Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5480

Search results for: ohmic technology

5480 Analysis of Total Acid in Arabica Coffee Beans after Fermentation with Ohmic Technology

Authors: Reta


Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polyphenols, and it stimulates brain's performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine, when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic-based fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. We used Arabica coffee, which although cheaper than Luwak coffee, has high acidity, which needs to be reduced. Hence, we applied the ohmic technology, varied the time and temperature of the process and measured the total acidity of the coffee to determine optimum fermentation conditions. Results revealed total acidity of the coffee varied with fermentation conditions; 0.32% at 400C and 12 hr, and 0.52% at 400C and 6 hr. The longer the fermentation, the lower was the acidity. The acidity of the mongoose-fermented (natural fermentation) beans was 2.34%, which is substantially higher than the acidity of the ohmic samples. Ohmic-based fermentation technology, therefore, offers improvements in coffee quality, and this is discussed to highlight the potential of ohmic technology in coffee processing.

Keywords: ohmic technology, fermentation, coffee quality, Arabica coffee

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5479 Production and Evaluation of Mango Pulp by Using Ohmic Heating Process

Authors: Sobhy M. Mohsen, Mohamed M. El-Nikeety, Tarek G. Mohamed, Michael Murkovic


The present work aimed to study the use of ohmic heating in the processing of mango pulp comparing to conventional method. Mango pulp was processed by using ohmic heating under the studied suitable conditions. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mango pulp were studied. The results showed that processing of mango pulp by using either ohmic heating or conventional method caused a decrease in the contents of TSS, total carbohydrates, total acidity, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugar) and an increase in phenol content, ascorbic acid and carotenoids compared to the conventional process. The increase in electric conductivity of mango pulp during ohmic heating was due to the addition of some electrolytes (salts) to increase the ions and enhance the process. The results also indicate that mango pulp processed by ohmic heating contained more phenols, carbohydrates and vitamin C and less HMF compared to that produced by conventional one. Total pectin and its fractions had slightly reduced by ohmic heating compared to conventional method. Enzymatic activities showed a reduction in poly phenoloxidase (PPO) and polygalacturonase (PG) activity in mango pulp processed by conventional method. However, ohmic heating completely inhibited PPO and PG activities.

Keywords: ohmic heating, mango pulp, phenolic, sarotenoids

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5478 Study of the Effect of Voltage and PH on the Inactivation of Byssochlamys fulva in Tomato Juice by Ohmic Process

Authors: Arash Dara, Mahsa Mokhtari, Nafiseh Zamindar


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermal resistance, temperature, voltage, and pH changes in an ohmic heating system on reducing the logarithmic number of Byssochlamys fulva species (PTCC 5062) in tomato juice water and to investigate the quantitative properties of tomato juice in the ohmic heating pasteurization system. The percentage of thermal degradation by ohmic heating was determined in tomato juice for the kinetics of Byssochlamys fulva in ohmic chamber at the temperatures of 88, 93, and 98°C, with two voltages of 30 and 40 volts and two pH levels of 3.5 and 4.5; this was done using Weibull frequency distribution model. Three different parameters (pH = 3.5, two voltages of 30 and 40, at three temperatures 88, 93, and 98) and (pH = 4.5, two voltages 30 and 40, at three temperatures 88, 93, and 98) in three replications were considered in the ohmic system. Heating time for the temperature of 88°C was 20 minutes once every 2 minutes, while for the temperature of 93°C, it was 10 minutes once every 1 minute. At the temperature of 98°C, the first time was 0.5 minutes, and for other times, sampling was done every 1 minute. In each condition, the qualitative characteristics, including acidity, Brix, and pH, were measured before and after the ohmic process in the tomato juice. This study demonstrates that the differences in pH and voltage due to different temperatures in the ohmic process can greatly affect the inactivation of Byssochlamys fulva fungus and the qualitative characteristics of the tomato juice. This is the first study using the Weibull frequency method to model the inactivation of Byssochlamys fulva in tomato juice. Variation in parameters such as temperature, voltage, and pH can prevent the presence of Byssochlamys fulva in the pasteurized juices.

