Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11959

Search results for: cultivation process

11959 Cybernetic Model-Based Optimization of a Fed-Batch Process for High Cell Density Cultivation of E. Coli In Shake Flasks

Authors: Snehal D. Ganjave, Hardik Dodia, Avinash V. Sunder, Swati Madhu, Pramod P. Wangikar


Batch cultivation of recombinant bacteria in shake flasks results in low cell density due to nutrient depletion. Previous protocols on high cell density cultivation in shake flasks have relied mainly on controlled release mechanisms and extended cultivation protocols. In the present work, we report an optimized fed-batch process for high cell density cultivation of recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) for protein production. A cybernetic model-based, multi-objective optimization strategy was implemented to obtain the optimum operating variables to achieve maximum biomass and minimized substrate feed rate. A syringe pump was used to feed a mixture of glycerol and yeast extract into the shake flask. Preliminary experiments were conducted with online monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) and offline measurements of biomass and glycerol to estimate the model parameters. Multi-objective optimization was performed to obtain the pareto front surface. The selected optimized recipe was tested for a range of proteins that show different extent soluble expression in E. coli. These included eYFP and LkADH, which are largely expressed in soluble fractions, CbFDH and GcanADH , which are partially soluble, and human PDGF, which forms inclusion bodies. The biomass concentrations achieved in 24 h were in the range 19.9-21.5 g/L, while the model predicted value was 19.44 g/L. The process was successfully reproduced in a standard laboratory shake flask without online monitoring of DO and pH. The optimized fed-batch process showed significant improvement in both the biomass and protein production of the tested recombinant proteins compared to batch cultivation. The proposed process will have significant implications in the routine cultivation of E. coli for various applications.

Keywords: cybernetic model, E. coli, high cell density cultivation, multi-objective optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
11958 Development and Investigation of Efficient Substrate Feeding and Dissolved Oxygen Control Algorithms for Scale-Up of Recombinant E. coli Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Rimvydas Simutis, Donatas Levisauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Renaldas Urniezius


The paper deals with model-based development and implementation of efficient control strategies for recombinant protein synthesis in fed-batch E.coli cultivation processes. Based on experimental data, a kinetic dynamic model for cultivation process was developed. This model was used to determine substrate feeding strategies during the cultivation. The proposed feeding strategy consists of two phases – biomass growth phase and recombinant protein production phase. In the first process phase, substrate-limited process is recommended when the specific growth rate of biomass is about 90-95% of its maximum value. This ensures reduction of glucose concentration in the medium, improves process repeatability, reduces the development of secondary metabolites and other unwanted by-products. The substrate limitation can be enhanced to satisfy restriction on maximum oxygen transfer rate in the bioreactor and to guarantee necessary dissolved carbon dioxide concentration in culture media. In the recombinant protein production phase, the level of substrate limitation and specific growth rate are selected within the range to enable optimal target protein synthesis rate. To account for complex process dynamics, to efficiently exploit the oxygen transfer capability of the bioreactor, and to maintain the required dissolved oxygen concentration, adaptive control algorithms for dissolved oxygen control have been proposed. The developed model-based control strategies are useful in scale-up of cultivation processes and accelerate implementation of innovative biotechnological processes for industrial applications.

Keywords: adaptive algorithms, model-based control, recombinant E. coli, scale-up of bioprocesses

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
11957 Effect of Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on Growth and Lipid Production from Mixotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Thidarat Papone, Mutiyaporn Puangbut


Mixotrophic cultivation of the isolated freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 in batch shake flask for biomass and lipid productions, different concentration of glucose as carbon substrate, different nitrogen source and concentrations were investigated. Using 1.0g/L of NaNO3 as nitrogen source, the maximum biomass yield of 10.04g/L with biomass productivity of 1.673g/L d was obtained using 40g/L glucose, while a biomass of 7.09, 8.55 and 9.45g/L with biomass productivity of 1.182, 1.425 and 1.575g/L d were found at 20, 30 and 50g/L glucose, respectively. The maximum lipid yield of 3.99g/L with lipid productivity of 0.665g/L d was obtained when 40g/L glucose was used. Lipid yield of 1.50, 3.34 and 3.66g/L with lipid productivity of 0.250, 0.557 and 0.610g/L d were found when using the initial concentration of glucose at 20, 30 and 50g/L, respectively. Process product yield (YP/S) of 0.078, 0.119, 0.158 and 0.094 were observed when glucose concentration was 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, respectively. The results obtained from the study shows that mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 is a desirable cultivation process for microbial lipid and biomass production.

Keywords: mixotrophic cultivation, microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
11956 Enhanced Enzymes Production through Immobilization of Filamentous Fungi

Authors: Zhanara B. Suleimenova, Zhazira K. Saduyeva


Filamentous fungi are major producers of enzymes that have important applications in the food and beverage industries. The overall objective of this research is a strain improvement technology for efficient industrial enzymes production. The new way of filamentous fungi cultivation method has been developed. Such technology prolong producers’ cultivation period up to 60 days and create the opportunity to obtain enzymes repeatedly in every 2-3 days of fungal cultivation. This method is based on immobilizing enzymes producers with solid support in submerged conditions of growth. Immobilizing has a range of advantages: Decreasing the price of the final product, absence of foreign substances, controlled process of enzyme-genesis, ability of various enzymes simultaneous production, etc. Design of proposed technology gives the opportunity to increase the activity of immobilized cells culture filtrate comparing to free cells, growing in periodic culture conditions. Thus, proposed research focuses on new, more versatile, microorganisms capable of squeezing more end-products as well as proposed cultivation technology led to increased enzymatic productivity by several times.

