Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 97

Search results for: spectrophotometry

97 Evaluation of Salivary Nickel Level During Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Mudafara S. Bengleil, Juma M. Orfi, Iman Abdelgader


Since nickel is a known toxic and carcinogenic metal, the present study was designed to evaluate the level of nickel released into the saliva of orthodontic patients. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from 18 patients attending The Orthodontic Clinic of Dental Faculty of Benghazi University. Patients were divided into two groups and level of nickel was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nickel concentration values (mg/L) in first group prior to starting treatment was 0.097± 0.071. An increase in level of nickel was followed by decrease 4 and 8 weeks after applying the arch wire (0.208± 0.112) and (0.077±0.056 mg/L) respectively. Nickel levels in saliva of the second group were showed minimal variation and ranged from 0.061± 0.044mg/L to 0.083±0.054 throughout period of study. It may be concluded that there could be a release of nickel from the appliance used in first group but it doesn't reach toxic level in saliva.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nickel, orthodontic treatment, saliva, toxicity

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96 Physicochemical and Optical Characterization of Rutile TiO2 Thin Films Grown by APCVD Technique

Authors: Dalila Hocine, Mohammed Said Belkaid, Abderahmane Moussi


In this study, pure rutile TiO2 thin films were directly synthesized on silicon substrates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique (APCVD) using TiCl4 as precursor. We studied the physicochemical properties and the optical properties of the produced coatings by means of standard characterization techniques of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry. The absorption peaks at 423 cm-1 and 610 cm-1 were observed for the rutile TiO2 thin films, by FTIR measurements. The absorption peak at 739 cm-1 due to the vibration of the Ti-O bonds, was also detected. UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry is employed for measuring the optical band gap from the measurements of the TiO2 films reflectance. The optical band gap was then extracted from the reflectance data for the TiO2 sample. It was estimated to be 3.05 eV which agrees with the band gap of commercial rutile TiO2 sample.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, physicochemical properties, APCVD, FTIR, band gap

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
95 Study of Ambient Air Quality on Building's Roof of Dhaka City

Authors: Koninika Tanzim


The gaseous pollutants, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 affect the environment of Dhaka City. These pollutants are mainly released from stationary sources, like, fossil-fueled, power plants, industrial units and brickfields around the city. Suspended particulate matters including PM10 and PM2.5 are also contributing to air pollution in Dhaka City. SO2, NO2 and O3 are determined by using UV and visible spectrophotometry. The sensor type devised has been used for the determination of CO in ambient air. Lead in the suspended particulate matter was determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected at ground level and on the roof of a seven-storied building. For all the criteria pollutants, the concentration at the roof was found to the lower than that at the ground level. The average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were found to the 241.5 and 81.1 mg/m3 at the ground level. On the roof of a 7 storied building was however 49.99 mg/m3 and 25.88 mg/m3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. The concentration of Pb varied from 0.011 to 0.04 mg/m3 at the ground level. The values for Pb at the roof level were significantly lower. The values for SO2, NO2, CO and O3 were found to be higher than the USEPA values.

Keywords: gaseous air pollutant, PM, lead, gravimetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption, ambient air quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
94 In-situ Fabrication of Silver-PDMS Nanocomposite Membrane with Application in Olefine Separation

Authors: P. Tirgarbahnamiri, S. Mahravani, N. Haddadpour, F. Yaghmaie, F. Barazandeh


In this study, silver nanoparticle-Polydimethylsiloxane membrane (SNP-PDMS) was prepared with an in-situ reduction method using AgNO3 in poly (dimethylsiloxane) hardener. Optical and mechanical properties as well as functionality of these membranes were determined employing, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, strain-stress test and liquid/liquid filtration measurements. Silver nanoparticles are known to selectively absorb Olefins and may be used for separation of Alkanes from olefins. Yellow color of silver nanocomposites and transparency of blank polymer were observed employing optical microscope. λmax in 415-420 nm regions in UV-Vis spectrophotometry are related to silver nanoparticles absorbance. Based on stress-strain test results, tensile strength of silver nanoparticle PDMS (SNP-PDMS) membranes is higher than PDMS films of comparable size and thickness. Moreover, permeability of SNP-PDMS membranes were characterized using similar olefin/paraffin pair using a simple bench scale separation set- up. The silver -PDMS membranes retain their color and UV-vis characteristics for extended periods of time exceeding several months.

