Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Deokyeong Choe

13 Rheological Properties of Cellulose/TBAF/DMSO Solutions and Their Application to Fabrication of Cellulose Hydrogel

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Jae Eun Nam, Young Hoon Roh, Chul Soo Shin


The development of hydrogels with a high mechanical strength is important for numerous applications of hydrogels. As a material for tough hydrogels, cellulose has attracted much interest. However, cellulose cannot be melted and is very difficult to be dissolved in most solvents. Therefore, its dissolution in tetrabutylammonium fluoride/dimethyl sulfoxide (TBAF/DMSO) solvents has attracted researchers for chemical processing of cellulose. For this reason, studies about rheological properties of cellulose/TBAF/DMSO solution will provide useful information. In this study, viscosities of cellulose solutions prepared using different amounts of cellulose and TBAF in DMSO were measured. As expected, the viscosity of cellulose solution decreased with respect to the increasing volume of DMSO. The most viscose cellulose solution was achieved at a 1:1 mass ratio of cellulose to TBAF regardless of their contents in DMSO. At a 1:1 mass ratio of cellulose to TBAF, the formation of cellulose nanoparticles (467 nm) resulted in a dramatic increase in the viscosity, which led to the fabrication of 3D cellulose hydrogels.

Keywords: cellulose, TBAF/DMSO, viscosity, hydrogel

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12 Fermentation of Wood Waste by Treating with H₃PO₄-Acetone for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Keonwook Nam, Young Hoon Roh


Wood waste is a potentially significant resource for economic and environment-friendly recycling. Wood waste represents a key sustainable source of biomass for transformation into bioethanol. Unfortunately, wood waste is highly recalcitrant for biotransformation, which limits its use and prevents economically viable conversion into bioethanol. As a result, an effective pretreatment is necessary to degrade cellulose of the wood waste, which improves the accessibility of cellulase. In this work, a H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment was selected among the various pretreatment methods and used to dissolve cellulose and lignin. When the H₃PO₄ and acetone were used, 5–6% of the wood waste was found to be very appropriate for saccharification. Also, when the enzymatic saccharification was conducted in the mixture of the wood waste and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution, glucose and xylose were measured to be 80.2 g/L and 9.2 g/L respectively. Furthermore, ethanol obtained after 70 h of fermentation by S. cerevisiae was 30.4 g/L. As a result, the conversion yield from wood waste to bioethanol was calculated to be 57.4%. These results show that the pretreated wood waste can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production and that the H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment can effectively increase the yield of ethanol production.

Keywords: wood waste, H₃PO₄-acetone, bioethanol, fermentation

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11 Achievement of High L-Cysteine Yield from Enzymatic Conversion Using Eutectic Mixtures of the Substrate ATC

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Sung Hun Youn, Younggon Kim, Chul Soo Shin


L-Cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, has been often used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, and feed additive industries. This amino acid has been usually produced by acid-hydrolysis of human hair and poultry feathers. There are many problems, such as avoidance for use of animal hair, low yields, and formation of harmful waste material. As an alternative, the enzymatic conversion of D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) to L-cysteine has been developed as an environmental-friendly method. However, the substrate solubility was too low to be used in industry. In this study, high concentrations of eutectic substrate solutions were prepared to solve the problem. Eutectic melting occurred at 39°C after mixing ATC and malonic acid at a molar ratio of 1:1. The characteristics of eutectic mixtures were analyzed by FE-SEM, EDS mapping, and XPS. However, since sorbitol, MnSO4, and NaOH should be added as supplements to the substrate mixture for the activation and stabilization of the enzyme, strategies for sequential addition of total five compounds, ATC, malonic acid, sorbitol, MnSO4, and NaOH were established. As a result, eutectic substrate mixtures of 670 mM ATC were successfully formulated. After 6 h of enzymatic reaction, 550 mM L-cysteine was made.