Keywords: filamentous fungi, immobilization, industrial enzymes production, strain improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
11955 Fructooligosaccharide Prebiotics: Optimization of Different Cultivation Parameters on Their Microbial Production

Authors: Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed, Azza Noor El-Deen, Mohamed A. Farid, Mohamed A. Wadaan


Recently, a great attention has been paid to the use of dietary carbohydrates as prebiotic functional foods. Among the new commercially available products, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are microbial produced from sucrose, have attracted special interest due to their valuable properties and, thus, have a great economic potential for the sugar industrial branch. They are non-cariogenic sweeteners of low caloric value, as they are not hydrolyzed by the gastro-intestinal enzymes, promoting selectively the growth of the bifidobacteria in the colon, helping to eliminate the harmful microbial species to human and animal health and preventing colon cancer. FOS has been also found to reduce cholesterol, phospholipids and triglyceride levels in blood. FOS has been mainly produced by microbial fructosyltransferase (FTase) enzymes. The present work outlines bioprocess optimization for different cultivation parameters affecting the production of FTase by Penicillium aurantiogriseum AUMC 5605. The optimization involves both traditional as well as fractional factorial design approaches. Additionally, the production process will be compared under batch and fed-batch conditions. Finally, the optimized process conditions will be applied to 5-L stirred tank bioreactor cultivations.

Keywords: prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides, optimization, cultivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
11954 Multilayered Assembly of Gelatin on Nanofibrous Matrix for 3-D Cell Cultivation

Authors: Ji Un Shin, Wei Mao, Hyuk Sang Yoo


Electrospinning is a versatile tool for fabricating nano-structured polymeric materials. Gelatin hydrogels are considered to be a good material for cell cultivation because of high water swellability as well as good biocompatibility. Three-dimensional (3-D) cell cultivation is a desirable method of cell cultivation for preparing tissues and organs because cell-to-cell interactions or cell-to-matrix interactions can be much enhanced through this approach. For this reason, hydrogels were widely employed as tissue scaffolds because they can support cultivating cells and tissue in multi-dimensions. Major disadvantages of hydrogel-based cell cultivation include low mechanical properties, lack of topography, which should be enhanced for successful tissue engineering. Herein we surface-immobilized gelatin on the surface of nanofibrous matrix for 3-D cell cultivation in topographical cues added environments. Electrospun nanofibers were electrospun with injection of poly(caprolactone) through a single nozzle syringe. Electrospun meshes were then chopped up with a high speed grinder to fine powders. This was hydrolyzed in optimized concentration of sodium hydroxide solution from 1 to 6 hours and harvested by centrifugation. The freeze-dried powders were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for revealing the morphology and fibrilar shaped with a length of ca. 20um was observed. This was subsequently immersed in gelatin solution for surface-coating of gelatin, where the process repeated up to 10 times for obtaining desirable coating of gelatin on the surface. Gelatin-coated nanofibrils showed high waterswellability in comparison to the unmodified nanofibrils, and this enabled good dispersion properties of the modified nanofibrils in aqueous phase. The degree of water-swellability was increased as the coating numbers of gelatin increased, however, it did not any meaning result after 10 times of gelatin coating process. Thus, by adjusting the gelatin coating times, we could successfully control the degree of hydrophilicity and water-swellability of nanofibrils.

Keywords: nano, fiber, cell, tissue

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
11953 A Comparative Study of Euglena gracilis Cultivations for Improving Laminaribiose Phosphorylase Production

Authors: Akram Abi, Clarissa Müller, Hans-Joachim Jördening


Laminaribiose is a beta-1,3-glycoside which is used in the medical field for the treatment of dermatitis and also can be used as a building block for new pharmaceutics. The conventional process of laminaribiose production is the uneconomical process of hydrolysis of laminarin extracted from natural polysaccharides of plant origin. A more economical approach however is attainable by enzymatically synthesis of laminaribiose via a reverse phosphorylase reaction catalyzed by laminaribiose phosphorylase (LP) from Euglena gracilis. Different cultivation methods of Euglena gracilis and the effect on LP production have been investigated. Buffered/unbuffered heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivations of Euglena gracilis has been carried out. Changes of biomass and LP production, glucose level and pH, cell count and shape has been monitored in the course of time. The results obtained from experiments each in three repetitions, show that in the heterotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis not only more biomass is produced compared to mixotrophic cultivation, but also higher specific protein concentration is achieved. Furthermore, the LP activity test showed that the protein extracted from heterotrophically cultured cells has a higher LP activity. It was also observed that the cells develop in a distinctive different shape between these two cultures and have different length to width ratios. Taking the heterotrophic culture as the more efficient cultivation method in LP production, another comparative experiment between buffered and unbuffered heterothrophic culture was carried out that showed the unbuffered culture has advantages over the other one in respect of both LP production and resulting activity. A hetrotrophic cultivation of Euglena gracilis in a 5L bioreactor with controlled operating conditions showed a distinctive improvement of all the aspects of culture compared to the shaking flask cultivations. Biomass production was improved from 5 to more than 8 g/l (dry weight) which resulted in a specific protein concentration of 45 g/l in the heterotrophic cultivation in the bioreactor. In further attempts to improve LP production, different purification methods were tested and each method was checks through an activity assay. A laminaribiose yield of 35% was achieved which was by far the highest amount amongst different methods tested.

Keywords: euglena gracilis, heterotrophic culture, laminaribiose production, mixotrophic culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
11952 Modeling of Oxygen Supply Profiles in Stirred-Tank Aggregated Stem Cells Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Rimvydas Simutis


This paper investigates a possible practical solution for reasonable oxygen supply during the pluripotent stem cells expansion processes, where the stem cells propagate as aggregates in stirred-suspension bioreactors. Low glucose and low oxygen concentrations are preferred for efficient proliferation of pluripotent stem cells. However, strong oxygen limitation, especially inside of cell aggregates, can lead to cell starvation and death. In this research, the oxygen concentration profile inside of stem cell aggregates in a stem cell expansion process was predicted using a modified oxygen diffusion model. This profile can be realized during the stem cells cultivation process by manipulating the oxygen concentration in inlet gas or inlet gas flow. The proposed approach is relatively simple and may be attractive for installation in a real pluripotent stem cell expansion processes.