Keywords: nanocomposite membrane, gas separation, facilitated transport, silver nanocomposite, PDMS, in-situ reduction

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93 Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactivity of Methotrexate Conjugated Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in vitro Model System Using Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

Authors: Abdul Matin, Muhammad Ajmal, Uzma Yunus, Noaman-ul Haq, Hafiz M. Shohaib, Ambreen G. Muazzam


Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have unique properties that are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer due to their precise properties like small size (ideal for delivery within the body) stability in solvent and tunable surface chemistry for targeted delivery. Here, highly fluorescent, monodispersed and water-soluble CNPs were synthesized directly from a suitable carbohydrate source (glucose and sucrose) by one-step acid assisted ultrasonic treatment at 35 KHz for 4 hours. This method is green, simple, rapid and economical and can be used for large scale production and applications. The average particle sizes of CNPs are less than 10nm and they emit bright and colorful green-blue fluorescence under the irradiation of UV-light at 365nm. The CNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fluorescent spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and TGA analysis. Fluorescent CNPs were used as fluorescent probe and nano-carriers for anticancer drug. Functionalized CNPs (with ethylene diamine) were attached with anticancer drug-Methotrexate. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of CNPs-drug conjugates was evaluated by LDH assay and Sulforhodamine B assay using human lung carcinoma cell lines (H157). Our results reveled that CNPs showed biocompatibility and CNPs-anticancer drug conjugates have shown potent cytotoxic effects and high antitumor activities in lung cancer cell lines. CNPs are proved to be excellent substitute for conventional drug delivery cargo systems and anticancer therapeutics in vitro. Our future studies will be more focused on using the same nanoparticles in vivo model system.

Keywords: carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles-methotrexate conjugates, human lung carcinoma cell lines, lactate dehydrogenase, methotrexate

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
92 Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Heterocyclic Indole Derivatives

Authors: Tunca Gul Altuntas, Aziz Baydar, Cemre Acar, Sezen Yılmaz, Tulay Coban


Free radicals, which are generated in many bioorganic redox processes, play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer, arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and age-related degenerative brain diseases. Exposures of normal cell to free radical damages several structures, oxidizes nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, or DNA. Compounds interfere with the action of reactive oxygen species might be useful in prevention and treatment of these pathologies. A series of indole compounds containing piperazine ring were synthesized. Coupling of indole-2-carboxylic acid with monosubstituted piperazines was accomplished with 1,1’-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in a good yield. The structures of prepared compounds were verified in good agreement with their 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), MS (mass spectrophotometry), and IR (infrared spectrophotometry) characteristics. In this work, all synthetized indole derivatives were screened in vitro for their antioxidative potential against vitamin E (α-tocopherol) using different antioxidant assays such as superoxide anion formation, lipid peroxidation levels in rat liver, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable radical scavenging activity. The synthesized compounds showed various levels of inhibition compared to vitamin E. This may give promising results for the development of new antioxidant agents.