Keywords: pasteurization, ohmic heating process, Byssochlamys fulva, tomato juice, heat resistance, voltage, pH

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5477 Influence of Alcohol to Quality Iota Type Carrageenan

Authors: Andi Hasizah Mochtar, Meta Mahendradatta, Amran Laga, Metusalach Metusalach, Salengke Salengke, Mariati Bilang, Andi Amijoyo Mochtar, Reta Reta, Aminah Muhdar, Sri Suhartini


This study aims to determine the effect of alcohol type on the quality of iota carrageenan-based on extraction technology through the application of ohmic reactor. Results of this analysis will be used as a reference for selecting the proper type of alcohol used for carrageenan precipitated after extraction by technology based ohmic. The results of analysis performed included analysis of viscosity, gel strength, and yield of iota carrageenan. Viscosity is the highest obtained at precipitated by using isopropyl alcohol with an average of 291.5 Cp (at 160 rpm), then with methanol at an average of 282 Cp, then precipitated by using ethanol at an average of 206.5 Cp. Gel strength is the lowest obtained 67.74 on precipitated by using ethanol, then an average of 74.34 in precipitated that using methanol, and the highest average of 80.11 in precipitated that using isopropyl alcohol.

Keywords: extraction of carrageenan, gel strength, ohmic technology, precipitated, seaweed (Eucheuma spinosum), viscosity

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5476 Environmental Pb-Free Cu Front Electrode for Si-Base Solar Cell Application

Authors: Wen-Hsi Lee, C.G. Kao


In this study, Cu paste was prepared and printed with narrow line screen printing process on polycrystalline Si solar cell which has already finished the back Al printing and deposition of double anti-reflection coatings (DARCs). Then, two-step firing process was applied to sinter the front electrode and obtain the ohmic contact between front electrode and solar cell. The first step was in air atmosphere. In this process, PbO-based glass frit etched the DARCs and Ag recrystallized at the surface of Si, constructing the preliminary contact. The second step was in reducing atmosphere. In this process, CuO reduced to Cu and sintered. Besides, Ag nanoparticles recrystallized in the glass layer at interface due to the interactions between H2, Ag and PbO-based glass frit and the volatility of Pb, constructing the ohmic contact between electrode and solar cell. By experiment and analysis, reaction mechanism in each stage was surmised, and it was also proven that ohmic contact and good sheet resistance for front electrode could both be obtained by applying newly-invented paste and process.

Keywords: front electrode, solar cell, ohmic contact, screen printing, paste

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5475 Improved Ohmic Contact by Li Doping in Electron Transport Layers

Authors: G. Sivakumar, T. Pratyusha, D. Gupta, W. Shen


To get ohmic contact between the cathode and organic semiconductor, transport layers are introduced between the active layer and the electrodes. Generally zinc oxide or titanium dioxide are used as electron transport layer. When electron transport layer is doped with lithium, the resultant film exhibited superior electronic properties, which enables faster electron transport. Doping is accomplished by heat treatment of films with Lithium salts. Li-doped films. We fabricated organic solar cell using PTB7(poly(3-hexylthiopene-2,5- diyl):PCBM(phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) and found that the solar cells prepared using Li doped films had better performance in terms of efficiency when compared to the undoped transport layers.