Keywords: aggregated stem cells, dissolved oxygen profiles, modeling, stirred-tank, 3D expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
11951 Intentional Cultivation of Non-toxic Filamentous Cyanobacteria Tolypothrix as an Approach to Treat Eutrophic Waters

Authors: Simona Lucakova, Irena Branyikova


Eutrophication, a condition when water becomes over-enriched with nutrients (P, N), can lead to undesirable excessive growth of phytoplankton, so-called algal bloom. This process results in the accumulation of toxin-producing cyanobacteria and oxygen depletion, both possibly leading to the collapse of the whole ecosystem. In real conditions, the limiting nutrient, which determines the possible growth of harmful algal bloom, is usually phosphorus. Algicides or flocculants have been applied in the eutrophicated waterbody in order to reduce the phytoplankton growth, which leads to the introduction of toxic chemicals into the water. In our laboratory, the idea of the prevention of harmful phytoplankton growth by the intentional cultivation of non-toxic cyanobacteria Tolypothrix tenuis in semi-open floating photobioreactors directly on the surface of phosphorus-rich waterbody is examined. During the process of cultivation, redundant phosphorus is incorporated into cyanobacterial biomass, which can be subsequently used for the production of biofuels, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, or biostimulants for agricultural use. To determine the ability of phosphorus incorporation, batch-cultivation of Tolypothrix biomass in media simulating eutrophic water (10% BG medium) and in effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant, both with the initial phosphorus concentration in the range 0.5-1.0 mgP/L was performed in laboratory-scale models of floating photobioreactors. After few hours of cultivation, the phosphorus content was decreased below the target limit of 0.035 mgP/L, which was given as a borderline for the algal bloom formation. Under laboratory conditions, the effect of several parameters on the rate of phosphorus decrease was tested (illumination, temperature, stirring speed/aeration gas flow, biomass to medium ratio). Based on the obtained results, a bench-scale floating photobioreactor was designed and will be tested for Tolypothrix growth in real conditions. It was proved that intentional cultivation of cyanobacteria Tolypothrix could be a suitable approach for extracting redundant phosphorus from eutrophic waters as prevention of algal bloom formation.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, eutrophication, floating photobioreactor, Tolypothrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
11950 Monitoring of Cannabis Cultivation with High-Resolution Images

Authors: Levent Basayigit, Sinan Demir, Burhan Kara, Yusuf Ucar


Cannabis is mostly used for drug production. In some countries, an excessive amount of illegal cannabis is cultivated and sold. Most of the illegal cannabis cultivation occurs on the lands far from settlements. In farmlands, it is cultivated with other crops. In this method, cannabis is surrounded by tall plants like corn and sunflower. It is also cultivated with tall crops as the mixed culture. The common method of the determination of the illegal cultivation areas is to investigate the information obtained from people. This method is not sufficient for the determination of illegal cultivation in remote areas. For this reason, more effective methods are needed for the determination of illegal cultivation. Remote Sensing is one of the most important technologies to monitor the plant growth on the land. The aim of this study is to monitor cannabis cultivation area using satellite imagery. The main purpose of this study was to develop an applicable method for monitoring the cannabis cultivation. For this purpose, cannabis was grown as single or surrounded by the corn and sunflower in plots. The morphological characteristics of cannabis were recorded two times per month during the vegetation period. The spectral signature library was created with the spectroradiometer. The parcels were monitored with high-resolution satellite imagery. With the processing of satellite imagery, the cultivation areas of cannabis were classified. To separate the Cannabis plots from the other plants, the multiresolution segmentation algorithm was found to be the most successful for classification. WorldView Improved Vegetative Index (WV-VI) classification was the most accurate method for monitoring the plant density. As a result, an object-based classification method and vegetation indices were sufficient for monitoring the cannabis cultivation in multi-temporal Earthwiev images.

Keywords: Cannabis, drug, remote sensing, object-based classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
11949 The Development of an Integrity Cultivating Module in School-Based Assessment among Malaysian Teachers: A Research Methodology

Authors: Eftah Bte. Moh Hj Abdullah, Abd Aziz Bin Abd Shukor, Norazilawati Binti Abdullah, Rahimah Adam, Othman Bin Lebar


The competency and integrity required for better understanding and practice of School-based Assessment (PBS) comes not only from the process, but also in providing the support or ‘scaffolding’ for teachers to recognize the student as a learner, improve their self-assessment skills, understanding of the daily teaching plan and its constructive alignment of the curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The cultivation of integrity in PBS among the teachers is geared towards encouraging them to become committed and dedicated in implementing assessments in a serious, efficient manner, thus moving away from the usual teacher-focused approach to the student-focused approach. The teachers show their integrity via their professional commitment, responsibility and actions. The module based on the cultivation of integrity in PBS among Malaysian teachers aims to broaden the guidance support for teachers (embedded in the training), which consists of various domains to enable better evaluation of complex assessment tasks and the construction of suitable instrument for measuring the relevant cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to describe the students’ achievement. The instrument for integrity cultivation in PBS has been developed and validated for measuring the effectiveness of the module constructed. This module is targeted towards assisting the staff in the Education Ministry, especially the principal trainers, teachers, headmasters and education officers to acquire effective intervention for improving the PBS assessors’ integrity and competency.

Keywords: school-based assessment, assessment competency integrity cultivation, professional commitment, module

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
11948 Assessment of Al/Fe Humus, pH, and P Retention to Differentiate Andisols under Different Cultivation, Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Miseri Roeslan Afany, Nur Ainun Pulungan


The unique characteristics of Andisol differentiate them from other soils. These characteristics become a guideline in determining management and usage with regards to agriculture. Especially in the tropical area, Andisols may have fast mineral alteration due to intensive water movement in the soils. Four soil chemical tests were conducted for evaluating soils in the study area. Al/Fe humus, allophane, pH, and P retention were used to differentiate Andisols under different practices. Non-cultivation practice (e.g. natural forest) and cultivation practices (e.g. horticulture systems and intensive farming systems) are compared in this study. We applied Blackmore method for P retention analysis. The aims of this study are: (i) to analyze the specific behavior of Al/Fe humus, pH, and allophane towards P retention in order (ii) to evaluate the effect of cultivation practices on their behavior changes among Andisols, and (iii) to gain the sustainable agriculture through proposing an appropriate soil managements in the study area. 5 observation sites were selected, and 75 soil sampling were analyzed in this study. The results show that the cultivation decreases P retention in all sampling sites. There is a declining from ±90% to ±50% of P retention in the natural forest where shifts into cultivated land. The average of P retention under 15 years of cultivation down into 63%, whereas, the average of P retention more than 15 years of cultivation down into 54%. Many factors affect the retention of P in the soil such as: (1) type and amount of clay, (2) allophone and/or imogolit, (3) Al/Fe humus, (4) soil pH, (5) type and amount of organic material, (6) Exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, Na, K), (7) forms and solubility of Al/Fe. To achieve the sustainable agriculture in the study area, conventional agriculture practices should be preserved and intensive fertilizing practices should be applied in order to increase the soil pH, to maintain the organic matter of andisols, to maintain microba activities, and to release Al/Fe humus complex, and thus increase available P in the soils.