Keywords: antioxidant, indoles, piperazines, reactive oxygen species

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
91 PM10 Chemical Characteristics in a Background Site at the Universidad Libre Bogotá

Authors: Laura X. Martinez, Andrés F. Rodríguez, Ruth A. Catacoli


One of the most important factors for air pollution is that the concentrations of PM10 maintain a constant trend, with the exception of some places where that frequently surpasses the allowed ranges established by Colombian legislation. The community that surrounds the Universidad Libre Bogotá is inhabited by a considerable number of students and workers, all of whom are possibly being exposed to PM10 for long periods of time while on campus. Thus, the chemical characterization of PM10 found in the ambient air at the Universidad Libre Bogotá was identified as a problem. A Hi-Vol sampler and EPA Test Method 5 were used to determine if the quality of air is adequate for the human respiratory system. Additionally, quartz fiber filters were utilized during sampling. Samples were taken three days a week during a dry period throughout the months of November and December 2015. The gravimetric analysis method was used to determine PM10 concentrations. The chemical characterization includes non-conventional carcinogenic pollutants. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was used for the determination of metals and VOCs were analyzed using the FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) method. In this way, concentrations of PM10, ranging from values of 13 µg/m3 to 66 µg/m3, were obtained; these values were below standard conditions. This evidence concludes that the PM10 concentrations during an exposure period of 24 hours are lower than the values established by Colombian law, Resolution 610 of 2010; however, when comparing these with the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO), these concentrations could possibly exceed permissible levels.

Keywords: air quality, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, particulate matter

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90 Determination of Optimum Conditions for the Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ores with Ammonium Nitrate

Authors: Javier Paul Montalvo Andia, Adriana Larrea Valdivia, Adolfo Pillihuaman Zambrano


The most common lixiviant in the leaching process of copper minerals is H₂SO₄, however, the current situation requires more environmentally friendly reagents and in certain situations that have a lower consumption due to the presence of undesirable gangue as muscovite or kaolinite that can make the process unfeasible. The present work studied the leaching of an oxidized copper mineral in an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, in order to obtain the optimum leaching conditions of the copper contained in the malachite mineral from Peru. The copper ore studied comes from a deposit in southern Peru and was characterized by X-ray diffractometer, inductively coupled-plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The experiments were developed in batch reactor of 600 mL where the parameters as; temperature, pH, ammonium nitrate concentration, particle size and stirring speed were controlled according to experimental planning. The sample solution was analyzed for copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). A simulation in the HSC Chemistry 6.0 program showed that the predominance of the copper compounds of a Cu-H₂O aqueous system is altered by the presence in the system of ammonium complexes, the compound being thermodynamically more stable Cu(NH3)₄²⁺, which predominates in pH ranges from 8.5 to 10 at a temperature of 25 °C. The optimum conditions for copper leaching of the malachite mineral were a stirring speed of 600 rpm, an ammonium nitrate concentration of 4M, a particle diameter of 53 um and temperature of 62 °C. These results showed that the leaching of copper increases with increasing concentration of the ammonium solution, increasing the stirring rate, increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle diameter. Finally, the recovery of copper in optimum conditions was above 80%.

Keywords: ammonium nitrate, malachite, copper oxide, leaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
89 Determination of Gold in Microelectronics Waste Pieces

Authors: S. I. Usenko, V. N. Golubeva, I. A. Konopkina, I. V. Astakhova, O. V. Vakhnina, A. A. Korableva, A. A. Kalinina, K. B. Zhogova


Gold can be determined in natural objects and manufactured articles of different origin. The up-to-date status of research and problems of high gold level determination in alloys and manufactured articles are described in detail in the literature. No less important is the task of this metal determination in minerals, process products and waste pieces. The latters, as objects of gold content chemical analysis, are most hard-to-study for two reasons: Because of high requirements to accuracy of analysis results and because of difference in chemical and phase composition. As a rule, such objects are characterized by compound, variable and very often unknown matrix composition that leads to unpredictable and uncontrolled effect on accuracy and other analytical characteristics of analysis technique. In this paper, the methods for the determination of gold are described, using flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis technique. The techniques are aimed at gold determination in a solution for gold etching (KJ+J2), in the technological mixture formed after cleaning stainless steel members of vacuum-deposit installation with concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids as well as in gold-containing powder resulted from liquid wastes reprocessing. Optimal conditions for sample preparation and analysis of liquid and solid waste specimens of compound and variable matrix composition were chosen. The boundaries of relative resultant error were determined for the methods within the range of gold mass concentration from 0.1 to 30g/dm3 in the specimens of liquid wastes and mass fractions from 3 to 80% in the specimens of solid wastes.

