Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6721

Search results for: total carbohydrates

6721 Concentration of D-Pinitol from Carob Kibble Using Submerged Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

D-pinitol (3-O-methyl ether of D-chiro-inosito) has been known to have health benefits for diabetic patients. Carob kibble has received attention due to the presence of high value D-pinitol and polyphenol antioxidants. D-pinitol was concentrated from carob kibble using submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total carbohydrates and D-pinitol were determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method and HPLC, respectively. The content of D-pinitol increased from approximately 43 to 70 mg/g dry weight after fermentation. The yeast consumed over 70% of total carbohydrates in carob kibble without any negative effect on D-pinitol content. A range of substrate medium pH’s from 5.0 – 7.0 had no significant effect on the removal of carbohydrates and D-pinitol. This method may provide a practical solution for production of D-pinitol from carob in a cost effective manner.

Keywords: carob kibble, d-pinitol, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total carbohydrates

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
6720 Production and Evaluation of Mango Pulp by Using Ohmic Heating Process

Authors: Sobhy M. Mohsen, Mohamed M. El-Nikeety, Tarek G. Mohamed, Michael Murkovic

Abstract:

The present work aimed to study the use of ohmic heating in the processing of mango pulp comparing to conventional method. Mango pulp was processed by using ohmic heating under the studied suitable conditions. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mango pulp were studied. The results showed that processing of mango pulp by using either ohmic heating or conventional method caused a decrease in the contents of TSS, total carbohydrates, total acidity, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugar) and an increase in phenol content, ascorbic acid and carotenoids compared to the conventional process. The increase in electric conductivity of mango pulp during ohmic heating was due to the addition of some electrolytes (salts) to increase the ions and enhance the process. The results also indicate that mango pulp processed by ohmic heating contained more phenols, carbohydrates and vitamin C and less HMF compared to that produced by conventional one. Total pectin and its fractions had slightly reduced by ohmic heating compared to conventional method. Enzymatic activities showed a reduction in poly phenoloxidase (PPO) and polygalacturonase (PG) activity in mango pulp processed by conventional method. However, ohmic heating completely inhibited PPO and PG activities.

Keywords: ohmic heating, mango pulp, phenolic, sarotenoids

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
6719 Computational Chemical-Composition of Carbohydrates in the Context of Healthcare Informatics

Authors: S. Chandrasekaran, S. Nandita, M. Shivathmika, Srikrishnan Shivakumar

Abstract:

The objective of the research work is to analyze the computational chemical-composition of carbohydrates in the context of healthcare informatics. The computation involves the representation of complex chemical molecular structure of carbohydrate using graph theory and in a deployable Chemical Markup Language (CML). The parallel molecular structure of the chemical molecules with or without other adulterants for the sake of business profit can be analyzed in terms of robustness and derivatization measures. The rural healthcare program should create awareness in malnutrition to reduce ill-effect of decomposition and help the consumers to know the level of such energy storage mixtures in a quantitative way. The earlier works were based on the empirical and wet data which can vary from time to time but cannot be made to reuse the results of mining. The work is carried out on the quantitative computational chemistry on carbohydrates to provide a safe and secure right to food act and its regulations.

Keywords: carbohydrates, chemical-composition, chemical markup, robustness, food safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
6718 Phytochemical and Proximate Composition Analysis of Aspillia kotschyi

Authors: A. U. Adamu, E. D Paul, C. E. Gimba, I. G. Ndukwe

Abstract:

The phytochemical and proximate composition of Aspillia kotschyi belonging to Compositae family which is commonly used as medicinal plant in Nigeria was determined on both the Methanolic and Petroleum sprit extract of the plant. The Methanolic extract of the plant revealed the presence of carbohydrates, cardiac glyscosides, flavonoids, triterpene, and alkaloids. The Petroleum sprit extract showed the presence of only carbohydrates and alkaloid. Proximate composition analysis shows moisture content of 5.7%, total ash of 4.03%, crude protein 10.94%, fibre 9.06%, fat value 0.83%, and nitrogen free extract of 70.19%. The results of this study suggest some merit in the popular use of Aspillia kotschi in herbal medicine.

Keywords: Aspillia kotschyi, herbal medicine, phytochemical, proximate composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
6717 Effect of Nitrogen and/or Bio-Fertilizer on the Yield, Total Flavonoids, Carbohydrate Contents, Essential Oil Quantity and Constituents of Dill Plants

Authors: Mohammed S. Aly, Abou-Zeid N. El-Shahat, Nabila Y. Naguib, Huussie A. Said-Al Ahl, Atef M. Zakaria, Mohamed A. Abou Dahab

Abstract:

This study was conducted during two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 to evaluate the response of Anethum graveolens L. plants to nitrogen fertilizer with or without bio-fertilizer on fruits yield, total flavonoids and carbohydrates content, essential oil yield and constituents. Results cleared that the treatment of 60 Kg N/feddan without and with bio-fertilizer gave the highest umbels number per plant through the two seasons and these increments were significant in comparison with control plants. Meanwhile, fruits weight (g/plant) showed significant increase with the treatments of nitrogen fertilizers alone and combined with bio-fertilizers compared with control plants in the first and second season. Maximum increments were resulted with the previous treatment (60 Kg N/fed). Fruits yield (Kg/fed) revealed the same trend of fruits weight (g/plant). Total flavonoids contents were significantly increased with all of used treatments. Maximum increase was noticed with bio-fertilizers combined with 60 Kg N/fed during two seasons. Total carbohydrate contents showed significant increase with applied nitrogen fertilizers treatments as alone, meanwhile total carbohydrate contents were increased non-significantly with the other used treatments during the two seasons in comparison with control plants content. The treatment of bio-fertilizer and in most of nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly increased essential oil percentage, content and yield. The treatment of 60 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizer gave the best values. All identified compounds were observed in the essential oil of all treatments. The major compounds were limonene, carvone and dillapiole. The most effective fertilization on limonene content was 40 Kg N/fed and/or bio-fertilizers. Meanwhile 20 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizers increased carvone, but most of fertilization treatments except those of bio-fertlizers and 40 Kg N/fed increased dillapiole content.