Keywords: Andisols, cultivation, P retention, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
11947 Strategic Analysis of Energy and Impact Assessment of Microalgae Based Biodiesel and Biogas Production in Outdoor Raceway Pond: A Life Cycle Perspective

Authors: T. Sarat Chandra, M. Maneesh Kumar, S. N. Mudliar, V. S. Chauhan, S. Mukherji, R. Sarada


The life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel production from freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus cultivated in open raceway pond is performed. Various scenarios for biodiesel production were simulated using primary and secondary data. The parameters varied in the modelled scenarios were related to biomass productivity, mode of culture mixing and type of energy source. The process steps included algae cultivation in open raceway ponds, harvesting by chemical flocculation, dewatering by mechanical drying option (MDO) followed by extraction, reaction and purification. Anaerobic digestion of defatted algal biomass (DAB) for biogas generation is considered as a co-product allocation and the energy derived from DAB was thereby used in the upstream of the process. The scenarios were analysed for energy demand, emissions and environmental impacts within the boundary conditions grounded on "cradle to gate" inventory. Across all the Scenarios, cultivation via raceway pond was observed to be energy intensive process. The mode of culture mixing and biomass productivity determined the energy requirements of the cultivation step. Emissions to Freshwater were found to be maximum contributing to 93-97% of total emissions in all the scenarios. Global warming potential (GWP) was the found to be major environmental impact accounting to about 99% of total environmental impacts in all the modelled scenarios. It was noticed that overall emissions and impacts were directly related to energy demand and an inverse relationship was observed with biomass productivity. The geographic location of an energy source affected the environmental impact of a given process. The integration of defatted algal remnants derived electricity with the cultivation system resulted in a 2% reduction in overall energy demand. Direct biogas generation from microalgae post harvesting is also analysed. Energy surplus was observed after using part of the energy in upstream for biomass production. Results suggest biogas production from microalgae post harvesting as an environmentally viable and sustainable option compared to biodiesel production.

Keywords: biomass productivity, energy demand, energy source, Lifecycle Assessment (LCA), microalgae, open raceway pond

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
11946 Repeated Batch Cultivation: A Novel Empty and Fill Strategy for the Enhanced Production of a Biodegradable Polymer, Polyhydroxy Alkanoate by Alcaligenes latus

Authors: Geeta Gahlawat, Ashok Kumar Srivastava


In the present study, a simple drain and fill protocol strategy of repeated batch was adopted for enhancement in polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production using alcaligenes latus DSM 1124. Repeated batch strategy helped in increasing the longevity of otherwise decaying culture in the bioreactor by supplementing fresh substrates during each cycle of repeated-batch. The main advantages of repeated batch are its ease of operation, enhancement of culture stability towards contamination, minimization of pre-culture effects and maintenance of organism at high growth rates. The cultivation of A. latus was carried out in 7 L bioreactor containing 4 L optimized nutrient medium and a comparison with the batch mode fermentation was done to evaluate the performance of repeated batch in terms of PHAs accumulation and productivity. The statistically optimized medium recipe consisted of: 25 g/L Sucrose, 2.8 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 3.25 g/L KH2PO4, 3.25 g/L Na2HPO4, 0.2 g/L MgSO4, 1.5 mL/L trace element solution. In this strategy, 20% (v/v) of the culture broth was removed from the reactor and supplemented with an equal volume of fresh medium when sucrose concentration inside the reactor decreased below 8 g/L. The fermenter was operated for three repeated batch cycles and fresh nutrient feeding was done at 27 h, 48 h, and 60 h. Repeated batch operation resulted in a total biomass of 27.89 g/L and PHAs concentration 20.55 g/L at the end of 69 h which was a marked improvement as compared to batch cultivation (8.71 g/L biomass and 6.24 g/L PHAs). This strategy demonstrated 3.3 fold and 1.8 fold increase in PHAs concentration and volumetric productivity, respectively as compared to batch cultivation. Repeated batch cultivation strategy had also the benefit of avoiding non-productive time period required for cleaning, refilling and sterilization of bioreactor, thereby increasing the overall volumetric productivity and making the entire process cost-effective too.

Keywords: alcaligenes, biodegradation, polyhydroxyalkanoates, repeated batch

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
11945 A Comparative Study of Modern Trends in Traditional Farming Methods of Paddy Cultivation

Authors: Prasansha Kumari


This research intends to identify and analyze the new trends of usage the traditional farming methods to modern paddy cultivation. Information gathered through conducting interviews with total of 200 farmers in selected paddy cultivation areas in Kurunegalla district. As well as this research utilized by case study and observation in Ulpotha Traditional Village, Galgamuwa of Sri Lanka. Secondary data collected from books, articles, relevant websites and other relevant documents. Collected data analyzed by descriptive research methodology. Outcomes are there is growing interest in usage the traditional farming methods to the small consumption level paddy lands that have emerged during the last few decades as well as the research revealed that traditional farming method has identified the ecofriendly farming practices to restrict long term side effects inherited from the modern methods. The study finds out the demand of traditional rice varieties has been growing among the community as health and nutrition purpose.