Keywords: D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid, enzymatic conversion, eutectic solution, l-cysteine

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10 Optimization of Monascus Orange Pigments Production Using pH-Controlled Fed-Batch Fermentation

Authors: Young Min Kim, Deokyeong Choe, Chul Soo Shin


Monascus pigments, commonly used as a natural colorant in Asia, have many biological activities, such as cholesterol level control, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant, that have recently been elucidated. Especially, amino acid derivatives of Monascus pigments are receiving much attention because they have higher biological activities than original Monascus pigments. Previously, there have been two ways to produce amino acid derivatives: one-step production and two-step production. However, the one-step production has low purity, and the two-step production—precursor(orange pigments) fermentation and derivatives synthesis—has low productivity and growth rate during its precursor fermentation step. In this study, it was verified that pH is a key factor that affects the stability of orange pigments and the growth rate of Monascus. With an optimal pH profile obtained by pH-stat fermentation, we designed a process of precursor(orange pigments) fermentation that is a pH-controlled fed-batch fermentation. The final concentration of orange pigments in this process increased to 5.5g/L which is about 30% higher than the concentration produced from the previously used precursor fermentation step.

Keywords: cultivation process, fed-batch fermentation, monascus pigments, pH stability

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9 High Dissolution of ATC by pH Control and Its Enzymatic Conversion to L-Cysteine

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Sung Hun Youn, Younggon Kim, Chul Soo Shin


L-Cysteine is extensively used as a supplement of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and feed additives. It has obtained industrially by hydrolysis of human hair and poultry feathers. However, there are some problems such as the restriction of using materials from animals and the intractable waste pollution. The enzymatic conversion has been regarded as an environmental-friendly method. Currently, the biggest bottle-neck of enzymatic conversion is the low yield of L-cysteine due to the low substrate solubility. In this study, the method of enhancing the solubility of the substrate D,L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid (ATC) was developed and the enzymatic reaction at high concentration levels was performed. A large amount of substrate in aqueous solutions was dissolved by pH control using salts. As the pH of the solution increased, the solubility of ATC increased. It was thought that a shift of ATC from acid form (-COOH) to dissociated carboxylic group (-COO-) would improve its hydrophilicity leading to solubility increase. The highest solubility of ATC was 610 mM at pH 10.5, whereas the maximum reaction rate was obtained at pH 8.3. As a result, a high L-cysteine yield of 250 mM was achieved at pH 9.1, which was obtained from a combination of optimum pH conditions for ATC solubility and enzymatic conversion. This yield corresponds to approximately 18 times of that in previous reports.

Keywords: D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid, enzymatic conversion, high-substrate solubilization, L-Cysteine

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8 Self-Assembled Tin Particles Made by Plasma-Induced Dewetting

Authors: Han Joo Choe, Soon-Ho Kwon, Jung-Joong Lee


Tin particles of various size and distribution were self-assembled by plasma treating tin film deposited on silicon oxide substrates. Plasma treatment was conducted using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. A range of ICP power and topographic templated substrates were evaluated to observe changes in particle size and particle distribution. Scanning electron microscopy images of the particles were analyzed using computer software. The evolution of tin film dewetting into particles initiated from the hole nucleation in grain boundaries. Increasing ICP power during plasma treatment produced larger number of particles per area and smaller particle size and particle-size distribution. Topographic templates were also effective in positioning and controlling the size of the particles. By combining the effects of ICP power and topographic templates, particles of similar size and well-ordered distribution were obtained.

Keywords: dewetting, particles, plasma, tin

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7 Alcoxysilanes Production from Silica and Dimethylcarbonate Promoted by Alkali Bases: A DFT Investigation of the Reaction Mechanism

Authors: Valeria Butera, Norihisa Fukaya, Jun-Chu Choi, Kazuhiko Sato, Yoong-Kee Choe


Several silicon dioxide sources can react with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in presence of alkali bases catalysts to ultimately produce tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Experimental findings suggested that the reaction proceeds through several steps in which the first molecule of DMC is converted to dimethylsilyloxide (DMOS) and CO₂. Following the same mechanistic steps, a second molecule of DMC reacts with the DMOS to afford the final product TMOS. Using a cluster model approach, a quantum-mechanical investigation of the first part of the reaction leading to DMOS formation is reported with a twofold purpose: (1) verify the viability of the reaction mechanism proposed on the basis of experimental evidences .(2) compare the behaviors of three different alkali hydroxides MOH, where M=Li, K and Cs, to determine whether diverse ionic radius and charge density can be considered responsible for the observed differences in reactivity. Our findings confirm the observed experimental trend and furnish important information about the effective role of the alkali hydroxides giving an explanation of the different catalytic activity of the three metal cations.