Keywords: carbohydrates, dill, essential oil, fertilizer, flavonoids

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
6716 Microbial and Meiofaunal Dynamics in the Intertidal Sediments of the Northern Red Sea

Authors: Hamed A. El-Serehy, Khaled A. Al-Rasheid, Fahad A Al-Misned

Abstract:

The meiofaunal population fluctuation, microbial dynamic and the composition of the sedimentary organic matter were investigated seasonally in the Egyptian shores along the northern part of Red Sea. Total meiofaunal population densities were extremely low with an annual average of 109 ±26 ind./10 cm2 and largely dominated by nematodes (on annual average from 52% to 94% of total meiofaunal density). The benthic microbial population densities ranged from 0.26±0.02 x 108 to 102.67±18.62 x 108/g dry sediment. Total sedimentary organic matter concentrations varied between 5.8 and 11.6 mg/g and the organic carbon, which was measured as summation of the carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, accounted for only a small fraction of being 32 % of the total organic matter. Chlorophyll a attained very low values and fluctuated between 2 and 11 µg/g. The very low chlorophyll a concentration in the Egyptian coasts along the Red Sea can suggest that the sedimentary organic matter along the Egyptian coasts is dominated by organic detrital and heterotrophic bacteria on one hand, and do not promote carbon transfer towards the higher trophic level on the other hand. However, the present study indicates that the existing of well diversified meiofaunal group, with a total of ten meiofaunal taxa, can serve as food for higher trophic levels in the Red Sea marine ecosystem.

Keywords: bacteria, meiofauna, intertidal sediments, Red Sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
6715 Photocaged Carbohydrates: Versatile Tools for Biotechnological Applications

Authors: Claus Bier, Dennis Binder, Alexander Gruenberger, Dagmar Drobietz, Dietrich Kohlheyer, Anita Loeschcke, Karl Erich Jaeger, Thomas Drepper, Joerg Pietruszka

Abstract:

Light absorbing chromophoric systems are important optogenetic tools for biotechnical and biophysical investigations. Processes such as fluorescence or photolysis can be triggered by light-absorption of chromophores. These play a central role in life science. Photocaged compounds belong to such chromophoric systems. The photo-labile protecting groups enable them to release biologically active substances with high temporal and spatial resolution. The properties of photocaged compounds are specified by the characteristics of the caging group as well as the characteristics of the linked effector molecule. In our research, we work with different types of photo-labile protecting groups and various effector molecules giving us possible access to a large library of caged compounds. As a function of the caged effector molecule, a nearly limitless number of biological systems can be directed. Our main interest focusses on photocaging carbohydrates (e.g. arabinose) and their derivatives as effector molecules. Based on these resulting photocaged compounds a precisely controlled photoinduced gene expression will give us access to studies of numerous biotechnological and synthetic biological applications. It could be shown, that the regulation of gene expression via light is possible with photocaged carbohydrates achieving a higher-order control over this processes. With the one-step cleavable photocaged carbohydrate, a homogeneous expression was achieved in comparison to free carbohydrates.

Keywords: bacterial gene expression, biotechnology, caged compounds, carbohydrates, optogenetics, photo-removable protecting group

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
6714 Length of Pregnancy and Dental Caries Observation in Relation to BMI

Authors: Edit Xhajanka, Gresa Baboci, Irene Malagnino, Mimoza Canga, Vito Antonio Malagnino

Abstract:

Purpose: This study aimed at identifying dental caries increment or reduction, based on factors such as smoking, the scaling of teeth, BMI before and during pregnancy, carbohydrates consumption in relation to childbirth. Material and method: In this observational study, the sample included a total of 98 pregnant women and their age class was 18-45 years old, with a median age of 31.5 years. The setting of the participants resides in Vlora –Albania. Moreover, 64.4% were from the city and 35.6% were from the nearby villages. The study was conducted in the time period January 2018 –June 2021. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the standard formula (kg/m²). Maternal pre, during and post-pregnancy BMI was collected by using a validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. The significance level (α) was set at 0.05, whereas P-value and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results: Based on the data analysis, 44.4% of the sample declared that they did smoke before pregnancy and 55.6% not smoked during their pregnancy. As a result, no association was found between smoking and length of pregnancy P=0.95. There is also a strong relation (P=0.000) between the number of teeth with caries before pregnancy and the number of teeth with caries during pregnancy. There is a significant relationship between the scaling of teeth and childbirth, P=0.05. BMI before and during pregnancy in relation to carbohydrates consumption have a significant correlation P=0.004 and P=0.002. The values of BMI before and during pregnancy in relation to childbirth have a strong correlation: P=0.043 and P=0.040, respectively. As a result, obesity was associated with preterm birth. The percentage of children born during 34-36 weeks of pregnancy was 69%, and children born during 32-34 weeks of pregnancy were 31%. CONCLUSION: There was a positive association between dental caries experience, BMI and carbohydrates consumption. Obesity in pregnancy is increasing worldwide; that is why this study suggests the importance of an appropriate weight before and during pregnancy.