Keywords: traditional farming, organic, inorganic, paddy cultivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
11944 Sustainable Treatment of Vegetable Oil Industry Wastewaters by Xanthomonas campestris

Authors: Bojana Ž. Bajić, Siniša N. Dodić, Vladimir S. Puškaš, Jelena M. Dodić


Increasing industrialization as a response to the demands of the consumer society greatly exploits resources and generates large amounts of waste effluents in addition to the desired product. This means it is a priority to implement technologies with the maximum utilization of raw materials and energy, minimum generation of waste effluents and/or their recycling (secondary use). Considering the process conditions and the nature of the raw materials used by the vegetable oil industry, its wastewaters can be used as substrates for the biotechnological production which requires large amounts of water. This way the waste effluents of one branch of industry become raw materials for another branch which produces a new product while reducing wastewater pollution and thereby reducing negative environmental impacts. Vegetable oil production generates wastewaters during the process of rinsing oils and fats which contain mainly fatty acid pollutants. The vegetable oil industry generates large amounts of waste effluents, especially in the processes of degumming, deacidification, deodorization and neutralization. Wastewaters from the vegetable oil industry are generated during the whole year in significant amounts, based on the capacity of the vegetable oil production. There are no known alternative applications for these wastewaters as raw materials for the production of marketable products. Since the literature has no data on the potential negative impact of fatty acids on the metabolism of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, these wastewaters were considered as potential raw materials for the biotechnological production of xanthan. In this research, vegetable oil industry wastewaters were used as the basis for the cultivation media for xanthan production with Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951. Examining the process of biosynthesis of xanthan on vegetable oil industry wastewaters as the basis for the cultivation media was performed to obtain insight into the possibility of its use in the aforementioned biotechnological process. Additionally, it was important to experimentally determine the absence of substances that have an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of the production microorganism. Xanthan content, rheological parameters of the cultivation media, carbon conversion into xanthan and conversions of the most significant nutrients for biosynthesis (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources) were determined as indicators of the success of biosynthesis. The obtained results show that biotechnological production of the biopolymer xanthan by bacterium Xanthomonas campestris on vegetable oil industry wastewaters based cultivation media simultaneously provides preservation of the environment and economic benefits which is a sustainable solution to the problem of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: biotechnology, sustainable bioprocess, vegetable oil industry wastewaters, Xanthomonas campestris

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
11943 The Study on Enhanced Micro Climate of the Oyster Mushroom Cultivation House with Multi-Layered Shelves by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis in Winter

Authors: Sunghyoun Lee, Byeongkee Yu, Chanjung Lee, Yeongtaek Lim


Oyster mushrooms are one of the ingredients that Koreans prefer. The oyster mushroom cultivation house has multiple layers in order to increase the mushroom production per unit area. However, the growing shelves in the house act as obstacles and hinder the circulation of the interior air, which leads to the difference of cultivation environment between the upper part and lower part of the growing shelves. Due to this difference of environments, growth distinction occurs according to the area of the growing shelves. It is known that minute air circulation around the mushroom cap facilitates the metabolism of mushrooms and improves its quality. This study has utilized the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program, that is, FLUENT R16, in order to analyze the improvement of the internal environment uniformity of the oyster mushroom cultivation house. The analyzed factors are velocity distribution, temperature distribution, and humidity distribution. In order to maintain the internal environment uniformity of the oyster mushroom cultivation house, it appeared that installing circulation fan at the upper part of the working passage towards the ceiling is effective. When all the environmental control equipment – unit cooler, inlet fan, outlet fan, air circulation fan, and humidifier - operated simultaneously, the RMS figure on the growing shelves appeared as follows: velocity 28.23%, temperature 30.47%, humidity 7.88%. However, when only unit cooler and air circulation fan operated, the RMS figure on the growing shelves appeared as follows: velocity 22.28%, temperature 0.87%, humidity 0.82%. Therefore, in order to maintain the internal environment uniformity of the mushroom cultivation house, reducing the overall operating time of inlet fan, outlet fan, and humidifier is needed, and managing the internal environment with unit cooler and air circulation fan appropriately is essential.

Keywords: air circulation fan, computational fluid dynamics, multi-layered shelves cultivation, oyster mushroom cultivation house

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
11942 Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae – Removal of Nitrogen

Authors: A. Siham Dehmani, B. Djamal Zerrouki


Domestic wastewater contains high concentrations of nitrogen, which can affect public health and cause harmful ecological impacts. The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy based on wastewater has received increasing interest worldwide in recent decades. The microalgae cultivation in wastewater has two advantages: wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Our work aimed to remove nitrogen from municipal wastewater. Wastewater samples were taken from the wastewater treatment station located in Ouargla and used as a medium for the cultivation of chlorella microalgae strains inside a photobioreactor. Analysis of different parameters was done every 2 days along the period of the cultivation (10 days). The average removal efficiencies of nitrogen were maintained at 95%. Our results show the potential of integrating nutrient removal from wastewater by microalgae as a secondary wastewater treatment processes.

Keywords: biomass, microalgae, treatment, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
11941 Climate Change Impacts on Future Wheat Growing Areas

Authors: Rasha Aljaryian, Lalit Kumar


Climate is undergoing continuous change and this trend will affect the cultivation areas ofmost crops, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), in the future. The current suitable cultivation areas may become unsuitable climatically. Countries that depend on wheat cultivation and export may suffer an economic loss because of production decline. On the other hand, some regions of the world could gain economically by increasing cultivation areas. This study models the potential future climatic suitability of wheat by using CLIMEX software. Two different global climate models (GCMs) were used, CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR), with two emission scenarios (A2, A1B). The results of this research indicate that the suitable climatic areas for wheat in the southern hemisphere, such as Australia, are expected to contract by the end of this century. However, some unsuitable or marginal areas will become climatically suitable under future climate scenarios. In North America and Europe further expansion inland could occur. Also, the results illustrate that heat and dry stresses as abiotic climatic factors will play an important role in wheat distribution in the future. Providing sufficient information about future wheat distribution will be useful for agricultural ministries and organizations to manage the shift in production areas in the future. They can minimize the expected harmful economic consequences by preparing strategic plans and identifying new areas for wheat cultivation.

