Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: carob kibble

10 Concentration of D-Pinitol from Carob Kibble Using Submerged Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

D-pinitol (3-O-methyl ether of D-chiro-inosito) has been known to have health benefits for diabetic patients. Carob kibble has received attention due to the presence of high value D-pinitol and polyphenol antioxidants. D-pinitol was concentrated from carob kibble using submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total carbohydrates and D-pinitol were determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method and HPLC, respectively. The content of D-pinitol increased from approximately 43 to 70 mg/g dry weight after fermentation. The yeast consumed over 70% of total carbohydrates in carob kibble without any negative effect on D-pinitol content. A range of substrate medium pH’s from 5.0 – 7.0 had no significant effect on the removal of carbohydrates and D-pinitol. This method may provide a practical solution for production of D-pinitol from carob in a cost effective manner.

Keywords: carob kibble, d-pinitol, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total carbohydrates

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9 Effect of Initial pH and Fermentation Duration on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Carob Kibble Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Haelee Fenton, Thi Huong Tra Nguyen, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

In the present study, a submerged fermentation of carob kibble with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was performed. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in fermented carob kibble were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study showed that S. cerevisiae improved total phenolic content by 45 % and 50 % in acetone and water extracts respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of water extracts increased by 25 % and 41%, while acetone extracts indicated by 70% and 80% in DPPH and ABTS respectively. It is also found that initial pH 7.0 was more effective in improvement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The efficiency of treatment was recorded at 15 h. This report suggested that submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae is a potential and cost effective manner to further increase bioactive compounds in carob kibble, which are in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total phenolics

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8 Evaluation of the Capabilities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in Improvement of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Carob Kibble

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

Carob kibble has recently received attention due to the presence of high level of polyphenol antioxidants. The capacity of microorganisms to improve antioxidant activities and total phenolics in carob kibble was investigated in the study. Two types of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used in single and in their combination as starters. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities were assessed scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study found that S. cerevisiae alone considerably improved 55% total phenolics content at 15 h, while L. plantarum caused in a loss of 20% through the process. Antioxidant capacity of the yeast-fermented samples significantly increased by 43 % and 10 % in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. However, reduction of 13 % and 32 % inhibition were recorded in the carob treated with L. plantarum. In the combination of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum (1:1), both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob kibble were a similar trend as these of S. cerevisiae single, but a lower improvement. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their total phenolic contents (R=0.75). The results suggested that S. cerevisiae alone was the better for enhancement of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in carob kibble using submerged fermentation. The efficiency of fermentation reached the highest at 15h. Thus submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae offers a tool with simple and cost effective to further increase the bioactive potential of carob kibble, which is in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, lactobacillus plantarum, saccharomyces cerevisiae, total phenolics

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7 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: licorice, carob, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, applications

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6 In vitro Inhibitory Action of an Aqueous Extract of Carob on the Release of Myeloperoxidase by Human Neutrophils

Authors: Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Jamel El-Benna, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai

Abstract:

Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a hemic enzyme found in high concentrations in the primary neutrophils granules. In addition to its peroxidase activity, it has a chlorination activity, using hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions to form hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidant, capable of chlorinating molecules. Bioactive compounds contained in medicinal plants could limit the action of this enzyme to reduce the reactive oxygen species production and its chlorination activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the carob aqueous extract (CAE) on the release of MPO by human neutrophils in vitro and its activity following stimulation of these cells by PMA. Methods: Neutrophils were isolated by simple sedimentation using the Dextran/Ficoll method. After stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), neutrophils release the MPO by degranulation. The effect of CAE on the release of MPO was analyzed by the Western blot technique, while, its activity was determined by biochemical method using the method of 3,3', 5,5'- Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide. The data were expressed as mean ± SEM. Results: The carob aqueous extract causes a decrease in MPO quantity and activity in a concentration-dependent manner which leads to a reduction of the production of the ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the protection of the molecules against oxidation and chlorination mechanisms. Conclusion: Thanks to its richness in bioactive compounds, the aqueous extract of carob could limit the development of damages related to the uncontrolled activity of MPO.

Keywords: carob, MPO, myeloperoxidase, neutrophils, PMA, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

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5 Effect of Acid-Basic Treatments of Lingocellulosic Material Forest Wastes Wild Carob on Ethyl Violet Dye Adsorption

Authors: Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Derradji Chebli, Tariq Yahyaoui, Hichem Attout

Abstract:

The effect of acid -basic treatment of lingocellulosic material (forest wastes wild carob) on Ethyl violet adsorption was investigated. It was found that surface chemistry plays an important role in Ethyl violet (EV) adsorption. HCl treatment produces more active acidic surface groups such as carboxylic and lactone, resulting in an increase in the adsorption of EV dye. The adsorption efficiency was higher for treated of lingocellulosic material with HCl than for treated with KOH. Maximum biosorption capacity was 170 and 130 mg/g, for treated of lingocellulosic material with HCl than for treated with KOH at pH 6 respectively. It was also found that the time to reach equilibrium takes less than 25 min for both treated materials. The adsorption of basic dye (i.e., ethyl violet or basic violet 4) was carried out by varying some process parameters, such as initial concentration, pH and temperature. The adsorption process can be well described by means of a pseudo-second-order reaction model showing that boundary layer resistance was not the rate-limiting step, as confirmed by intraparticle diffusion since the linear plot of Qt versus t^0.5 did not pass through the origin. In addition, experimental data were accurately expressed by the Sips equation if compared with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The values of ΔG° and ΔH° confirmed that the adsorption of EV on acid-basic treated forest wast wild carob was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The positive values of ΔS° suggested an irregular increase of the randomness at the treated lingocellulosic material -solution interface during the adsorption process.