Keywords: microelectronics waste pieces, gold, sample preparation, atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, gravimetric analysis technique

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88 Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride by Coupling with Diazotized 2,4-Dinitroaniline

Authors: Sulaiman Gafar Muhamad


A rapid spectrophotometric method for the micro-determination of phenylephrine-HCl (PHE) has been developed. The proposed method involves the coupling of phenylephrine-HCl with diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline in alkaline medium at λmax 455 nm. Under the present optimum condition, Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20 μg/ml of PHE with molar absorptivity of 1.915 ×104 l., with a relative error of 0.015 and a relative standard deviation of 0.024%. The current method has been applied successfully to estimate phenylephrine-HCl in pharmaceutical preparations (nose drop and syrup).

Keywords: diazo-coupling, 2, 4-dinitroaniline, phenylephrine-HCl, spectrophotometry

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87 Dyeing with Natural Dye from Pterocarpus indicus Extract Using Eco-Friendly Mordants

Authors: Ploysai Ohama, Nuttawadee Hanchengchai, Thiva Saksri


Natural dye extracted from Pterocarpus indicus was applied to a cotton fabric and silk yarn by dyeing processing different eco-friendly mordants. Analytical studies such as UV–VIS spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis were performed on the extracts. The color of each dyed material was investigated in terms of the CIELAB (L*, a* and b*) and K/S values. Cotton fabric dyed without mordants had a shade of greenish-brown, while those post-mordanted with selected eco-friendly mordants such as alum, lemon juice and limewater result in a variety of brown and darker color shade of fabric.

Keywords: natural dyes, plant materials, dyeing, mordant

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86 Determination of Cr Content in Canned Fish Marketed in Iran

Authors: Soheil Sobhanardakani, Seyed Vali Hosseini, Lima Tayebi


The presence of heavy metals in the environment could constitute a hazard to food security and public health. These can be accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish. Samples of four popular brands of canned fish in the Iranian market (yellowfin tuna, common Kilka, Kawakawa, and longtail tuna) were analyzed for level of Cr after wet digestion with acids using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations for Cr in the different brands were: 2.57, 3.24, 3.16, and 1.65 μg/g for brands A, B, C, and D respectively. Significant differences were observed in the Cr levels between all of the different brands of canned fish evaluated in this study. The Cr concentrations for the varieties of canned fishes were generally within the FAO/WHO, U.S. FDA, and U.S. EPA recommended limits for fish.

Keywords: heavy metals, essential metals, canned fish, food security

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
85 Antibacterial Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride Incorporated in Fissure Sealants

Authors: Nélio Veiga, Paula Ferreira, Tiago Correia, Maria J. Correia, Carlos Pereira, Odete Amaral, Ilídio J. Correia


Introduction: The application of fissure sealants is considered to be an important primary prevention method used in dental medicine. However, the formation of microleakage gaps between tooth enamel and the fissure sealant applied is one of the most common reasons of dental caries development in teeth with fissure sealants. The association between various dental biomaterials may limit the major disadvantages and limitations of biomaterials functioning in a complementary manner. The present study consists in the incorporation of a cariostatic agent – silver diamine fluoride (SDF) – in a resin-based fissure sealant followed by the study of release kinetics by spectrophotometry analysis of the association between both biomaterials and assessment of the inhibitory effect on the growth of the reference bacterial strain Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: An experimental in vitro study was designed consisting in the entrapment of SDF (Cariestop® 12% and 30%) into a commercially available fissure sealant (Fissurit®), by photopolymerization and photocrosslinking. The same sealant, without SDF was used as a negative control. The effect of the sealants on the growth of S. mutans was determined by the presence of bacterial inhibitory halos in the cultures at the end of the incubation period. In order to confirm the absence of bacteria in the surface of the materials, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) characterization was performed. Also, to analyze the release profile of SDF along time, spectrophotometry technique was applied. Results: The obtained results indicate that the association of SDF to a resin-based fissure sealant may be able to increase the inhibition of S. mutans growth. However, no SDF release was noticed during the in vitro release studies and no statistical significant difference was verified when comparing the inhibitory halo sizes obtained for test and control group.  Conclusions: In this study, the entrapment of SDF in the resin-based fissure sealant did not potentiate the antibacterial effect of the fissure sealant or avoid the immediate development of dental caries. The development of more laboratorial research and, afterwards, long-term clinical data are necessary in order to verify if this association between these biomaterials is effective and can be considered for being used in oral health management. Also, other methodologies for associating cariostatic agents and sealant should be addressed.