Keywords: Climate change, Climate modelling, CLIMEX, Triticum aestivum, Wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
11940 Quantitative Research on the Effects of Following Brands on Twitter on Consumer Brand Attitude

Authors: Yujie Wei


Twitter uses a variety of narrative methods (e.g., messages, featured videos, music, and actual events) to strengthen its cultivation effect. Consumers are receiving mass-produced brand stores or images made by brand managers according to strict market specifications. Drawing on the cultivation theory, this quantitative research investigates how following a brand on Twitter for 12 weeks can cultivate their attitude toward the brand and influence their purchase intentions. We conducted three field experiments on Twitter to test the cultivation effects of following a brand for 12 weeks on consumer attitude toward the followed brand. The cultivation effects were measured by comparing the changes in consumer attitudes before and after they have followed a brand over time. The findings of our experiments suggest that when consumers are exposed to a brand’s stable, pervasive, and recurrent tweets on Twitter for 12 weeks, their attitude toward a brand can be significantly changed, which confirms the cultivating effects on consumer attitude. Also, the results indicate that branding activities on Twitter, when properly implemented, can be very effective in changing consumer attitudes toward a brand, increasing the purchase intentions, and increasing their willingness to spread the word-of-mouth for the brand on social media. The cultivation effects are moderated by brand type and consumer age. The research provides three major marketing implications. First, Twitter marketers should create unique content to engage their brand followers to change their brand attitude through steady, cumulative exposure to the branding activities on Twitter. Second, there is a significant moderating effect of brand type on the cultivation effects, so Twitter marketers should align their branding content with the brand type to better meet the needs and wants of consumers for different types of brands. Finally, Twitter marketers should adapt their tweeting strategies according to the media consumption preferences of different age groups of their target markets. This empirical research proves that content is king.

Keywords: tweeting, cultivation theory, consumer brand attitude, purchase intentions, word-of-mouth

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
11939 Agronomic Manipulation in Cultivation Practices of Scented Rice: For Sustainable Crop Production

Authors: Damini Thawait, S. K. Dwivedi, Amit K. Patel, Samaptika Kar


The experiment was carried out at Raipur during season of 2012 to find out the optimum planting patterns for scented rice cultivation. The treatment (T2) planting of two to three seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 cm from plant to plant and 25 cm from row to row recorded significantly good grain quality i.e. higher head rice recovery (41.41) along with higher gain length (8.05).

Keywords: rice, scented, quality, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
11938 Algae for Wastewater Treatment and CO₂ Sequestration along with Recovery of Bio-Oil and Value Added Products

Authors: P. Kiran Kumar, S. Vijaya Krishna, Kavita Verma1, V. Himabindu


Concern about global warming and energy security has led to increased biomass utilization as an alternative feedstock to fossil fuels. Biomass is a promising feedstock since it is abundant and cheap and can be transformed into fuels and chemical products. Microalgae biofuels are likely to have a much lower impact on the environment. Microalgae cultivation using sewage with industrial flue gases is a promising concept for integrated biodiesel production, CO₂ sequestration, and nutrients recovery. Autotrophic, Mixotrophic, and Heterotrophic are the three modes of cultivation for microalgae biomass. Several mechanical and chemical processes are available for the extraction of lipids/oily components from microalgae biomass. In organic solvent extraction methods, a prior drying of biomass and recovery of the solvent is required, which are energy-intensive. Thus, the hydrothermal process overcomes the drawbacks of conventional solvent extraction methods. In the hydrothermal process, the biomass is converted into oily components by processing in a hot, pressurized water environment. In this process, in addition to the lipid fraction of microalgae, other value-added products such as proteins, carbohydrates, and nutrients can also be recovered. In the present study was (Scenedesmus quadricauda) was isolated and cultivated in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophically using sewage wastewater and industrial flue gas in batch and continuous mode. The harvested algae biomass from S. quadricauda was used for the recovery of lipids and bio-oil. The lipids were extracted from the algal biomass using sonication as a cell disruption method followed by solvent (Hexane) extraction, and the lipid yield obtained was 8.3 wt% with Palmitic acid, Oleic acid, and Octadeonoic acid as fatty acids. The hydrothermal process was also carried out for extraction of bio-oil, and the yield obtained was 18wt%. The bio-oil compounds such as nitrogenous compounds, organic acids, and esters, phenolics, hydrocarbons, and alkanes were obtained by the hydrothermal process of algal biomass. Nutrients such as NO₃⁻ (68%) and PO₄⁻ (15%) were also recovered along with bio-oil in the hydrothermal process.

Keywords: flue gas, hydrothermal process, microalgae, sewage wastewater, sonication

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
11937 Dao Embodied – Embodying Dao: The Body as Locus of Personal Cultivation in Ancient Daoist and Confucian Philosophy

Authors: Geir Sigurðsson


This paper compares ancient Daoist and Confucian approaches to the human body as a locus for learning, edification or personal cultivation. While pointing out some major differences between ancient Chinese and mainstream Western visions of the body, it seeks at the same time inspiration in some seminal Western phenomenological and post-structuralist writings, in particular from Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Pierre Bourdieu. By clarifying the somewhat dissimilar scopes of foci found in Daoist and Confucian philosophies with regard to the role of and attitude to the body, the conclusion is nevertheless that their approaches are comparable, and that both traditions take the physical body to play a vital role in the cultivation of excellence. Lastly, it will be argued that cosmological underpinnings prevent the Confucian li from being rigid and invariable and that it rather emerges as a flexible learning device to train through active embodiment a refined sensibility for one’s cultural environment.

Keywords: body, Confucianism, Daoism, li (ritual), phenomenology

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
11936 Development of a Weed Suppression Robot for Rice Cultivation Weed Suppression and Posture Control

Authors: Shohei Nakai, Yasuhiro Yamada


Weed suppression and weeding are necessary measures for rice cultivation. Weed suppression precedes the process of weeding. It means suppressing the growth of young weeds and creating a weed-less environment. If we suppress the growth of weeds, we can reduce the number of weeds in a paddy field. This would result in a reduction of the weeding work load. In this paper, we will show how we developed a weed suppression robot for the purpose of reducing the weeding work load. The robot has a laser range finder for autonomous mobility and a robot arm for weed suppression. It travels along the rice rows without stepping on and injuring the rice plants in a paddy field. The robot arm applies force to the weed seedlings and thereby suppresses the growth of weeds. This paper will explain the methodology of the autonomous mobile, the experiment in weed suppression, and the method of controlling the robot’s posture on uneven ground.