Keywords: electron transport layer, higher efficiency, lithium doping, ohmic contact

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5474 Electrochemical Synthesis of ZnTe and Cu-ZnTe Thin Films for Low Resistive Ohmic Back Contact for CdS/CdTe Solar Cells

Authors: Shivaji M. Sonawane, N. B. Chaure


ZnTe is direct band gap, the P-type semiconductor with the high absorption coefficient of the order of 104cm-1 is suitable for solar cell development. It can be used as a low resistive ohmic contact to CdS/CdTe or tandem solar cell application. ZnTe and Cu-ZnTe thin film have been electrochemically synthesized on to fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates using three electrode systems containing Ag/AgCl, graphite and FTO as reference, counter and working electrode respectively were used to deposit the thin films. The aqueous electrolytic solution consist of 0.5M TeO2, 0.2M ZnSO4, and 0.1M Na3C6H5O7:2H2O, 0.1MC6H8O7:H2O and 0.1mMCuSO4 with PH 2.5 at room temperature was used. The reaction mechanism is studied in the cyclic voltammetry to identify the deposition potentials of ZnTe and Cu-ZnTe.The potential was optimized in the range -0,9 to -1,1 V. Vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The effect of deposition potential on the structural properties was studied by using X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction result reveled cubic crystal structure of ZnTe with preferential (111) orientation with cubic structure. The surface morphology and film composition were analyzed by means of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X- Rays (EDAX). The optical absorption measurement has been analyzed for the band gap determination of deposited layers about 2.26 eV by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The drastic change in resistivity has been observed due to incorporation of copper probably due to the diffusion of Cu into grain boundaries.

Keywords: ohmic back contact, zinc telluride, electrodeposition, photovoltaic devices

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5473 Effects of Bipolar Plate Coating Layer on Performance Degradation of High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Chen-Yu Chen, Ping-Hsueh We, Wei-Mon Yan


Over the past few centuries, human requirements for energy have been met by burning fossil fuels. However, exploiting this resource has led to global warming and innumerable environmental issues. Thus, finding alternative solutions to the growing demands for energy has recently been driving the development of low-carbon and even zero-carbon energy sources. Wind power and solar energy are good options but they have the problem of unstable power output due to unpredictable weather conditions. To overcome this problem, a reliable and efficient energy storage sub-system is required in future distributed-power systems. Among all kinds of energy storage technologies, the fuel cell system with hydrogen storage is a promising option because it is suitable for large-scale and long-term energy storage. The high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) with metallic bipolar plates is a promising fuel cell system because an HT-PEMFC can tolerate a higher CO concentration and the utilization of metallic bipolar plates can reduce the cost of the fuel cell stack. However, the operating life of metallic bipolar plates is a critical issue because of the corrosion phenomenon. As a result, in this work, we try to apply different coating layer on the metal surface and to investigate the protection performance of the coating layers. The tested bipolar plates include uncoated SS304 bipolar plates, titanium nitride (TiN) coated SS304 bipolar plates and chromium nitride (CrN) coated SS304 bipolar plates. The results show that the TiN coated SS304 bipolar plate has the lowest contact resistance and through-plane resistance and has the best cell performance and operating life among all tested bipolar plates. The long-term in-situ fuel cell tests show that the HT-PEMFC with TiN coated SS304 bipolar plates has the lowest performance decay rate. The second lowest is CrN coated SS304 bipolar plate. The uncoated SS304 bipolar plate has the worst performance decay rate. The performance decay rates with TiN coated SS304, CrN coated SS304 and uncoated SS304 bipolar plates are 5.324×10⁻³ % h⁻¹, 4.513×10⁻² % h⁻¹ and 7.870×10⁻² % h⁻¹, respectively. In addition, the EIS results indicate that the uncoated SS304 bipolar plate has the highest growth rate of ohmic resistance. However, the ohmic resistance with the TiN coated SS304 bipolar plates only increases slightly with time. The growth rate of ohmic resistances with TiN coated SS304, CrN coated SS304 and SS304 bipolar plates are 2.85×10⁻³ h⁻¹, 3.56×10⁻³ h⁻¹, and 4.33×10⁻³ h⁻¹, respectively. On the other hand, the charge transfer resistances with these three bipolar plates all increase with time, but the growth rates are all similar. In addition, the effective catalyst surface areas with all bipolar plates do not change significantly with time. Thus, it is inferred that the major reason for the performance degradation is the elevated ohmic resistance with time, which is associated with the corrosion and oxidation phenomena on the surface of the stainless steel bipolar plates.

