Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

4 Medium Composition for the Laboratory Production of Enzyme Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Authors: O. R. Raimi, A. Lateef


Inoculum developments of A. niger were used for inoculation of medium for submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation. The filtrate obtained were used as sources of the extra-cellular enzymes. The FTase activities and the course of pH in submerged fermentation ranged from 7.53-24.42µ/ml and 4.4-4.8 respectively. The maximum FTase activity was obtained at 48 hours fermentation. In solid state fermentation, FTase activities ranged from 2.41-27.77µ/ml. Using ripe plantain peel and kola nut pod respectively. Both substrates supported the growth of the fungus, producing profuse growth during fermentation. In the control experiment (using kolanut pod) that lack supplementation, appreciable FTase activity of 16.92µ/ml was obtained. The optimum temperature range was 600C. it was also active at broad pH range of 1-9 with optimum obtain at pH of 5.0. FTase was stable within the range of investigated pH showing more than 60% activities. FTase can be used in the production of fructooligosaccharide, a functional food.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, solid state fermentation, kola nut pods, Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

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3 Fructooligosaccharide Prebiotics: Optimization of Different Cultivation Parameters on Their Microbial Production

Authors: Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed, Azza Noor El-Deen, Mohamed A. Farid, Mohamed A. Wadaan


Recently, a great attention has been paid to the use of dietary carbohydrates as prebiotic functional foods. Among the new commercially available products, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are microbial produced from sucrose, have attracted special interest due to their valuable properties and, thus, have a great economic potential for the sugar industrial branch. They are non-cariogenic sweeteners of low caloric value, as they are not hydrolyzed by the gastro-intestinal enzymes, promoting selectively the growth of the bifidobacteria in the colon, helping to eliminate the harmful microbial species to human and animal health and preventing colon cancer. FOS has been also found to reduce cholesterol, phospholipids and triglyceride levels in blood. FOS has been mainly produced by microbial fructosyltransferase (FTase) enzymes. The present work outlines bioprocess optimization for different cultivation parameters affecting the production of FTase by Penicillium aurantiogriseum AUMC 5605. The optimization involves both traditional as well as fractional factorial design approaches. Additionally, the production process will be compared under batch and fed-batch conditions. Finally, the optimized process conditions will be applied to 5-L stirred tank bioreactor cultivations.

Keywords: prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides, optimization, cultivation

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2 The Safety of Microbiologically Prepared Fructooligosaccharide on White Albino Rats

Authors: Olayinka Risiquat Raimi


FOS was produced from FTase of Aspergillus niger. HPLC analysis showed 32.24%. Consisting of 28.57% ketose and 4.67% nystose. Effects of FOS were studied on 12 weeks old albino rats. All animals survived until scheduled euthanasia. A low incidence of clinical sign and no toxicological effect were observed. Male rats fed with 2500mg/kg fructooligosaccharides had the highest weight. Male and female rat showed a significant increase in weight from first week to the fifth week. All haematological parameters examined were normal in male and female rats. Mean haematological and haemoglobin values for 2500mg/kg bw FOS fed male rats were the highest. Clinical chemistry test, glucose, albumin, and cholesterol were within normal laboratory values for a rat. The mean glucose value was lower for FOS fed male and female rats compared to those fed with honey and 60% sucrose. Gross necropsy observation showed no remarkable internal gross abnormalities for any of the animals.

Keywords: fructooligosaccharide, white albino rat, haematology values, clinical chemistry values

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1 Inclusion Body Refolding at High Concentration for Large-Scale Applications

Authors: J. Gabrielczyk, J. Kluitmann, T. Dammeyer, H. J. Jördening


High-level expression of proteins in bacteria often causes production of insoluble protein aggregates, called inclusion bodies (IB). They contain mainly one type of protein and offer an easy and efficient way to get purified protein. On the other hand, proteins in IB are normally devoid of function and therefore need a special treatment to become active. Most refolding techniques aim at diluting the solubilizing chaotropic agents. Unfortunately, optimal refolding conditions have to be found empirically for every protein. For large-scale applications, a simple refolding process with high yields and high final enzyme concentrations is still missing. The constructed plasmid pASK-IBA63b containing the sequence of fructosyltransferase (FTF, EC from Bacillus subtilis NCIMB 11871 was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta. The bacterium was cultivated in a fed-batch bioreactor. The produced FTF was obtained mainly as IB. For refolding experiments, five different amounts of IBs were solubilized in urea buffer with protein concentration of 0.2-8.5 g/L. Solubilizates were refolded with batch or continuous dialysis. The refolding yield was determined by measuring the protein concentration of the clear supernatant before and after the dialysis. Particle size was measured by dynamic light scattering. We tested the solubilization properties of fructosyltransferase IBs. The particle size measurements revealed that the solubilization of the aggregates is achieved at urea concentration of 5M or higher and confirmed by absorption spectroscopy. All results confirm previous investigations that refolding yields are dependent upon initial protein concentration. In batch dialysis, the yields dropped from 67% to 12% and 72% to 19% for continuous dialysis, in relation to initial concentrations from 0.2 to 8.5 g/L. Often used additives such as sucrose and glycerol had no effect on refolding yields. Buffer screening indicated a significant increase in activity but also temperature stability of FTF with citrate/phosphate buffer. By adding citrate to the dialysis buffer, we were able to increase the refolding yields to 82-47% in batch and 90-74% in the continuous process. Further experiments showed that in general, higher ionic strength of buffers had major impact on refolding yields; doubling the buffer concentration increased the yields up to threefold. Finally, we achieved corresponding high refolding yields by reducing the chamber volume by 75% and the amount of buffer needed. The refolded enzyme had an optimal activity of 12.5±0.3 x104 units/g. However, detailed experiments with native FTF revealed a reaggregation of the molecules and loss in specific activity depending on the enzyme concentration and particle size. For that reason, we actually focus on developing a process of simultaneous enzyme refolding and immobilization. The results of this study show a new approach in finding optimal refolding conditions for inclusion bodies at high concentrations. Straightforward buffer screening and increase of the ionic strength can optimize the refolding yield of the target protein by 400%. Gentle removal of chaotrope with continuous dialysis increases the yields by an additional 65%, independent of the refolding buffer applied. In general time is the crucial parameter for successful refolding of solubilized proteins.

Keywords: dialysis, inclusion body, refolding, solubilization

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