Keywords: mobile robot, paddy field, robot arm, weed

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
11935 Strengthening National Salt Industry through Cultivation Upgrading and Product Diversification

Authors: Etty Soesilowati


This research was intended to: (1) designing production systems that produce high quality salt and (2) diversification of salt products. This research used qualitative and quantitative approaches which Garam Mas Ltd. as the research site. The data were analyzed interactively and subjected to laboratory tests. The analyses showed that salt production system using HDPE geomembranes produced whiter and cleaner salts than those produced by conventional methods without HDPE geomembranes. High quality consumption salt contained 97% NaCl and a maximum of 0.05% water, in the form of white minute crystals and usually used for table salt of food and snack seasoning, souses and cheese and vegetable oil industries. Medium grade salt contained 94.7%-97% NaCl and 3%-7% water and usually used for kitchen salt, soy sauce, tofu industries and cattle feeding. Low quality salt contained 90%-94.7% NaCl and 5%-10% water, with dull white color and usually used for fish preservation and agriculture. The quality and quantity of salts production were influenced by temperatures, weather, water concentrations used during production processes and the discipline of salt farmers itself. The use of water temperature less than 23 °Be during the production processes produced low quality salts. Optimizing cultivation of the production process from raw material to end product (consumption salt) should be attempted to produce quality salt that fulfills the Indonesian National Standard. Therefore, the integrated policies among stakeholders are really needed to build strong institutional base at salt farmer level. This might be achieved through the establishment of specific region for salt production.

Keywords: cultivation system, diversification, salt products, high quality salt

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
11934 Fed-Batch Mixotrophic Cultivation of Microalgae Scenedesmus sp., Using Airlift Photobioreactor

Authors: Lakshmidevi Rajendran, Bharathidasan Kanniappan, Gopi Raja, Muthukumar Karuppan


This study investigates the feasibility of fed-batch mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. in a 3-litre airlift photobioreactor under standard operating conditions. The results of this study suggest the algae species may serve as an excellent feed for aquatic species using organic byproducts. Microalgae Scenedesmus sp., was cultured using a synthetic wastewater by stepwise addition of crude glycerol concentration ranging from 2-10g/l under fed-batch mixotrophic mode for a period of 15 days. The attempts were made with the stepwise addition of crude glycerol as a carbon source in the initial growth phase to evade the inhibitory nature of high glycerol concentration on the growth of Scenedesmus sp. Crude glycerol was chosen since it is readily accessible as byproduct from biodiesel production sectors. Highest biomass concentration was achieved to be 2.43 g/l at the crude glycerol concentration of 6g/l after 10 days which is 3 fold times the increase in the biomass concentration compared with the control medium without the addition of glycerol. Biomass growth data obtained for the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. was fitted well with the modified Logistic equation. Substrate utilization kinetics was also employed to model the biomass productivity with respect to the various crude glycerol concentration. The results indicated that the supplement of crude glycerol to the mixotrophic culture of Scenedesmus sp., enhances the biomass concentration, chlorophyll and lutein productivity. Thus the application of fed-batch mixotrophic cultivation with stepwise addition of crude glycerol to Scenedesmus sp., provides a subtle way to reduce the production cost and improvisation in the large-scale cultivation along with biochemical compound synthesis.

Keywords: airlift photobioreactor, crude glycerol, microalgae Scenedesmus sp., mixotrophic cultivation, lutein production

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
11933 Case Study on Innovative Aquatic-Based Bioeconomy for Chlorella sorokiniana

Authors: Iryna Atamaniuk, Hannah Boysen, Nils Wieczorek, Natalia Politaeva, Iuliia Bazarnova, Kerstin Kuchta


Over the last decade due to climate change and a strategy of natural resources preservation, the interest for the aquatic biomass has dramatically increased. Along with mitigation of the environmental pressure and connection of waste streams (including CO2 and heat emissions), microalgae bioeconomy can supply food, feed, as well as the pharmaceutical and power industry with number of value-added products. Furthermore, in comparison to conventional biomass, microalgae can be cultivated in wide range of conditions without compromising food and feed production, thus addressing issues associated with negative social and the environmental impacts. This paper presents the state-of-the art technology for microalgae bioeconomy from cultivation process to production of valuable components and by-streams. Microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana were cultivated in the pilot-scale innovation concept in Hamburg (Germany) using different systems such as race way pond (5000 L) and flat panel reactors (8 x 180 L). In order to achieve the optimum growth conditions along with suitable cellular composition for the further extraction of the value-added components, process parameters such as light intensity, temperature and pH are continuously being monitored. On the other hand, metabolic needs in nutrients were provided by addition of micro- and macro-nutrients into a medium to ensure autotrophic growth conditions of microalgae. The cultivation was further followed by downstream process and extraction of lipids, proteins and saccharides. Lipids extraction is conducted in repeated-batch semi-automatic mode using hot extraction method according to Randall. As solvents hexane and ethanol are used at different ratio of 9:1 and 1:9, respectively. Depending on cell disruption method along with solvents ratio, the total lipids content showed significant variations between 8.1% and 13.9 %. The highest percentage of extracted biomass was reached with a sample pretreated with microwave digestion using 90% of hexane and 10% of ethanol as solvents. Proteins content in microalgae was determined by two different methods, namely: Total Kejadahl Nitrogen (TKN), which further was converted to protein content, as well as Bradford method using Brilliant Blue G-250 dye. Obtained results, showed a good correlation between both methods with protein content being in the range of 39.8–47.1%. Characterization of neutral and acid saccharides from microalgae was conducted by phenol-sulfuric acid method at two wavelengths of 480 nm and 490 nm. The average concentration of neutral and acid saccharides under the optimal cultivation conditions was 19.5% and 26.1%, respectively. Subsequently, biomass residues are used as substrate for anaerobic digestion on the laboratory-scale. The methane concentration, which was measured on the daily bases, showed some variations for different samples after extraction steps but was in the range between 48% and 55%. CO2 which is formed during the fermentation process and after the combustion in the Combined Heat and Power unit can potentially be used within the cultivation process as a carbon source for the photoautotrophic synthesis of biomass.