Keywords: BMI, dental caries, pregnancy, scaling, smoking

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
6713 Extracellular Polymeric Substances Study in an MBR System for Fouling Control

Authors: Dimitra C. Banti, Gesthimani Liona, Petros Samaras, Manasis Mitrakas

Abstract:

Municipal and industrial wastewaters are often treated biologically, by the activated sludge process (ASP). The ASP not only requires large aeration and sedimentation tanks, but also generates large quantities of excess sludge. An alternative technology is the membrane bioreactor (MBR), which replaces two stages of the conventional ASP—clarification and settlement—with a single, integrated biotreatment and clarification step. The advantages offered by the MBR over conventional treatment include reduced footprint and sludge production through maintaining a high biomass concentration in the bioreactor. Notwithstanding these advantages, the widespread application of the MBR process is constrained by membrane fouling. Fouling leads to permeate flux decline, making more frequent membrane cleaning and replacement necessary and resulting to increased operating costs. In general, membrane fouling results from the interaction between the membrane material and the components in the activated sludge liquor. The latter includes substrate components, cells, cell debris and microbial metabolites, such as Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) and Sludge Microbial Products (SMPs). The challenge for effective MBR operation is to minimize the rate of Transmembrane Pressure (TMP) increase. This can be achieved by several ways, one of which is the addition of specific additives, that enhance the coagulation and flocculation of compounds, which are responsible for fouling, hence reducing biofilm formation on the membrane surface and limiting the fouling rate. In this project the effectiveness of a non-commercial composite coagulant was studied as an agent for fouling control in a lab scale MBR system consisting in two aerated tanks. A flat sheet membrane module with 0.40 um pore size was submerged into the second tank. The system was fed by50 L/d of municipal wastewater collected from the effluent of the primary sedimentation basin. The TMP increase rate, which is directly related to fouling growth, was monitored by a PLC system. EPS, MLSS and MLVSS measurements were performed in samples of mixed liquor; in addition, influent and effluent samples were collected for the determination of physicochemical characteristics (COD, BOD5, NO3-N, NH4-N, Total N and PO4-P). The coagulant was added in concentrations 2, 5 and 10mg/L during a period of 2 weeks and the results were compared with the control system (without coagulant addition). EPS fractions were extracted by a three stages physical-thermal treatment allowing the identification of Soluble EPS (SEPS) or SMP, Loosely Bound EPS (LBEPS) and Tightly Bound EPS (TBEPS). Proteins and carbohydrates concentrations were measured in EPS fractions by the modified Lowry method and Dubois method, respectively. Addition of 2 mg/L coagulant concentration did not affect SEPS proteins in comparison with control process and their values varied between 32 to 38mg/g VSS. However a coagulant dosage of 5mg/L resulted in a slight increase of SEPS proteins at 35-40 mg/g VSS while 10mg/L coagulant further increased SEPS to 44-48mg/g VSS. Similar results were obtained for SEPS carbohydrates. Carbohydrates values without coagulant addition were similar to the corresponding values measured for 2mg/L coagulant; the addition of mg/L coagulant resulted to a slight increase of carbohydrates SEPS to 6-7mg/g VSS while a dose of 10 mg/L further increased carbohydrates content to 9-10mg/g VSS. Total LBEPS and TBEPS, consisted of proteins and carbohydrates of LBEPS and TBEPS respectively, presented similar variations by the addition of the coagulant. Total LBEPS at 2mg/L dose were almost equal to 17mg/g VSS, and their values increased to 22 and 29 mg/g VSS during the addition of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L of coagulant respectively. Total TBEPS were almost 37 mg/g VSS at a coagulant dose of 2 mg/L and increased to 42 and 51 mg/g VSS at 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L doses, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that coagulant addition could potentially affect microorganisms activities, excreting EPS in greater amounts. Nevertheless, EPS increase, mainly SEPS increase, resulted to a higher membrane fouling rate, as justified by the corresponding TMP increase rate. However, the addition of the coagulant, although affected the EPS content in the reactor mixed liquor, did not change the filtration process: an effluent of high quality was produced, with COD values as low as 20-30 mg/L.

Keywords: extracellular polymeric substances, MBR, membrane fouling, EPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
6712 Nutritional Value and Forage Quality Indicators in Some Rangeland’s Species at Different Vegetation Forms

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli

Abstract:

Information on different rangeland plants’ nutritive values at various phonological stages is important in rangelands management. This information helps rangeland managers to choose proper grazing times to achieve higher animal performance without detrimental effects on the rangeland vegetations. Effects of various plant parts’ phonological stages and vegetation types on reserve carbohydrates and forage quality indicators were investigated during the 2009 and 2010. Plant samples were collected in a completely randomized block (CRB) design. The species included, grasses (Secale montanum and Festuco ovina), forbs (Lotus corniculatus and Sanguisorba minor), and shrubs (Kochia prosterata and Salsola rigida). Aerial plant parts’ samples were oven-dried at 80oC for 24 hours, then analyzed for soluble carbohydrates, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter digestible (DMD), and metabolizable energy (ME). Results showed that plants at the seedling stage had more reserve carbohydrates and from the three vegetation types (grass, forbs, and shrub), forbs contained more soluble carbohydrates compared to the other two (grasses and shrubs). Differences in soluble carbohydrate contents of different species at various phonological stages in 2 years were statistically significant. The forage quality indicators (CP, ADF, DMD, and ME) in different species, in different vegetation types, in the 2 years were statistically significant, except for the CP.

Keywords: grazing, soluble carbohydrate, protein, fiber, metabolizeable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
6711 Gut microbiota and their modulating role in pregnant and non-pregnant hypertensive rats fed with selected local wild Beans

Authors: Bankole Do, Omodara TR, Awyinka OA

Abstract:

Probiotic supplementation has been known to be associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension. Against these backdrop, activities of the gut microbiota from hypertensive induced pregnant and non-pregnant rats as mediated by the soluble and indigestible fraction of carbohydrates derived from Otiliand fermentedIru were studied in this present work. Microbiota from hypertensive induced non- pregnant rats fed with Otili and Iruhad Proteus vulgaris + Staphylococcus aureus. However, hypertensive induced pregnant rats fed with Otilipredominantly contained Proteus vulgaris + Bacillus lichniformiswhile the group fed with Iruhad Staphylococcus aureus + Bacillus lichniformis. Thus, showingdysbiosis in hypertensive induced rats is influenced by pregnancy. Further In-vitro study showed Proteus vulgaris playing a key role in the fermentative process of the indigestible fraction of carbohydrates while Esherichia coli played the key role in the fermentative process of the soluble fraction of carbohydrates in all the bean samples. This dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, as seen in hypertension in rats in this present study, might be part of the strategies for the prevention and treatment of this Non-Communicable Disease.