Keywords: coating layer, high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, metallic bipolar plate, performance degradation

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5472 Giant Achievements in Food Processing

Authors: Farnaz Amidi Fazli


After long period of human experience about food processing from raw eating to canning of food in the last century now it is time to use novel technologies which are sometimes completely different from common technologies. It is possible to decontaminate food without using heat or the foods are stored without using cold chain. Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is a non-thermal method of food preservation that uses short bursts of electricity, PEF can be used for processing liquid and semi-liquid food products. PEF processing offers high quality fresh-like liquid foods with excellent flavor, nutritional value, and shelf-life. High pressure processing (HPP) technology has the potential to fulfill both consumer and scientific requirements. The use of HPP for over 50 years has found applications in non-food industries. For food applications, ‘high pressure’ can be generally considered to be up to 600 MPa for most food products. After years, freezing has its high potential to food preservation due to new and quick freezing methods. Foods which are prepared by this technology have more acceptability and high quality comparing with old fashion slow freezing. Thus, quick freezing has further been adopted as a widespread commercial method for long-term preservation of perishable foods which improved both the health and convenience of everyone in the industrialised countries. Above parameters are achieved by Fluidised-bed freezing systems, freezing by immersion and Hydrofluidisation on the other hand new thawing methods like high-pressure, microwave, ohmic, and acoustic thawing have a key role in quality and adaptability of final product.

Keywords: quick freezing, thawing, high pressure, pulse electric, hydrofluidisation

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5471 Density Determination of Liquid Niobium by Means of Ohmic Pulse-Heating for Critical Point Estimation

Authors: Matthias Leitner, Gernot Pottlacher


Experimental determination of critical point data like critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume and critical compressibility of high-melting metals such as niobium is very rare due to the outstanding experimental difficulties in reaching the necessary extreme temperature and pressure regimes. Experimental techniques to achieve such extreme conditions could be diamond anvil devices, two stage gas guns or metal samples hit by explosively accelerated flyers. Electrical pulse-heating under increased pressures would be another choice. This technique heats thin wire samples of 0.5 mm diameter and 40 mm length from room temperature to melting and then further to the end of the stable phase, the spinodal line, within several microseconds. When crossing the spinodal line, the sample explodes and reaches the gaseous phase. In our laboratory, pulse-heating experiments can be performed under variation of the ambient pressure from 1 to 5000 bar and allow a direct determination of critical point data for low-melting, but not for high-melting metals. However, the critical point also can be estimated by extrapolating the liquid phase density according to theoretical models. A reasonable prerequisite for the extrapolation is the existence of data that cover as much as possible of the liquid phase and at the same time exhibit small uncertainties. Ohmic pulse-heating was therefore applied to determine thermal volume expansion, and from that density of niobium over the entire liquid phase. As a first step, experiments under ambient pressure were performed. The second step will be to perform experiments under high-pressure conditions. During the heating process, shadow images of the expanding sample wire were captured at a frame rate of 4 × 105 fps to monitor the radial expansion as a function of time. Simultaneously, the sample radiance was measured with a pyrometer operating at a mean effective wavelength of 652 nm. To increase the accuracy of temperature deduction, spectral emittance in the liquid phase is also taken into account. Due to the high heating rates of about 2 × 108 K/s, longitudinal expansion of the wire is inhibited which implies an increased radial expansion. As a consequence, measuring the temperature dependent radial expansion is sufficient to deduce density as a function of temperature. This is accomplished by evaluating the full widths at half maximum of the cup-shaped intensity profiles that are calculated from each shadow image of the expanding wire. Relating these diameters to the diameter obtained before the pulse-heating start, the temperature dependent volume expansion is calculated. With the help of the known room-temperature density, volume expansion is then converted into density data. The so-obtained liquid density behavior is compared to existing literature data and provides another independent source of experimental data. In this work, the newly determined off-critical liquid phase density was in a second step utilized as input data for the estimation of niobium’s critical point. The approach used, heuristically takes into account the crossover from mean field to Ising behavior, as well as the non-linearity of the phase diagram’s diameter.