Keywords: Alcoxysilanes production, cluster model approach, DFT, DMC conversion

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6 Effects of β-Glucan on the Release of Nitric Oxide by RAW264.7 Cells Stimulated with Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide

Authors: Eun Young Choi, So Hui Choe, Jin Yi Hyeon, Ji Young Jin, Bo Ram Keum, Jong Min Lim, Hyung Rae Cho, Kwang Keun Cho, In Soon Choi


This research analyzed the effect of β-glucan that is expected to alleviate the production of inflammatory mediator in macrophagocyte, which was processed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia, a pathogen related to allergy. The incubated layer was used for nitric oxide (NO) analysis. The DNA-binding activation of the small unit of NF-κB was measured using ELISA-based kit. In RAW264.7 cells that were vitalized by E.coli LPS, β-glucan inhibited both the combatant and rendering phases of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO. β-glucan increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cell that was stimulated by E.coli LPS, and HO-1 activation was inhibited by SnPP. This shows that NO production induced by LPS is related to the inhibition effect of β-glucan. The phosphorylation of JNK and p38 induced by LPS were not influenced by β-glucan, and IκB-α decomposition was not influenced either. Instead, β-glucan remarkably inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT1 that was induced by E.coli LPS. Overall, β-glucan inhibited the production of NO in macrophagocyte that was vitalized by E.coli LPS through HO-1 induction and STAT1 pathways inhibition in this research. As the host inflammation reaction control by β-glucan weakens the progress of allergy, β-glucan can be used as an effective treatment method.

Keywords: β-glucan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), nitric oxide (NO), RAW264.7 cells, STAT1

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5 Highly Efficient Ca-Doped CuS Counter Electrodes for Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Mohammed Panthakkal Abdul Muthalif, Shanmugasundaram Kanagaraj, Jumi Park, Hangyu Park, Youngson Choe


The present study reports the incorporation of calcium ions into the CuS counter electrodes (CEs) in order to modify the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Metal ion-doped CuS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on FTO substrate and used directly as counter electrodes for TiO₂/CdS/CdSe/ZnS photoanodes based QDSSCs. For the Ca-doped CuS thin films, copper nitrate and thioacetamide were used as anionic and cationic precursors. Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate was used as doping material. The surface morphology of Ca-doped CuS CEs indicates that the fragments are uniformly distributed, and the structure is densely packed with high crystallinity. The changes observed in the diffraction patterns suggest that Ca dopant can introduce increased disorder into CuS material structure. EDX analysis was employed to determine the elemental identification, and the results confirmed the presence of Cu, S, and Ca on the FTO glass substrate. The photovoltaic current density – voltage characteristics of Ca-doped CuS CEs shows the specific improvements in open circuit voltage decay (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results display that Ca-doped CuS CEs have greater electrocatalytic activity and charge transport capacity than bare CuS. All the experimental results indicate that 20% Ca-doped CuS CE based QDSSCs exhibit high power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.92%, short circuit current density of 15.47 mA cm⁻², open circuit photovoltage of 0.611 V, and fill factor (FF) of 0.521 under illumination of one sun.

Keywords: Ca-doped CuS counter electrodes, surface morphology, chemical bath deposition method, electrocatalytic activity

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4 Regeneration of Geological Models Using Support Vector Machine Assisted by Principal Component Analysis

Authors: H. Jung, N. Kim, B. Kang, J. Choe


History matching is a crucial procedure for predicting reservoir performances and making future decisions. However, it is difficult due to uncertainties of initial reservoir models. Therefore, it is important to have reliable initial models for successful history matching of highly heterogeneous reservoirs such as channel reservoirs. In this paper, we proposed a novel scheme for regenerating geological models using support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA). First, we perform PCA for figuring out main geological characteristics of models. Through the procedure, permeability values of each model are transformed to new parameters by principal components, which have eigenvalues of large magnitude. Secondly, the parameters are projected into two-dimensional plane by multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) based on Euclidean distances. Finally, we train an SVM classifier using 20% models which show the most similar or dissimilar well oil production rates (WOPR) with the true values (10% for each). Then, the other 80% models are classified by trained SVM. We select models on side of low WOPR errors. One hundred channel reservoir models are initially generated by single normal equation simulation. By repeating the classification process, we can select models which have similar geological trend with the true reservoir model. The average field of the selected models is utilized as a probability map for regeneration. Newly generated models can preserve correct channel features and exclude wrong geological properties maintaining suitable uncertainty ranges. History matching with the initial models cannot provide trustworthy results. It fails to find out correct geological features of the true model. However, history matching with the regenerated ensemble offers reliable characterization results by figuring out proper channel trend. Furthermore, it gives dependable prediction of future performances with reduced uncertainties. We propose a novel classification scheme which integrates PCA, MDS, and SVM for regenerating reservoir models. The scheme can easily sort out reliable models which have similar channel trend with the reference in lowered dimension space.