Keywords: probiotic, microbiota, dysbiosis, hypertension

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
6710 Carbohydrate Intake Estimation in Type I Diabetic Patients Described by UVA/Padova Model

Authors: David A. Padilla, Rodolfo Villamizar

Abstract:

In recent years, closed loop control strategies have been developed in order to establish a healthy glucose profile in type 1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) patients. However, the controller itself is unable to define a suitable reference trajectory for glucose. In this paper, a control strategy Is proposed where the shape of the reference trajectory is generated bases in the amount of carbohydrates present during the digestive process, due to the effect of carbohydrate intake. Since there no exists a sensor to measure the amount of carbohydrates consumed, an estimator is proposed. Thus this paper presents the entire process of designing a carbohydrate estimator, which allows estimate disturbance for a predictive controller (MPC) in a T1MD patient, the estimation will be used to establish a profile of reference and improve the response of the controller by providing the estimated information of ingested carbohydrates. The dynamics of the diabetic model used are due to the equations described by the UVA/Padova model of the T1DMS simulator, the system was developed and simulated in Simulink, taking into account the noise and limitations of the glucose control system actuators.

Keywords: estimation, glucose control, predictive controller, MPC, UVA/Padova

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
6709 Growth and Biochemical Composition of Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. under Varied Growth Conditions

Authors: M. Alsull

Abstract:

In this study, Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia, and cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions (temperature, light and nitrogen limitation and starvation). Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipids content and total carbohydrates content were estimated at mid-exponential growth phase. Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. showed remarkably decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when maintained under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions, as well as when grown under 12:12 h light, dark regime conditions. Chlorella sp. showed ability to counter the fluctuation in temperature with no significant effects on the measured parameters; in contrast, Tetraselmis sp. showed a decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when grown under 15±1˚C temperature. Cultures maintained under nitrogen full concentration, and 24 h light regime showed decrease in total lipids content, compared with 12:12 h light, dark cycle regime, in the two tested species.

Keywords: microalgae, biochemical composition, temperature, light, nitrogen limitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
6708 Impact of Flood on Phytoplankton Biochemical Composition in Subtropical Reservoir, Lake Nasser

Authors: Shymaa S. Zaher, Howayda Abd El-Hady, Nehad Khalifa

Abstract:

Lake Nasser is vital to Egypt as it is the main Nile water reservoir. One of the major challenges in ecological flood is to establish how environmental enrichment in nutrients availability may affect both the biochemical composition of phytoplankton and the species communities. Samples were collected from twenty sites representing different lake sectors along the main channel of the lake during 2017. Generally, phytoplankton distribution during flood season in Lake Nasser indicates the predominance of Cyanophyceae at all lake sectors. Increases in NO₂ (9.31 µg/l) and PO₄ (7.11µg/l) at the Abu-Simble sector are associated with changes in community structure and biochemical composition of phytoplankton, where Cyanophyceae blooming occur associated with retardation in biopolymeric particulate organic carbon. The maximum total biochemical contents (91.29 mg/l) and biopolymeric particulate organic carbon (37.15 mg/l) was found at El-Madiq sector where there was optimum nutrients (NO₂ 0.479 µg/l and PO₄ 5.149µg/l), a highly positive correlation was found between Cyanophyceae and NO₂ in the lake (r = 0.956). A highly positive correlation was detected between carbohydrates and both transparency and pH in the lake (r = 0.974 and 0.787). Also carbohydrates had a positive relation with Bacillariophyceae (r = 0.610). Flood positively alter the water quality of the lake by increasing dissolved oxygen and nutrients enrichment to the aquatic ecosystem, affecting other aquatic organisms of higher trophic levels as economic fishes inhabiting the lake.

Keywords: aquatic microalgae, Aswan high dam lake, biochemical composition, fresh water

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
6707 Introducing α-Oxoester (COBz) as a Protecting Group for Carbohydrates

Authors: Atul Kumar, Veeranjaneyulu Gannedi, Qazi Naveed Ahmed

Abstract:

Oligosaccharides, which are essential to all cellular organisms, play vital roles in cell recognition, signaling, and are involved in a broad range of biological processes. The chemical synthesis of carbohydrates represents a powerful tool to provide homogeneous glycans. In carbohydrate synthesis, the major concern is the orthogonal protection of hydroxyl groups that can be unmasked independently. Classical protecting groups include benzyl ethers (Bn), which are normally cleaved through hydrogenolysis or by means of metal reduction, and acetate (Ac), benzoate (Bz) or pivaloate esters, which are removed using base promoted hydrolysis. In present work a series of α-Oxoester (COBz) protected saccharides, with divergent base sensitivity profiles against benzoyl (Bz) and acetyl (Ac), were designed and KHSO₅/CH₃COCl in methanol was identified as an easy, mild, selective and efficient deprotecting reagent for their removal in the perspective of carbohydrate synthesis. Timely monitoring of later reagent was advantageous in establishing both sequential as well as simultaneous deprotecting of COBz, Bz, and Ac. The salient feature of our work is its ease to generate different acceptors using designed monosaccharides. In summary, we demonstrated α-Oxoester (COBz) as a new protecting group for carbohydrates and the application of this group for the synthesis of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor are in progress.