Keywords: bioeconomy, lipids, microalgae, proteins, saccharides

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
11932 Using Optimal Cultivation Strategies for Enhanced Biomass and Lipid Production of an Indigenous Thraustochytrium sp. BM2

Authors: Hsin-Yueh Chang, Pin-Chen Liao, Jo-Shu Chang, Chun-Yen Chen


Biofuel has drawn much attention as a potential substitute to fossil fuels. However, biodiesel from waste oil, oil crops or other oil sources can only satisfy partial existing demands for transportation. Due to the feature of being clean, green and viable for mass production, using microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel is regarded as a possible solution for a low-carbon and sustainable society. In particular, Thraustochytrium sp. BM2, an indigenous heterotrophic microalga, possesses the potential for metabolizing glycerol to produce lipids. Hence, it is being considered as a promising microalgae-based oil source for biodiesel production and other applications. This study was to optimize the culture pH, scale up, assess the feasibility of producing microalgal lipid from crude glycerol and apply operation strategies following optimal results from shake flask system in a 5L stirred-tank fermenter for further enhancing lipid productivities. Cultivation of Thraustochytrium sp. BM2 without pH control resulted in the highest lipid production of 3944 mg/L and biomass production of 4.85 g/L. Next, when initial glycerol and corn steep liquor (CSL) concentration increased five times (50 g and 62.5 g, respectively), the overall lipid productivity could reach 124 mg/L/h. However, when using crude glycerol as a sole carbon source, direct addition of crude glycerol could inhibit culture growth. Therefore, acid and metal salt pretreatment methods were utilized to purify the crude glycerol. Crude glycerol pretreated with acid and CaCl₂ had the greatest overall lipid productivity 131 mg/L/h when used as a carbon source and proved to be a better substitute for pure glycerol as carbon source in Thraustochytrium sp. BM2 cultivation medium. Engineering operation strategies such as fed-batch and semi-batch operation were applied in the cultivation of Thraustochytrium sp. BM2 for the improvement of lipid production. In cultivation of fed-batch operation strategy, harvested biomass 132.60 g and lipid 69.15 g were obtained. Also, lipid yield 0.20 g/g glycerol was same as in batch cultivation, although with poor overall lipid productivity 107 mg/L/h. In cultivation of semi-batch operation strategy, overall lipid productivity could reach 158 mg/L/h due to the shorter cultivation time. Harvested biomass and lipid achieved 232.62 g and 126.61 g respectively. Lipid yield was improved from 0.20 to 0.24 g/g glycerol. Besides, product costs of three kinds of operation strategies were also calculated. The lowest product cost 12.42 $NTD/g lipid was obtained while employing semi-batch operation strategy and reduced 33% in comparison with batch operation strategy.

Keywords: heterotrophic microalga Thrasutochytrium sp. BM2, microalgal lipid, crude glycerol, fermentation strategy, biodiesel

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
11931 Assessing the Impact of Quinoa Cultivation Adopted to Produce a Secure Food Crop and Poverty Reduction by Farmers in Rural Pakistan

Authors: Ejaz Ashraf, Raheel Babar, Muhammad Yaseen, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Nosheen Fatima


Main purpose of this study was to assess adoption level of farmers for quinoa cultivation after they had been taught through training and visit extension approach. At this time of the 21st century, population structure, climate change, food requirements and eating habits of people are changing rapidly. In this scenario, farmers must play their key role in sustainable crop development and production through adoption of new crops that may also be helpful to overcome the issue of food insecurity as well as reducing poverty in rural areas. Its cultivation in Pakistan is at the early stages and there is a need to raise awareness among farmers to grow quinoa crops. In the middle of the 2015, a training and visit extension approach was used to raise awareness and convince farmers to grow quinoa in the area. During training and visit extension program, 80 farmers were randomly selected for the training of quinoa cultivation. Later on, these farmers trained 60 more farmers living into their neighborhood. After six months, a survey was conducted with all 140 farmers to assess the impact of the training and visit program on adoption level of respondents for the quinoa crop. The survey instrument was developed with the help of literature review and other experts of the crop. Validity and reliability of the instrument were checked before complete data collection. The data were analyzed by using SPSS. Multiple regression analysis was used for interpretation of the results from the survey, which indicated that factors like information/ training, change in agronomic and plant protection practices play a key role in the adoption of quinoa cultivation by respondents. In addition, the model explains more than 50% of variation in the adoption level of respondents. It is concluded that farmers need timely information for improved knowledge of agronomic and plant protection practices to adopt cultivation of the quinoa crop in the area.

Keywords: farmers, quinoa, adoption, contact, training and visit

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
11930 Ethanol and Biomass Production from Spent Sulfite Liquor by Filamentous Fungi

Authors: M. T. Asadollahzadeh, A. Ghasemian, A. R. Saraeian, H. Resalati, P. R. Lennartsson, M. J. Taherzadeh


Since filamentous fungi are capable of assimilating several types of sugars (hexoses and pentoses), they are potential candidates for bioconversion of spent sulfite liquor (SSL). Three filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizopus oryzae were investigated in this work. The SSL was diluted in order to obtain concentrations of 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% and supplemented with two types of nutrients. The results from cultivations in shake flask showed that A. oryzae and M. indicus were not able to grow in pure SSL and SSL90% while R. oryzae could grow only in SSL50% and SSL60%. Cultivation with A. oryzae resulted in the highest yield of produced fungal biomass, while R. oryzae cultivation resulted in the lowest fungal biomass yield. Although, the mediums containing yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, CaCl2∙2H2O, and MgSO4∙7H2O as nutrients supplementations produced higher fungal biomass compared to the mediums containing NH4H2PO4 and ammonia, but there was no significant difference between two types of nutrients in terms of sugars and acetic acid consumption rate. The sugars consumption in M. indicus cultivation was faster than A. oryzae and R. oryzae cultivation. Acetic acid present in SSL was completely consumed during cultivation of all fungi. M. indicus was the best and fastest ethanol producer from SSL among the fungi examined, when yeast extract and salts were used as nutrients supplementations. Furthermore, no further improvement in ethanol concentration and rate of sugars consumption was obtained in medium supplemented with NH4H2PO4 and ammonia compared to medium containing yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, CaCl2∙2H2O, and MgSO4∙7H2O. On the other hand, the higher dilution of SSL resulted in a better fermentability, and better consumption of sugars and acetic acid.

Keywords: ethanol, filamentous fungi, fungal biomass, spent sulfite liquor

Procedia PDF Downloads 129