Keywords: biomaterial, fissure sealant, primary prevention, silver diamine fluoride

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84 Determination of Cadmium , Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati


Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: tea, infusion, metals, Libya

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83 Spectrophotometric Determination of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid in Pharmaceutical Samples

Authors: Chand Pasha


A Simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for the quantitative analysis of determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid is described. This method is based on the reaction of 5-aminosalicylic acid with nitrite in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with acetylacetone in basic medium to form azo dyes, which shows absorption maxima at 470 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 0.5-11.2 gml-1 of 5-aminosalicylic acid with acetylacetone. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of 5-aminosalicylic acid -acetylacetone azo dye is 2.672 ×104 lmol-1cm-1, 5.731 × 10-3 gcm-2 respectively. The dye formed is stable for 10 hrs. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters are evaluated. Interference due to foreign organic compounds have been investigated. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid in pharmaceutical samples.

Keywords: spectrophotometry, diazotization, mesalazine, nitrite, acetylacetone

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
82 Determination of Lead , Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati, Eltayeb M. Emmima


Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: boiling, infusion, metals, tea

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81 Removal of Brilliant Green in Environmental Samples by Poly Ethylene Terephthalate Granule

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Nika Shakerin, Farahnaz Zolriasatain, Elham Moniri


In this research, poly-ethylene terephthalate granule was prepared from Tak Corporation. The granule was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on brilliant green sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of brilliant green was 6. The sorption capacity of the granule for brilliant green was 4.6 mg g−1. The profile of brilliant green uptake on this sorbent reflects a good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly-ethylene terephthalate granule. The developed method was utilized for the determination of brilliant green in environmental water samples by UV/Vis spectrophotometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly-ethylene terephthalate granule, brilliant green, environmental sample, removal

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80 Green, Smooth and Easy Electrochemical Synthesis of N-Protected Indole Derivatives

Authors: Sarah Fahad Alajmi, Tamer Ezzat Youssef


Here, we report a simple method for the direct conversion of 6-Nitro-1H-indole into N-substituted indoles via electrochemical dehydrogenative reaction with halogenated reagents under strongly basic conditions through N–R bond formation. The N-protected indoles have been prepared under moderate and scalable electrolytic conditions. The conduct of the reactions was performed in a simple divided cell under constant current without oxidizing reagents or transition-metal catalysts. The synthesized products have been characterized via UV/Vis spectrophotometry, 1H-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy. A possible reaction mechanism is discussed based on the N-protective products. This methodology could be applied to the synthesis of various biologically active N-substituted indole derivatives.

Keywords: green chemistry, 1H-indole, heteroaromatic, organic electrosynthesis

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79 Investigation of the Effect of Nickel Electrodes as a Stainless Steel Buffer Layer on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Authors: Meisam Akbari, Seyed Hossein Elahi, Mohammad Mashadgarmeh


In this study, the effect of nickel-electrode as a stainless steel buffer layer is considered. Then, the effect of dilution of the last layer of welding on two samples of steel plate A516 Gr70 (C-Mn-Si) with SMAW welding process was investigated. Then, in a sample, the ENI-cl nickel electrode was welded as the buffer layer and the E316L-16 electrode as the last layer of welding and another sample with an E316L-16 electrode in two layers. The chemical composition of the latter layer was determined by spectrophotometry method. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the latter layer is different and the lowest dilution rate is obtained using the nickel electrode.