Keywords: α-Oxoester, oligosaccharides, new protecting group, acceptor synthesis, glycosylation

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
6706 Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Indigenous Vegetables in Northern Mindanao, Philippines

Authors: Renee P. Baang, Romeo M. del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes

Abstract:

The crude methanol extracts of five indigenous vegetables namely, Amarathus tricolor, Basella rubra L, Chochurus olitorius L., Ipomea batatas, and Momordica chuchinensis L., were examined for their phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The values for DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 7.6-89.53% with B. rubra and I. batatas having the lowest and highest values, respectively. The total flavonoid content of all five indigenous vegetables ranged from 74.65-277.3 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dried vegetable material while the total phenolic content ranged from 1.93-6.15 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dried material. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and reducing sugars, which may also be associated with the antioxidant activity shown by these indigenous vegetables.

Keywords: antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging activity, Philippine İndigenous vegetables, phytochemical screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
6705 Vitamin C Enhances Growth and Productivity of Sunflower Plants Grown under Newly-Reclaimed Saline Soil Conditions

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mostafa M. Rady, Wael M. Semida

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the two successive seasons of 2012 and 2013 in the Experimental Farm (newly-reclaimed saline soil; EC = 7.8 dS m-1), Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt to investigate the effect of vitamin C foliar application at the rates of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mM on the possibility of improving growth, seed and oil yields, and some chemical constituents of Helianthus annuus L. plants under the adverse conditions of the selected soil. Significant positive influences of all vitamin C treatments were observed on growth, seed and oil yields and some chemical constituents in both seasons. Compared to unsprayed plants (control), spraying plants with various rates of vitamin C significantly increased vegetative growth traits (i.e. plant height, No. of leaves plant-1, leaf area leaf-1, total leaves area plant-1, and dry weights of leaves and shoot plant-1) and seed and oil yields and their components (i.e. head diameter, seed weight head-1, 100-seed weight, seed yield feddan-1 and oil yield feddan-1). In addition, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids and total phenols in fresh leaves, and total carbohydrates, total soluble sugars, free proline and some nutrients (i.e. N, P, K, Fe, Mn, and Zn) in dry leaves were also increased significantly with all vitamin C applications. Vitamin C treatment at the rate of 3 mM was generated the best results. These results are important as the potential of vitamin C to alleviate the harmful effects of salt stress offer an opportunity to increase the resistance of sunflower plants to grow under saline conditions of the newly-reclaimed soils.

Keywords: sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., ascorbic acid, salinity, growth, seed yield, oil content, chemical composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
6704 Study of the Influence of the Region, the Depth and the Drying Process on the Chemical Composition of Gelidium sesquipedale

Authors: M. Cherki, I. Taouam, A. Amiri, F. Hmimid, T. Ould Bellahcen

Abstract:

The Moroccan coasts represent an important wealth of red algae which have an economic interest. Among these algae, the Gelidium sesquipedale, which is exploited industrially for its richness in agar. The aim of this study is to establish a general overview of the macronutrient composition of Gelidium sesquipedale and to compare this composition according to three factors: the harvest site (El Jadida, Casablanca and Mohammadia), the harvest depth (coast and depth) and the drying process (open air and oven). Proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are measured by different methods. The analysis of results show that the protein concentrations of the El Jadida and Mohammadia samples are significantly higher than that of Casablanca (0.026 ± 0.0007 µg/µg DW 0.024 ± 0.001 µg/µg DW and 0.006 ± 0.0007 µg/µg DW, p < 0.05 respectively). However, Casablanca samples are significantly richer in total sugars (0.023 ± 0.002 µg/µg DW, p < 0.05) and less rich in reducing sugars (0.0001 ± 0.00001 µg/µg DW, p < 0.05) compared to other samples. The lipid concentrations of the samples from the three harvest sites do not show any significant difference. With respect to depth, only total protein and total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in the coast versus depth samples (0.035 ± 0.004 µg/µg DW vs. 0.026 ± 0.0007 µg/µg DW and 0.035 ± 0.006 µg/µg DW vs. 0.012 ± 0.005 µg/µg DW p < 0.05 respectively). For the drying process, protein, total sugars and lipid concentrations were significantly higher in open air samples compared to oven samples (0.006 ± 0.0007 µg/µg DW). vs 0.004 ± 0.0003 µg/µg DW, 0.023 ± 0.002 µg/µg DW vs 0.007 ± 0.002 µg/µg DW and 8% vs 4% p < 0.05 respectively). Our results demonstrate that the chemical composition of Gelidium sesquipedale varies according to the harvest region. In addition, samples harvested on the coast and dried in the open air are the richest in macronutrients.

Keywords: biochemical composition, drying, depth, Gelidium sesquipedale, red algae, region

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
6703 The Affect of Total Quality Management on Firm's Innovation Performance: A Literature Review

Authors: Omer Akkaya, Nurullah Ekmekcı, Muammer Zerenler

Abstract:

Innovation for businesses means a new product and service and sometimes a new implementation. Total Quality Management is a management philosophy which focus on customer, process and system.There is a certain relationship between principles of Total Quality Management and innovation performance. Main aim of this study is to show how the implementation and principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) affect a firm's innovation performance. Also, this paper discusses positive and negative affects of Total Quality Management on innovation performance and demonstrates some examples.

Keywords: innovation, innovation types, total quality management, principles of total quality management

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
6702 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Lens Esculenta Moench, Seeds

Authors: Vivek Kumar Gupta, Kripi Vohra, Monika Gupta

Abstract:

Pulses have been a vital ingredient of the balanced human diet in India. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus or Lens esculenta Moench.) is a common legume known since biblical times. Lentil seeds, with or without hulls, are cooked as dhal and this has been the main dish for millennia in the South Asian region. Oxidative stress can damage lipids, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates and DNA in cells and tissues, resulting in membrane damage, fragmentation or random cross linking of molecules like DNA, enzymes and structural proteins and even lead to cell death induced by DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation. These consequences of oxidative stress construct the molecular basis in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and autoimmune. The aim of the present work is to assess the antioxidant potential of the peteroleum ether, acetone, methanol and water extract of the Lens esculenta seeds. In vitro antioxidant assessment of the extracts was carried out using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay. The quantitative estimation of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content in extracts and in plant material, total saponin content, total alkaloid content, crude fibre content, total volatile content, fat content and mucilage content in drug material was also carried out. Though all the extracts exhibited dose dependent reducing power activity the acetone extract was found to possess significant hydrogen donating ability in DPPH (45.83%-93.13%) and hydroxyl radical scavenging system (28.7%-46.41%) than the peteroleum ether, methanol and water extracts. Total phenolic content in the acetone and methanol extract was found to be 608 and 188 mg gallic acid equivalent of phenol/g of sample respectively. Total flavonoid content of acetone and methanol extract was found to be 128 and 30.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of sample respectively. It is evident that acetone extract of Lentil seeds possess high levels of polyphenolics and flavonoids that could be utilized as antioxidants and neutraceuticals.