Keywords: critical point data, density, liquid metals, niobium, ohmic pulse-heating, volume expansion

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5470 Relevance of Technology on Education

Authors: Felicia K. Oluwalola


This paper examines the relevance of technology on education. It identified the concept of technology on education, bringing real-world learning to the classroom situation, examples of where technology can be used. This study established the fact that technology facilitates students learning compared with traditional method of teaching. It was recommended that the teachers should use technology to supplement, not replace, other instructional modes. It should be used in conjunction with hands-on labs and activities that also address the concepts targeted by the technology. Also, technology should be students centered and not teachers centered.

Keywords: computer, simulation, classroom teaching, education

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5469 Electrical Characterization of Hg/n-bulk GaN Schottky Diode

Authors: B. Nabil, O. Zahir, R. Abdelaziz


We present the results of electrical characterizations current-voltage and capacity-voltage implementation of a method of making a Schottky diode on bulk gallium nitride doped n. We made temporary Schottky contact of Mercury (Hg) and an ohmic contact of silver (Ag), the electrical characterizations current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) allows us to determine the difference parameters of our structure (Hg /n-GaN) as the barrier height (ΦB), the ideality factor (n), the series resistor (Rs), the voltage distribution (Vd), the doping of the substrate (Nd) and density of interface states (Nss).

Keywords: Bulk Gallium nitride, electrical characterization, Schottky diode, series resistance, substrate doping

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5468 Parents' Perception on the Use of Mobile Technology by Young Children

Authors: Jason Gan


Technology has been around for many years, those that play a crucial part of our lives have evolved quick and fast, from televisions to computers and now mobile technology has also become a part of our lives. However in Singapore a nation with a strong reliance and following in technology, how are young children (0 to 8 years old) coping with these high technology equipment especially mobile technology and why and what are parents doing to manage this trend in the nation. This study aims to uncover some of the parents’ perception behind the use of mobile technology by their children.

Keywords: technology, preschoolers, ICT and Singapore, early childhood

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5467 A Research Analysis on the Source Technology and Convergence Types

Authors: Kwounghee Choi


Technological convergence between the various sectors is expected to have a very large impact on future industrial and economy. This study attempts to do empirical approach between specific technologies’ classification. For technological convergence classification, it is necessary to set the target technology to be analyzed. This study selected target technology from national research and development plan. At first we found a source technology for analysis. Depending on the weight of source technology, NT-based, BT-based, IT-based, ET-based, CS-based convergence types were classified. This study aims to empirically show the concept of convergence technology and convergence types. If we use the source technology to classify convergence type, it will be useful to make practical strategies of convergence technology.

Keywords: technology convergence, source technology, convergence type, R&D strategy, technology classification

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5466 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell

Authors: Hsin-Ping Huang, Shyankay Jou


Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.

Keywords: aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching, thin films

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5465 ELectromagnetic-Thermal Coupled Analysis of PMSM with Cooling Channel

Authors: Hyun-Woo Jun, Tae-Chul Jeong, Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee


The paper presents the electromagnetic-thermal flow coupled analysis of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which has cooling channel in stator core for forced air cooling. Unlike the general PMSM design, to achieve ohmic loss reduction for high efficiency, cooling channel actively used in the stator core. Equivalent thermal network model was made to analyze the effect of the formation of the additional flow path in the core. According to the shape and position changing of the channel design, electromagnetic-thermal coupled analysis results were reviewed.