Keywords: degree of dilution, C-Mn-Si, spectrometry, nickel electrode, stainless steel

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78 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: S. Abdullahi, M. Momoh, K. U. Isah


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

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77 Preparation of Carbon Monoliths from PET Waste and Their Use in Solar Interfacial Water Evaporation

Authors: Andrea Alfaro Barajas, Arturo I. Martinez


3D photothermal structure of carbon was synthesized using PET bottles waste and sodium chloride through controlled carbonization. Characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, and mechanical compression were carried out. The carbon showed physical integrity > 90%, an absorbance > 90% between 300-1000nm of the solar spectrum, and a high specific surface area from 450 to 620 m2/g. The X-ray was employed to examine the phase structure; the obtained pattern shows an amorphous material. A higher intensity of band D with respect to band G was confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy. C-OH, COOH, C-O, and C-C bonds were obtained from the deconvolution of the high-resolution C1s orbital. Macropores of 160 to 180µm and micropores of 0.5 to 2nm were observed by SEM and TEM images, respectively. Such combined characteristics of carbon confer efficient evaporation of water under 1 sun irradiation > 60%.

Keywords: solar-absorber, carbon, water-evaporation, interfacial

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
76 Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami


A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.

Keywords: solvent extraction, PMPT, Palladium (II), spectrophotometry

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75 Simultaneous Determination of Some Phenolic Pesticides in Environmental and Biological Samples

Authors: Yasmeen F. Pervez, Etesh K. Janghel, Santosh Kumar Sar


Simple and sensitive analytical thermal gradient-thin layer chromatography technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic pesticides like carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran. It is based on the differential migration of colored derivatives formed by the reaction of hydrolysed phenolic compound with diazotized 3, 4 dimethyl aniline on a silica gel plate. Quantitative evaluation of hydrolyzed phenolic compound is made by visual comparison of intensities of color by spectrophotometry. The color system obeys Beer’s law in the following working range in ppm : carbaryl, 0.5-6.6; propoxur, 0.8-7.2; and carbofuran, 0.2-3.3 respectively. The Molar absorptivity, Sandell’s sensitivity, Correlation coefficient have been determined. The effects of analytical parameters on migration and analysis have been evaluated. The methods are highly reproducible and have been successfully applied to determination of phenolic pesticides in environmental and biological samples.

Keywords: phenolic pesticides (carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran), 3.4 dimethyl aniline, environmental, biological samples

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
74 Online Monitoring and Control of Continuous Mechanosynthesis by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

Authors: Darren A. Whitaker, Dan Palmer, Jens Wesholowski, James Flaherty, John Mack, Ahmad B. Albadarin, Gavin Walker