Keywords: antioxidant, flavanoids, Lens esculenta, polyphenols

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
6701 Proximate Composition, Minerals and Sensory Attributes of Cake, Cookies, Cracker, and Chin-Chin Prepared from Cassava-Gari Residue Flour

Authors: Alice Nwanyioma Ohuoba, Rose Erdoo Kukwa, Ukpabi Joseph Ukpabi

Abstract:

Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) is one of the important carbohydrates containing crops in Nigeria. It is a staple food, mostly in the southern part of the country, and a source of income to farmers and processors. Cassava gari processing methods result to residue fiber (solid waste) from the sieving operation, these residue fibers ( solid wastes) can be dried and milled into flour and used to prepare cakes, cookies, crackers and chin-chin instead of being thrown away mostly on farmland or near the residential area. Flour for baking or frying may contain carbohydrates and protein (wheat flour) or rich in only carbohydrates (cassava flour). Cake, cookies, crackers, and chin-chin were prepared using the residue flour obtained from the residue fiber of cassava variety NR87184 roots, processed into gari. This study is aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, mineral content and sensory attributes of these selected snacks produced. The proximate composition results obtained showed that crackers had the lowest value in moisture (2.3390%) and fat (1.7130%), but highest in carbohydrates (85.2310%). Amongst the food products, cakes recorded the highest value in protein (8.0910%). Crude fibre values ranges from 2.5265% (cookies) to 3.4165% (crackers). The result of the mineral contents showed cookies ranking the highest in Phosphorus (65.8535 ppm) and Iron (0.1150 mg/L), Calcium (1.3800mg/L) and Potassium (7.2850 mg/L) contents, while chin-chin and crackers were lowest in Sodium ( 2.7000 mg/L). The food products were also subjected to sensory attributes evaluation by thirty member panelists using 9-hedonic scale which ranged from 1 ( dislike extremely) to 9 (like extremely). The means score obtained shows all the food products having above 7.00 (above “like moderately”). This study has shown that food products that may be functional or nutraceuticals could be prepared from the residue flour. There is a call for the use of gluten-free flour in baking due to ciliac disease and other allergic causes by gluten. Therefore local carbohydrates food crops like cassava residue flour that are gluten-free, could be the solution. In addition, this could aid cassava gari processing waste management thereby reducing post-harvest losses of cassava root.

Keywords: allergy, flour, food-products, gluten-free

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
6700 Phytochemical Profile of Ripe Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. Galbuli from Bulgaria

Authors: S. Stankov, H. Fidan, N. Petkova, M. Stoyanova, Tz. Radoukova, A. Stoyanova

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of ripe Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. galbuli (female cones) collected from "Izgoraloto Gyune" Reserve in Krichim, Bulgaria. The moisture (36.88%), abs. weight 693.96 g/1000 pcs., and the ash content (10.57%) of ripe galbuli were determined. Lipid fraction (9.12%), cellulose (13.54%), protein (13.64%), and total carbohydrates (31.20%) were evaluated in the ripe galbuli. It was found that the ripe galbuli contained glucose (4.00%) and fructose (4.25%), but disaccharide sucrose was not identified. The main macro elements presented in the sample were K (8390.00 mg/kg), Ca (4596.00 g/kg), Mg (837.72 mg/kg), followed by Na (7.69 mg/kg); while the detected microelements consisted of Zn (8.51 mg/kg), Cu (4.66 mg/kg), Mn (3.65 mg/kg), Fe (3.26 mg/kg), Cr (3.00 mg/kg), Cd (< 0.1 mg/kg), and Pb (0.01 mg/kg).

Keywords: chemical composition, Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb, minerals, ripe galbuli

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
6699 Assessment of Menus in a Selected Social Welfare Home with Regard to Nutritional Recommendations

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukalo, B. Całyniuk, J. Piekorz, M. Kardas

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to assess diets of residents of nursing homes. Provided by social welfare home, 10 day menus were introduced into the computer program Diet 5 and analyzed in respect of protein, fats, carbohydrates, energy, vitamin D and calcium. The resulting mean values of 10-day menus were compared with the existing Nutrition Standards for Polish population. The analysis menus showed that the average amount of energy supplied from food is not sufficient. Carbohydrates in food supply are too high and represent 257% of normal. The average value of fats and proteins supplied with food is adequate 85.2 g/day and 75.2 g/day. The calcium content of the diet is 513.9 mg/day. The amount of vitamin D supplied in the age group 51-65 years is 2.3 µg/day. Dietary errors that have been shown are due to the lack of detailed nutritional guidelines for nursing homes, as well as state-owned care facilities in general.