Keywords: coupled problems, electric motors, equivalent circuits, fluid flow, thermal analysis

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5464 Study on Properties of Carbon-based Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Pei-Jung Wu, Ching-Ying Huang, Chih-Chia Lin, Chun-Han Li, Chien-Yuan Wang


The fuel cell market has considerable development potential, but the cost is still less competitive. Replacing the traditional graphite plate with a stainless steel plate as a bipolar plate can greatly reduce the weight and volume of the stack, and has more cost advantages. However, the passivation layer on the surface of stainless steel makes the contact resistance reach the ohmic level and reduces the performance of the fuel cell. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interfacial contact resistance through the surface treatment. In this research, the thickness, uniformity, interfacial contact resistance (ICR), and adhesion of the carbon-based layer was analyzed. On the other hand, the effect of coating properties on the performance of the fuel cell was verified through I-V tests. The results show that after coating the contact resistance is greatly reduced by three stages to the microohm level, and as the film thickness is reduced, the contact resistance is reduced from 229~118 mΩ-cm² to 135~73 mΩ-cm² at a general assembly pressure of 1 to 2 MPa., and the current density at 0.6 V increased from 485.7 mA/cm² to 575.7 mA/cm². This study verifies the importance of the uniformity and ICR of the coating on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), and the surface coating technology is the key to affecting the characteristics of the coating.

Keywords: contact resistance, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, PEMFC, SS bipolar plate, spray coating process

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5463 Factors Influencing University Student's Acceptance of New Technology

Authors: Fatma Khadra


The objective of this research is to identify the acceptance of new technology in a sample of 150 Participants from Qatar University. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), we used the Davis’s scale (1989) which contains two item scales for Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use. The TAM represents an important theoretical contribution toward understanding how users come to accept and use technology. This model suggests that when people are presented with a new technology, a number of variables influence their decision about how and when they will use it. The results showed that participants accept more technology because flexibility, clarity, enhancing the experience, enjoying, facility, and useful. Also, results showed that younger participants accept more technology than others.

Keywords: new technology, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, technology acceptance model

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5462 Computational Study of Composite Films

Authors: Rudolf Hrach, Stanislav Novak, Vera Hrachova


Composite and nanocomposite films represent the class of promising materials and are often objects of the study due to their mechanical, electrical and other properties. The most interesting ones are probably the composite metal/dielectric structures consisting of a metal component embedded in an oxide or polymer matrix. Behaviour of composite films varies with the amount of the metal component inside what is called filling factor. The structures contain individual metal particles or nanoparticles completely insulated by the dielectric matrix for small filling factors and the films have more or less dielectric properties. The conductivity of the films increases with increasing filling factor and finally a transition into metallic state occurs. The behaviour of composite films near a percolation threshold, where the change of charge transport mechanism from a thermally-activated tunnelling between individual metal objects to an ohmic conductivity is observed, is especially important. Physical properties of composite films are given not only by the concentration of metal component but also by the spatial and size distributions of metal objects which are influenced by a technology used. In our contribution, a study of composite structures with the help of methods of computational physics was performed. The study consists of two parts: -Generation of simulated composite and nanocomposite films. The techniques based on hard-sphere or soft-sphere models as well as on atomic modelling are used here. Characterizations of prepared composite structures by image analysis of their sections or projections follow then. However, the analysis of various morphological methods must be performed as the standard algorithms based on the theory of mathematical morphology lose their sensitivity when applied to composite films. -The charge transport in the composites was studied by the kinetic Monte Carlo method as there is a close connection between structural and electric properties of composite and nanocomposite films. It was found that near the percolation threshold the paths of tunnel current forms so-called fuzzy clusters. The main aim of the present study was to establish the correlation between morphological properties of composites/nanocomposites and structures of conducting paths in them in the dependence on the technology of composite films.

Keywords: composite films, computer modelling, image analysis, nanocomposite films

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5461 The Importance of Science and Technology Education in Skill Acquisition for Self Dependence

Authors: Olaje Monday Olaje


Science and technology has been prove to be the back bone for economic development of any country, and for Nigeria, it has more critical role to play. This paper examines the importance of science and technology education for national development and self dependence for Nigerian citizens. A historical overview of the interconnectivity of science and technology and self dependence is heighted. The current situation and challenges facing science and technology education are also highlighted to bring out the theoretical importance of science and technology education for self dependence which actually has not been practically achieved. Recommendations are also made at the of the study so as to skill acquisition through science and technology for self dependence.