Traditional mechanosynthesis has been performed by either ball milling or manual grinding. However, neither of these techniques allow the easy application of process control. The temperature may change unpredictably due to friction in the process. Hence the amount of energy transferred to the reactants is intrinsically non-uniform. Recently, it has been shown that the use of Twin-Screw extrusion (TSE) can overcome these limitations. Additionally, TSE enables a platform for continuous synthesis or manufacturing as it is an open-ended process, with feedstocks at one end and product at the other. Several materials including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), co-crystals and small organic molecules have been produced mechanochemically using TSE. The described advantages of TSE are offset by drawbacks such as increased process complexity (a large number of process parameters) and variation in feedstock flow impacting on product quality. To handle the above-mentioned drawbacks, this study utilizes UV-Vis spectrophotometry (InSpectroX, ColVisTec) as an online tool to gain real-time information about the quality of the product. Additionally, this is combined with real-time process information in an Advanced Process Control system (PharmaMV, Perceptive Engineering) allowing full supervision and control of the TSE process. Further, by characterizing the dynamic behavior of the TSE, a model predictive controller (MPC) can be employed to ensure the process remains under control when perturbed by external disturbances. Two reactions were studied; a Knoevenagel condensation reaction of barbituric acid and vanillin and, the direct amidation of hydroquinone by ammonium acetate to form N-Acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP) commonly known as paracetamol. Both reactions could be carried out continuously using TSE, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the percentage conversion of starting materials to product. This information was used to construct partial least squares (PLS) calibration models within the PharmaMV development system, which relates the percent conversion to product to the acquired UV-Vis spectrum. Once this was complete, the model was deployed within the PharmaMV Real-Time System to carry out automated optimization experiments to maximize the percentage conversion based on a set of process parameters in a design of experiments (DoE) style methodology. With the optimum set of process parameters established, a series of PRBS process response tests (i.e. Pseudo-Random Binary Sequences) around the optimum were conducted. The resultant dataset was used to build a statistical model and associated MPC. The controller maximizes product quality whilst ensuring the process remains at the optimum even as disturbances such as raw material variability are introduced into the system. To summarize, a combination of online spectral monitoring and advanced process control was used to develop a robust system for optimization and control of two TSE based mechanosynthetic processes.

Keywords: continuous synthesis, pharmaceutical, spectroscopy, advanced process control

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73 Phase Diagrams and Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Aqueous Biphasic Systems Formed by Polyethylene Glycol and Potassium Sodium Tartrate at 303.15 K

Authors: Amanda Cristina de Oliveira, Elias de Souza Monteiro Filho, Roberta Ceriani


Liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) constitutes a powerful tool for purifying bio-materials, such as cells, organelles, proteins, among others. In this work, the extraction of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied in systems formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) (1500, 4000, and 6000 g.mol⁻¹) + potassium sodium tartrate + water at 303.15°K. Phase diagrams were obtained by turbidimetry and Merchuk’s method (1998). The experimental tie-lines were described using the Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft correlations. ATPSs were correlated with the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model. The results were considered excellent according to global root-mean-square deviations found which were between 0,72 and 1,13%. The concentrations of the proteins in each phase were determined by spectrophotometry at 280 nm, finding partition efficiencies greater than 71%.

Keywords: aqueous two phases systems, bovine serum albumin , liquid-liquid extraction, polyethylene glycol

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72 Relation between Low Thermal Stress and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in a Sweetening Plant: Stevia Rebaudiana Bert

Authors: T. Bettaieb, S. Soufi, S. Arbaoui


Stevia rebaudiana Bert. is a natural sweet plant. The leaves contain diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, steviolbioside and dulcoside, which are responsible for its sweet taste and have commercial value all over the world as sugar substitute in foods and medicines. Stevia rebaudiana Bert. is sensitive temperature lower than 9°C. The possibility of its outdoor culture in Tunisian conditions demand genotypes tolerant to low temperatures. In order to evaluate the low temperature tolerance of eight genotypes of Stevia rebaudiana, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalases (CAT) were measured. Before carrying out the analyses, three genotypes of Stevia were exposed for 1 month at a temperature regime of 18°C during the day and 7°C at night similar to winter conditions in Tunisia. In response to the stress generated by low temperature, antioxidant enzymes activity revealed on native gel and quantified by spectrophotometry showed variable levels according to their degree of tolerance to low temperatures.