Keywords: assessment of diet, essential nutrients, social welfare home, nutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
6698 Adequate Dietary Intake to Improve Outcome of Urine: Urea Nitrogen with Balance Nitrogen and Total Lymphocyte Count

Authors: Mardiana Madjid, Nurpudji Astuti Taslim, Suryani As'ad, Haerani Rasyid, Agussalim Bukhari

Abstract:

The high level of Urine Urea Nitrogen (UUN) indicates hypercatabolism occurs in hospitalized patients. High levels of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) indicates the immune system condition, adequate wound healing, and limit complication. Adequate dietary intake affects to decrease of hypercatabolism status in treated patient’s hospitals. Nitrogen Balance (NB) is simply the difference between nitrogen (N₂) intake and output. If more N₂ intake than output, then positive NB or anabolic will occur. This study aims to evaluate the effect of dietary intake in influencing balance nitrogen and total lymphocyte count. Method: A total of 43 patients admitted to a Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital between 2018 and 2019 for 10 days' treats are included. The inclusion criteria were patients who were treated for 10 days and receives food from the hospital orally. Patients did not experience gastrointestinal disorders such as vomiting and diarrhea and experience impair kidney function and liver function and expressed approval to participate in this study. During hospitalization, food intake, UUN, albumin serum, balance nitrogen, and TLC was assessed twice on day 1 and day 10. There is no Physician Clinical Nutritional intervention to correct food intake. UUN is 24 hours of urine collected on the second day after admission and the tenth day. Statistical analysis uses SPSS 24 with observational cohort methods. Result: The Forty-three participants completed the follow-up (27 men and 18 women). The age of fewer than 4 years is 22 people, 45 to 60 years is 16 people, and over 60 years is 4 people. The result of the study on day 1 obtained SGA score A, SGA score B, SGA score C are 8, 32, 3 until day 10 are 8, 31, 4, respectively. According to 24h dietary recalls, the energy intake during observation was from 522.5 ± 400.4 to 1011.9 ± 545.1 kcal/day P < 0.05, protein intake from 20.07 ± 17.2 to 40.3 ± 27.3 g/day P < 0.05, carbohydrates from 92.5 ± 71.6 to 184.8 ± 87.4 g/day, and fat from 5.5 ± 3.86 to 13.9 ± 13.9 g/day. The UUN during the observation was from 6.6 ± 7.3 to 5.5 ± 3.9 g/day, TLC decreased from 1622.9 ± 897.2 to 1319.9 ± 636.3/mm³ value target 1800/mm³, albumin serum from 3.07 ± 0.76 to 2.9 ± 0.57 g/day, and BN from -7.5 ± 7.2 to -3.1 ± 4.86. Conclusion: The high level of UUN needs to correct adequate dietary intake to improve NB and TLC status on hospitalized patients.

Keywords: adequate dietary intake, balance nitrogen, total lymphocyte count, urine urea nitrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
6697 Exploring Salient Shifts and Transdiagnostic Factors in Eating Disordered Women

Authors: Francesca Favero, Despina Learmonth

Abstract:

Carbohydrate addiction is said to be the sustained dependence on hyperpalatable foods rich in carbohydrates and sugar. This addiction manifests in increased consumption of carbohydrates through binging: a behaviour typically associated with eating disorders. There is a lack of consensus amongst relevant experts as to whether carbohydrates are physiologically or psychologically addictive. With an increased focus on carbohydrate addiction, an outpatient treatment programme, HELP, has been established in Cape Town, South Africa, to specifically address this issue. This research aimed to explore, pre-and post-intervention, the possible presence of, and subsequent shifts in, the maintaining mechanisms identified in the transdiagnostic model for eating disorders. However, the potential for the emergence of other perpetuating factors was not discounted and the nature of the analysis allowed for this possibility. Eight women between the ages of twenty-two and fifty, who had completed the outpatient treatment programme in the last six months, were interviewed. They were asked to speak retrospectively about their personal difficulties, eating and food, and their experience of the treatment. Thematic analysis was employed to identify themes arising from the data. Five themes congruent with the transdiagnostic model’s factors emerged: over-evaluation of weight and shape, core low self-esteem, interpersonal difficulties, clinical perfectionism and mood intolerance. A variety of sub-themes, elaborating upon the various ways in which the disordered eating was maintained, also emerged from the data. Shifts in these maintaining mechanisms were identified. Although not necessarily indicative of recovery, the results suggest that the outpatient HELP programme had a positive overall influence on the participants; and that the transdiagnostic model may be useful in understanding and guiding the treatment of clients who engage in this type of treatment programme.

Keywords: eating disorders, binge eating disorder, carbohydrate addiction, transdiagnostic model, maintaining mechanisms, thematic analysis, outpatient treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
6696 Exploring the Physicochemical and Quality Attributes of Potato Cultivars during Subsequent Storage

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Adnan Amjad, Muhammad Nadeem

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) popularly known as ‘the king of vegetables’, has emerged as fourth most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize. Potato contains carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. The antioxidants of potatoes especially vitamin C helps in reducing cancer, cardiovascular diseases and high blood pressure by binding free radicals. Physical characteristics and some major chemical properties of potato tubers at fresh and stored stages were investigated. Two varieties of potatoes, Sante (V1) having white colour and Lal moti (V2) with red colour were stored for 3 months and analysis were performed after each month interval. Physical and chemical attributes including weight loss, sprouting, specific gravity, pH, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugars) and vitamin C were analyzed before and after storage. Value of weight loss at zero day was null but it increased to 6.45% after 90 days on average in both cultivars and sprouting increased gradually at the end of 90 days. Moreover total sugars were 3.10% at zero day but increased to 9.30% after 90 days. Ascorbic acid was decreased during storage from 17.49(mg/100g) to 3.79. Both varieties of potato were stored at 60C and 120C temperatures with 85% relative humidity in order to prolong their acceptability in the market. The storage conditions influence the potatoes quality and consequently their acceptability to consumer. The data was analyzed statistically and clarifies that total sugars, weight loss, sprouting and specific gravity increase during the storage period while ascorbic acid (Vit-C) and pH decreased. Among both varieties that were stored at 60C and 120C, Sante (V1) was better than Lal moti (V2) due to less physicochemical and quality changes at 60C as compared to store at 120C.