Keywords: history matching, principal component analysis, reservoir modelling, support vector machine

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3 Production Optimization under Geological Uncertainty Using Distance-Based Clustering

Authors: Byeongcheol Kang, Junyi Kim, Hyungsik Jung, Hyungjun Yang, Jaewoo An, Jonggeun Choe


It is important to figure out reservoir properties for better production management. Due to the limited information, there are geological uncertainties on very heterogeneous or channel reservoir. One of the solutions is to generate multiple equi-probable realizations using geostatistical methods. However, some models have wrong properties, which need to be excluded for simulation efficiency and reliability. We propose a novel method of model selection scheme, based on distance-based clustering for reliable application of production optimization algorithm. Distance is defined as a degree of dissimilarity between the data. We calculate Hausdorff distance to classify the models based on their similarity. Hausdorff distance is useful for shape matching of the reservoir models. We use multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) to describe the models on two dimensional space and group them by K-means clustering. Rather than simulating all models, we choose one representative model from each cluster and find out the best model, which has the similar production rates with the true values. From the process, we can select good reservoir models near the best model with high confidence. We make 100 channel reservoir models using single normal equation simulation (SNESIM). Since oil and gas prefer to flow through the sand facies, it is critical to characterize pattern and connectivity of the channels in the reservoir. After calculating Hausdorff distances and projecting the models by MDS, we can see that the models assemble depending on their channel patterns. These channel distributions affect operation controls of each production well so that the model selection scheme improves management optimization process. We use one of useful global search algorithms, particle swarm optimization (PSO), for our production optimization. PSO is good to find global optimum of objective function, but it takes too much time due to its usage of many particles and iterations. In addition, if we use multiple reservoir models, the simulation time for PSO will be soared. By using the proposed method, we can select good and reliable models that already matches production data. Considering geological uncertainty of the reservoir, we can get well-optimized production controls for maximum net present value. The proposed method shows one of novel solutions to select good cases among the various probabilities. The model selection schemes can be applied to not only production optimization but also history matching or other ensemble-based methods for efficient simulations.

Keywords: distance-based clustering, geological uncertainty, particle swarm optimization (PSO), production optimization

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2 Effect of Synbiotics on Rats' Intestinal Microbiota

Authors: Da Yoon Yu, Jeong A. Kim, In Sung Kim, Yeon Hee Hong, Jae Young Kim, Sang Suk Lee, Sung Chan Kim, So Hui Choe, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho


The present study was conducted to identify the effects of synbiotics composed of lactic acid (LA) bacteria (LAB) and sea tangle on rat’s intestinal microorganisms and anti-obesity effects. The experiment was conducted for six weeks using an 8-week old male rat as experiment animals and the experimental design was to use six treatments groups of 4 repetitions using three mice per repetition. The treatment groups were organized into a normal fat diet control (NFC), a high fat (HF) diet control (HFC), a prebiotic 0% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 0%, ST0), a prebiotic 5% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 5%, ST5), a prebiotic 10% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 10%, ST10), and a prebiotic 15% treatment group (HF+LA+sea tangle 15%, ST15) to conduct experiments with various levels of prebiotics. According to the results of the experiment, the NFC group showed the highest daily weight gain (22.34g) and the ST0 group showed the lowest daily weight gain (19.41g). However, weight gains during the entire experimental period were the highest in the HFC group (475.73g) and the lowest in the ST0 group (454.23g). Feed efficiency was the highest in the HFC group (0.20). Treatment with synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle suppressed weight increases due to HF diet and reduced feed efficiency. Intestinal microorganisms were identified through pyrosequncing and according to the results, Firmicutes phylum (approximately 60%) and Bacteroidetes phylum (approximately 30%) accounted for approximately 90% or more of intestinal microorganisms in all of the treatment groups indicating these bacteria are dominating in the intestines. Firmicutes that is related to weight increases accounted for 64.96% of microorganisms in the NFC group, 75.32% in the HFC group, 59.51% in the ST0 group, 61.29% in the ST5 group, 49.91% in the ST10 group, and 39.65% in the ST15 group. Therefore, Firmicutes showed the highest share the HFC group that showed high weight gains and the lowest share in the group treated with mixed synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle. Bacteroidetes that is related to weight gain inhibition accounted for 32.12% of microorganisms in the NFC group, and HFC group 21.57%, ST0 group 37.66%, ST5 group 34.92%, ST10 group 44.46%, and ST15 group 53.22%. Therefore, the share of Bacteroidetes was the lowest in the HFC group with no addition of synbiotics and increased along with the level of treatment with synbiotics. Changes in blood components were not significantly different among the groups and SCFA yields were shown to be higher in groups treated with synbiotics than in groups not added with synbiotics. Through the present study, it was shown that the supply of synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle increased feed intake but led to weight losses and that the intake of synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle had anti-obesity effects due to decreases in Firmicutes which are microorganisms related to weight gains and increases in Bacteroidetes which are microorganisms related to weight losses. Therefore, synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle are considered to have the effect to prevent metabolic disorders in the rat.

Keywords: bacteroidetes, firmicutes, intestinal microbiota, lactic acid, sea tangle, synbiotics

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1 Guests’ Satisfaction and Intention to Revisit Smart Hotels: Qualitative Interviews Approach

Authors: Raymond Chi Fai Si Tou, Jacey Ja Young Choe, Amy Siu Ian So


Smart hotels can be defined as the hotel which has an intelligent system, through digitalization and networking which achieve hotel management and service information. In addition, smart hotels include high-end designs that integrate information and communication technology with hotel management fulfilling the guests’ needs and improving the quality, efficiency and satisfaction of hotel management. The purpose of this study is to identify appropriate factors that may influence guests’ satisfaction and intention to revisit Smart Hotels based on service quality measurement of lodging quality index and extended UTAUT theory. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is adopted as a framework to explain technology acceptance and use. Since smart hotels are technology-based infrastructure hotels, UTATU theory could be as the theoretical background to examine the guests’ acceptance and use after staying in smart hotels. The UTAUT identifies four key drivers of the adoption of information systems: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions. The extended UTAUT modifies the definitions of the seven constructs for consideration; the four previously cited constructs of the UTAUT model together with three new additional constructs, which including hedonic motivation, price value and habit. Thus, the seven constructs from the extended UTAUT theory could be adopted to understand their intention to revisit smart hotels. The service quality model will also be adopted and integrated into the framework to understand the guests’ intention of smart hotels. There are rare studies to examine the service quality on guests’ satisfaction and intention to revisit in smart hotels. In this study, Lodging Quality Index (LQI) will be adopted to measure the service quality in smart hotels. Using integrated UTAUT theory and service quality model because technological applications and services require using more than one model to understand the complicated situation for customers’ acceptance of new technology. Moreover, an integrated model could provide more perspective insights to explain the relationships of the constructs that could not be obtained from only one model. For this research, ten in-depth interviews are planned to recruit this study. In order to confirm the applicability of the proposed framework and gain an overview of the guest experience of smart hotels from the hospitality industry, in-depth interviews with the hotel guests and industry practitioners will be accomplished. In terms of the theoretical contribution, it predicts that the integrated models from the UTAUT theory and the service quality will provide new insights to understand factors that influence the guests’ satisfaction and intention to revisit smart hotels. After this study identifies influential factors, smart hotel practitioners could understand which factors may significantly influence smart hotel guests’ satisfaction and intention to revisit. In addition, smart hotel practitioners could also provide outstanding guests experience by improving their service quality based on the identified dimensions from the service quality measurement. Thus, it will be beneficial to the sustainability of the smart hotels business.

Keywords: intention to revisit, guest satisfaction, qualitative interviews, smart hotels

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