Keywords: adsorption, isotherm models, thermodynamic parameters, wild carob

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4 Effects of Body Positioning on Videofluoroscopic Barium Esophagram in Healthy Cats

Authors: Hyeona Kim, Kichang Lee, Seunghee Lee, Jeongsu An, Kyungjun Min

Abstract:

Contrast videofluoroscopy is the diagnostic imaging technique for evaluating cat with dysphagia. Generally, videofluoroscopic studies have been done with the cat restrained in lateral recumbency. It is different from the neutral position such as standing or sternal recumbency which is actual swallowing posture. We hypothesized that measurement of esophageal transit and peristalsis would be affected by body position. This experimental study analyzed the imaging findings of barium esophagram in 5 cats. Each cat underwent videofluoroscopy during swallowing of liquid barium and barium-soaked kibble in standing position and lateral recumbency. Esophageal transit time and the number of esophageal peristaltic waves were compared among body positions. Transit time in the cervical esophagus (0.57s), cranial thoracic esophagus (2.5s), and caudal thoracic esophagus(1.10s) was delayed when cats were in lateral recumbency for liquid barium. For kibble, transit time was more delayed than that of liquid through the entire esophagus in lateral recumbency. Liquid and kibble frequently started to delay at thoracic inlet region, transit time in the thoracic esophagus was significantly delayed than the cervical esophagus. In standing position, 60.2% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. In lateral recumbency, 50.5% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. Other variables were not significantly different. Lateral body positioning increases entire esophageal transit time and thoracic esophageal transit time is most significantly delayed. Thus, lateral recumbency decreases the number of primary esophageal peristalsis.

Keywords: barium esophagram, body positioning, cat, videofluoroscopy

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3 Valorization of Natural Vegetable Substances from Tunisia: Purification of Two Food Additives, Anthocyanins and Locust Bean Gum

Authors: N. Bouzouita, A. Snoussi , H. Ben Haj Koubaier, I. Essaidi, M. M. Chaabouni, S. Zgoulli, P. Thonart

Abstract:

Color is one of the most important quality attributes for the food industry. Grape marc, a complex lignocellulosic material is one of the most abundant and worth less byproduct, generated after the pressing process. The development of the process of purification by micro filtration, ultra filtration, nano filtration and drying by atomization of the anthocyanins of Tunisian origin is the aim of this work. Locust bean gum is the ground endosperm of the seeds of carob fruit; owing to its remarkable water-binding properties, it is widely used to improve the texture of food and largely employed in food industry. The purification of LGB causes drastically reduced ash and proteins contents but important increase for galactomannan.

Keywords: Carob, food additives, grape pomace, locust bean gum, natural colorant, nano filtration, thickener, ultra filtration

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2 Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Ceratonia siliqua L. Growing in Boumerdes, Algeria

Authors: N. Meziou-Chebouti, A. Merabet, Y. Chebouti N. Behidj

Abstract:

This work is a contribution to the knowledge of physicochemical characteristics of mature carob followed by evaluation of the activity, antimicrobial phenolics leaves and green pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. physicochemical study shows that mature carob it has a considerable content of sugar (50.90%), but poor in proteins (7%), fat (8%) and also has a high mineral content. The results obtained from phenolic extracts of leaves and green pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. show a wealth leaf phenolic extract especially flavonoids (0,545 mg EqQ/g) relative to the extract of green pods (0,226 mgEqQ/g). Polyphenols leaves have a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoiae, Streptococcus sp and Sanmonella enteritidis, a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Pseudomonas strain aerogenosa. Moreover, polyphenols pod have a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococcus sp strains, Pseudomonas and aerogenosa Sanmonella enteritidis, a slightly inhibitory effect on the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bacteria, clove, Ceratonia siliqua, polyphenols

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1 Date Palm Insects and Mite Pests at Biskra Oasis, South Algeria

Authors: N. Tarai, S. Seighi, S. Doumandji

Abstract:

The date palm trees Phoenix dactylifera L. are subject to infestation with a variety of insect pests and mite associated, the Carob moth Ectomyelois ceatoniae (Zeller)(Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) is a key pest. Survey of the insect and mite pests associated with date palm trees in the seven stations at Biskra Oasis, throughout two successive years, from October 2011 until September 2012 revealed twelve insect pests belonging to ten families and six orders in addition to one mite belonging to one family from order Acari.

Keywords: date palm, insect, pests, infestation, mit, Biskra, Oasis

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