. With the boom of tourism, the development of agritourism in Boshan relies on the agriculture encouraging policy of China and the effort of local government; meanwhile, large scale of cultivation and the product differentiation are the crucial elements for the success of rural agritourism projects.

Keywords: agriculture, agritourism, economy, rural area development

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2 Food Losses Reducing by Extending the Minimum Durability Date of Thermally Processed Products

Authors: Dorota Zielińska, Monika Trząskowska, Anna Łepecka, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska, Beata Bilska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska

Abstract:

Minimum durability date (MDD) labeled food is known to have a long shelf life. A properly stored or transported food retains its physical, chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties up to MDD. The aim of the study was to assess the sensory quality and microbiological safety of selected thermally processed products,i.e., mayonnaise, jam, and canned tuna within and after MDD. The scope of the study was to determine the markers of microbiological quality, i.e., the total viable count (TVC), the Enterobacteriaceae count and the total yeast and mold (TYMC) count on the last day of MDD and after 1 and 3 months of storage, after the MDD expired. In addition, the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes was examined on the last day of MDD. The sensory quality of products was assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), the intensity of differentiators (quality features), and overall quality were defined and determined. It was found that during three months storage of tested food products, after the MDD expired, the microbiological quality slightly decreased, however, regardless of the tested sample, TVC was at the level of <3 log cfu/g, similarly, the Enterobacretiaceae, what indicates the good microbiological quality of the tested foods. The TYMC increased during storage but did not exceed 2 logs cfu/g of product. Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in any of the tested food samples. The sensory quality of mayonnaise negatively changed during storage. After three months from the expiry of MDD, a decrease in the "fat" and "egg" taste and aroma intensity, as well as the "density" were found. The "sour" taste intensity of blueberry jam after three months of storage was slightly higher, compared to the jam tested on the last day of MDD, without affecting the overall quality. In the case of tuna samples, an increase in the "fishy" taste and aroma intensity was observed during storage, and the overall quality did not change. Tested thermally processed products (mayonnaise, jam, and canned tuna) were characterized by good microbiological and sensory quality on the last day of MDD, as well as after three months of storage under conditions recommended by the producer. These findings indicate the possibility of reducing food losses by extending or completely abolishing the MDD of selected thermal processed food products.

Keywords: food wastes, food quality and safety, mayonnaise, jam, tuna

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
1 Micro Plasma an Emerging Technology to Eradicate Pesticides from Food Surface

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Islam Khan, Yun Ji Kim

Abstract:

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) have been widely used to replace more persistent organochlorine pesticides because OPPs are more soluble in water and decompose rapidly in aquatic systems. Extensive uses of OPPs in modern agriculture are the major cause of the contamination of surface water. Regardless of the advantages gained by the application of pesticides in modern agriculture, they are a threat to the public health environment. With the aim of reducing possible health threats, several physical and chemical treatment processes have been studied to eliminate biological and chemical poisons from food stuff. In the present study, a micro-plasma device was used to reduce pesticides from the surface of food stuff. Pesticide free food items chosen in this study were perilla leaf, tomato, broccoli and blueberry. To evaluate the removal efficiency of pesticides, different washing methods were followed such as soaking with water, washing with bubbling water, washing with plasma-treated water and washing with chlorine water. 2 mL of 2000 ppm pesticide samples, namely, diazinone and chlorpyrifos were individuality inoculated on food surface and was air dried for 2 hours before treated with plasma. Plasma treated water was used in two different manners one is plasma treated water with bubbling the other one is aerosolized plasma treated water. The removal efficiency of pesticides from food surface was studied using HPLC. Washing with plasma treated water, aerosolized plasma treated water and chlorine water shows minimum 72% to maximum 87 % reduction for 4 min treatment irrespective to the types of food items and the types of pesticides sample, in case of soaking and bubbling the reduction is 8% to 48%. Washing with plasma treated water, aerosolized plasma treated water and chlorine water shows somewhat similar reduction ability which is significantly higher comparing to the soaking and bubbling washing system. The temperature effect of the washing systems was also evaluated; three different temperatures were set for the experiment, such as 22°C, 10°C and 4°C. Decreasing temperature from 22°C to 10°C shows a higher reduction in the case of washing with plasma and aerosolized plasma treated water, whereas an opposite trend was observed for the washing with chlorine water. Further temperature reduction from 10°C to 4°C does not show any significant reduction of pesticides, except for the washing with chlorine water. Chlorine water treatment shows lesser pesticide reduction with the decrease in temperature. The color changes of the treated sample were measured immediately and after one week to evaluate if there is any effect of washing with plasma treated water and with chlorine water. No significant color changes were observed for either of the washing systems, except for broccoli washing with chlorine water.

Keywords: chlorpyrifos, diazinone, pesticides, micro plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 35