Keywords: acquisition, education, self-dependence, science, technology

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5460 Effect of Magnetic Field on Unsteady MHD Poiseuille Flow of a Third Grade Fluid Under Exponential Decaying Pressure Gradient with Ohmic Heating

Authors: O. W. Lawal, L. O. Ahmed, Y. K. Ali


The unsteady MHD Poiseuille flow of a third grade fluid between two parallel horizontal nonconducting porous plates is studied with heat transfer. The two plates are fixed but maintained at different constant temperature with the Joule and viscous dissipation taken into consideration. The fluid motion is produced by a sudden uniform exponential decaying pressure gradient and external uniform magnetic field that is perpendicular to the plates. The momentum and energy equations governing the flow are solved numerically using Maple program. The effects of magnetic field and third grade fluid parameters on velocity and temperature profile are examined through several graphs.

Keywords: exponential decaying pressure gradient, MHD flow, Poiseuille flow, third grade fluid

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5459 Exploitation of Technology by the Tshwane Residence for Tourism Development Purposes

Authors: P. P. S. Sifolo, P. Tladi, J. Maimela


This article investigates technology used by Tshwane residents intended for tourism purposes. The aim is to contribute information to the Tshwane interested parties for planning and management concerning technology within the tourism sector. This study identified the types of tourist related technologies used by the Tshwane residents, be it for business purposes or personal use. The study connected the exploitation of technology for tourism purposes through unpacking the tourism sector as it utilizes technology. Quantitative research methodology was used whereby self-completed questionnaires were chosen as research instruments. The research study carried out a search for knowledge on technology for tourism and the Tshwane residents; however the study revealed that technology has certainly imprinted tourism massively because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Technology has assisted tourism businesses stay abreast of competition with ICT and because of that, SA is on the map as one the economically performing countries in Africa. Moreover, technology and tourism make a meaningful impact on job creation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Keywords: tourism, information and communication technology, Tshwane residents, technology for tourism

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5458 The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on the Performance of Office Technology Managers

Authors: Sunusi Tijjani


Information and communication technology is an indispensable tool in the performance of office technology managers. Today's offices are automated and equipped with modern office machines that enhances and improve the work of office managers. However, today's office technology managers can process, evaluate, manage and communicate all forms of information using technological devices. Information and Communication Technology is viewed as the process of processing, storing ad dissemination information while office technology managers are trained professional who can effectively operate modern office machines, perform administrative duties and attend meetings to take dawn minute of meetings. This paper examines the importance of information and communication technology toward enhancing the work of office managers. It also stresses the importance of information and communication technology toward proper and accurate record management.

Keywords: communication, information, technology, managers

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5457 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez


The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: university-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies

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5456 Classifying the Role of Technology in Technology Development

Authors: Hyun Joung No, Chul Lee


Even though technology evolves and develops through interaction with each other, not all technologies contribute to the development of technology equally. While some technologies play a central role in developing technology, others play a secondary role. The role of the technological components can be classified as core or non-core (peripheral) technology. The core technologies have a considerable knowledge interaction with other technological components while the non-core technologies barely interact with others within the system. This study introduces the concept that classifies the technological components into core or peripheral technology according to their role and importance in the technology field. The study adapted the social network analysis to examine the relationship between technological components. Using a continuous core-periphery analysis, it identifies the technological network structure and classifies the core and peripheral nodes. Based on their knowledge inflow/outflow direction and their dependence/influence on core technologies, the technological clusters are classified into four categories: (1) high dependence and high influence on core technology, (2) high dependence and low influence on core technology, (3) low dependence and high influence on core technology, and (4) low dependence and low influence on core technology.