Keywords: physicochemical, potato, quality attributes, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
6695 Effect of Nitrogen Management on Nitrogen Uptake, Dry Matter Production and Some Yield Parameters

Authors: Mandana Tayefe, Ebrahim Amiri, Azin Nasrollah Zade

Abstract:

Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on nitrogen uptake, dry matter production, yield and some yield components of rice (Hashemi, Kazemi, Khazar) was investigated in an experiment as factorial in RCBD with 3 replications in a paddy light soil at Guilan province, Iran, 2008-2009. In this experiment, four treatments including: N1-control (no N fertilizer); N2- 30 kgN/ha; N3- 60 kgN/ha; N4- 90 kgN/ha were compared. Results showed that total biomass (8386 kg/ha), grain yield (3662 kg/ha), panicles m-2 (235.8) and total grain per panicle (103.8) were reached the highest value at high nitrogen level. Among the varieties the highest total biomass (7734 kg/ha), grain yield (3414 kg/ha) and total grain per panicle (78.2) belonged to Khazar. Dry matter, total N uptake was varied in different cultivars significantly and Khazar variety had the highest contents. Total biomass and total N uptake was varied significantly with the increasement of the amount of nitrogen applied. As total biomass and total N uptake increased with increasing in N fertilizing.

Keywords: rice, nitrogen, nitrogen uptake, dry matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
6694 Seasonal Influence on Environmental Indicators of Beach Waste

Authors: Marcus C. Garcia, Giselle C. Guimarães, Luciana H. Yamane, Renato R. Siman

Abstract:

The environmental indicators and the classification of beach waste are essential tools to diagnose the current situation and to indicate ways to improve the quality of this environment. The purpose of this paper was to perform a quali-quantitative analysis of the beach waste on the Curva da Jurema Beach (Espírito Santo - Brazil). Three transects were used with equidistant positioning over the total length of the beach for the solid waste collection. Solid wastes were later classified according to their use and primary raw material from the low and high summer season. During the low season, average values of 7.10 items.m-1, 18.22 g.m-1 and 0.91 g.m-2 were found for the whole beach, and transect 3 contributed the most waste, with the total sum of items equal to 999 (49%), a total mass of 5.62 kg and a total volume of 21.31 L. During the high summer season, average values of 8.22 items.m-1, 54.40 g.m-1 and 2.72 g.m-2 were found, with transect 2 contributing the most to the total sum with 1,212 items (53%), a total mass of 10.76 kg and a total volume of 51.99 L. Of the total collected, plastic materials represented 51.4% of the total number of items, 35.9% of the total mass and 68% of the total volume. The implementation of reactive and proactive measures is necessary so that the management of the solid wastes on Curva da Jurema Beach is in accordance with principles of sustainability.

Keywords: beach solid waste, environmental indicators, quali-quantitative analysis, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
6693 Physicochemical and Sensorial Evaluation of Astringency Reduction in Cashew Apple (Annacardium occidentale L.) Powder Processing in Cookie Elaboration

Authors: Elida Gastelum-Martinez, Neith A. Pacheco-Lopez, Juan L. Morales-Landa

Abstract:

Cashew agroindustry obtained from cashew apple crop (Anacardium occidentale L.) generates large amounts of unused waste in Campeche, Mexico. Despite having a high content of nutritional compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, fiber, carbohydrates, and minerals, it is not consumed due to its astringent sensation. The aim of this work was to develop a processing method for cashew apple waste in order to obtain a powder with reduced astringency able to be used as an additive in the food industry. The processing method consisted first in reducing astringency by inducing tannins from cashew apple peel to react and form precipitating complexes with a colloid rich in proline and histidine. Then cashew apples were processed to obtain a dry powder. Astringency reduction was determined by total phenolic content and evaluated by sensorial analysis in cashew-apple-powder based cookies. Total phenolic content in processed powders showed up to 72% lower concentration compared to control samples. The sensorial evaluation indicated that cookies baked using cashew apple powder with reduced astringency were 96.8% preferred. Sensorial characteristics like texture, color and taste were also well-accepted attributes. In conclusion, the method applied for astringency reduction is a viable tool to produce cashew apple powder with desirable sensorial properties to be used in the development of food products.

Keywords: astringency reduction, cashew apple waste, food industry, sensorial evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
6692 Effect of Pollution and Ethylene-Diurea on Bean Plants Grown in KSA

Authors: Abdel Rahman A. Alzandi

Abstract:

The primary objectives of this investigation were to examine the interactive effects of three air quality treatments, ethylene-diurea (EDU) and two irrigation conditions on physiological characteristics of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during its whole growth. These plants were grown in 12-open top chambers (OTC's). Ethylene-diurea (EDU) was used as a factor to evaluate O3 pollution impact on plant growth. The air quality treatments consisted of charcoal filtered (CF) air, nonfiltered (NF) air and ambient air (AA) were irrigated and non- irrigated. Leaf samples were collected from upper canopy positions six times (pre- EDU addition, week after four EDU's addition, at the time of harvesting). Maximal differences in leaf carbohydrate, N contents, pigments and total lipids were observed in response to moisture conditions in presence and absence of EDU applications. Significant reduction were noted for air quality treatments regarding carbohydrate and pigment fractions but not for all cases of leaf N and lipid contents under O3 effects only. Minimal differences were found for first EDU application while maximal ones were recorded at 200 mg l-1 of treatments. The EDU treatments stimulated carbohydrate and pigment contents at the upper canopy position with higher levels for both NF and AA compared to untreated conditions. The NF and AA treatments caused lower total carbohydrate and pigment contents in the canopy position before harvesting of EDU applications. The stimulation in leaf carbohydrates by the EDU treatment, compared to the non-treated EDU of AA and NF treatments, provides a rational explanation for the counteracting effects of EDU against moderate exposures to O3 regarding grain yields in C3 plants.

Keywords: leaf contents, moisture relations, EDU additions, global climate change, kidney bean

Procedia PDF Downloads 240