Keywords: core technology, periphery technology, technological components, technological role

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5455 Focusing of Technology Monitoring Activities Using Indicators

Authors: Günther Schuh, Christina König, Toni Drescher


One of the key factors for the competitiveness and market success of technology-driven companies is the timely provision of information about emerging technologies, changes in existing technologies, as well as relevant related changes in the market's structures and participants. Therefore, many companies conduct technology intelligence (TI) activities to ensure an early identification of appropriate technologies and other (weak) signals. One base activity of TI is technology monitoring, which is defined as the systematic tracking of developments within a specified topic of interest as well as related trends over a long period of time. Due to the very large number of dynamically changing parameters within the technological and the market environment of a company as well as their possible interdependencies, it is necessary to focus technology monitoring on specific indicators or other criteria, which are able to point out technological developments and market changes. In addition to the execution of a literature review on existing approaches, which mainly propose patent-based indicators, it is examined in this paper whether indicator systems from other branches such as risk management or economic research could be transferred to technology monitoring in order to enable an efficient and focused technology monitoring for companies.

Keywords: technology forecasting, technology indicator, technology intelligence, technology management, technology monitoring

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5454 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Su Jeong Lee, Tae Il Lee, Jung Han Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Gee Sung Chae, Jae-Min Myoung


The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V∙s at 250 °C.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle, contact resistance, thin-film transistor (TFT)

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5453 Using a Design Structure Method to Support Technology Roadmapping for Product-Service Integrated Systems

Authors: Heungwook Son, Sungjoo Lee


Recently, due to intensifying competition in several industries, the importance of meeting customer requirements has increased. The role that service plays in satisfying customer‘s requirements is key area of focus. Thus, the concept of using product development-research in the service system has been actively practiced. As strategic decision making tool, various types of the technology roadmap were suggested in the product-service system (PSS). However, the technology roadmap was configured a top-down form around the technologies of the elements. The limitation is that it hard for it to indicate a variety of interrelations. In response, this paper suggests using the planning support tool of PSS for a DSM for the technology roadmap; it consists of the relationship of product-service-technology as a bottom-up form. Therefore, nine types of the technology roadmap of PSS exist. The first defines the relationship of product-service-technology. The second phase identifies output when of the technology roadmaps are adapted to the DSM process. Finally, the DSM-based forms of each type of technology roadmap are presented through case studies.

Keywords: DSM, technology roadmap, PSS, product-service system, bottom-up

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5452 Connecting Lives Inside and Outside the Classroom: Why and How to Implement Technology in the Language Learning Classroom

Authors: Geoffrey Sinha


This paper is primarily addressed to teachers who stand on the threshold of bringing technology and new media into their classrooms. Technology and new media, such as smart phones and tablets have changed the face of communication in general and of language teaching more specifically. New media has widespread appeal among young people in particular, so it is in the teacher’s best interests to bring new media into their lessons. It is the author’s firm belief that technology will never replace the teacher, but it is without question that the twenty-first century teacher must employ technology and new media in some form, or run the risk of failure. The level that one chooses to incorporate new media within their class is entirely in their hands.

Keywords: new media, social media, technology, education, language learning

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5451 Focusing on the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology for Improving Childrens’ Potentials in Science: Challenges for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Osagiede Mercy Afe


After the internet explosion in the 90’s, Technology was immediately integrated into the school system. Technology which symbolizes advancement in human knowledge was seen as a setback by many educators many efforts have been made to help stem this erroneous believes and help educators realize the benefits of technology and ways of implementing it in the classrooms especially in the sciences. This advancement created a constantly expanding gap between the pupil’s perception on the use of technology within the learning atmosphere and the teacher’s perception and limitations hence the focus of this paper is on the need to refocus on the potentials of Science and Technology in enhancing children learning at school especially in science for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper recommended measures for facilitating the sustenance of science and technology in Nigerian schools so as to enhance the potentials of our children in Science and Technology for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: children, information communication technology (ICT), potentials, sustainable development, science education

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