Keywords: chilling tolerance, enzymatic activity, stevia rebaudiana bert, low thermal stress

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71 Investigation of Polymer Composite for High Dose Dosimetry

Authors: Esther Lorrayne M. Pereira, Adriana S. M. Batista, Fabíola A. S. Ribeiro, Adelina P. Santos, Luiz O. Faria


In this work we have prepared nanocomposites made by mixing Poli (vinilidene fluoride) (PVDF), zirconium oxide (ZrO₂) and multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) aiming to find dosimetric properties for applications in high dose dosimetry. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate (16.7 kGy/h), with doses ranging from 100 to 2750 kGy. The UV-Vis and FTIR spectrophotometry have been used to monitor the appearing of C=C conjugated bonds and radio-oxidation of carbon (C=O). FTIR spectrometry has that the absorbance intensities at 1715 cm⁻¹ and 1730 cm⁻¹ can be used for high dosimetry purposes for gamma doses ranging from 500 to 2750 kGy. In this range, it is possible to observe a linear relationship between Abs & Dose. Fading of signal was evaluated for one month and reproducibility in 2000 kGy dose. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used for evaluated the dispersion ZrO₂ and MWCNT in the matrix of the PVDF.

Keywords: polymer, composite, high dose dosimetry, PVDF/ZrO₂/MWCNT

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70 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticle: An Analytical Method Based Approach for the Quantitative Assessment of Drug

Authors: Zeid A. Alothman


Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has been synthesized using adrenaline. Adrenaline readily undergoes an autoxidation reaction in an alkaline medium with the dissolved oxygen to form adrenochrome, thus behaving as a mild reducing agent for the dissolved oxygen. This reducing behavior of adrenaline when employed to reduce Ag(+) ions yielded a large enhancement in the intensity of absorbance in the visible region. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to confirm the surface morphology of AgNPs. Further, the metallic nanoparticles with size greater than 2 nm caused a strong and broad absorption band in the UV-visible spectrum called surface plasmon band or Mie resonance. The formation of AgNPs caused the large enhancement in the absorbance values with λmax at 436 nm through the excitation of the surface plasmon band. The formation of AgNPs was adapted to for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline using spectrophotometry with lower detection limit and higher precision values.

Keywords: silver nanoparticle, adrenaline, XRD, TEM, analysis

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69 Evaluation of Pollution in Underground Water from ODO-NLA and OGIJO Metropolis Industrial Areas in Ikorodu

Authors: Zaccheaus Olasupo Apotiola


This study evaluates the level of pollution in underground water from Ogijo and Odo-nla areas in lkorodu, Lagos State. Water sample were collected around various industries and transported in ice packs to the laboratory. Temperature and pH was determined on site, physicochemical parameters and total plate were determined using standard methods, while heavy metal concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry method. The temperature was observed at a range of 20-28 oC, the pH was observed at a range of 5.64 to 6.91 mol/l and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from one another. The chloride content was observed at a range 70.92 to 163.10 mg/l there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sample 40 GAJ and ISUP, but there was significant difference (P < 0.05) between other samples. The acidity value varied from 11.0 – 34.5 (mg/l), the samples had no alkalinity. The Total plate count was found at 20-125 cfu/ml. Asernic, Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury concentration ranged between 0.03 - 0.09, 0.04 - 0.11, 0.00 -0.00, and 0.00 – 0.00(mg/l) respectively. However there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between all samples except for sample 4OGA, 5OGAJ, and 3SUTN that were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The results revealed all samples are not safe for human consumption as the levels of Asernic and Lead are above the maximum value of (0.01 mg/l) recommended by NIS 554 and WHO.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, lead mercury, WHO

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68 Textile Dyeing with Natural Dye from Sappan Tree (Caesalpinia sappan Linn.) Extract

Authors: Ploysai Ohama, Nattida Tumpat


Natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was applied to a cotton fabric and silk yarn by dyeing process. The dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was extracted using water and ethanol. Analytical studies such as UV–VIS spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis were performed on the extracts. Brazilein, the major dyestuff component of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. was confirmed in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts by UV–VIS spectrum. The color of each dyed material was investigated in terms of the CIELAB (L*, a* and b*) and K/S values. Cotton fabric dyed without mordant had a shade of reddish-brown, while those post-mordanted with aluminum potassium sulfate, ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate produced a variety of wine red to dark purple color shades. Cotton fabric and silk yarn dyeing was studied using aluminum potassium sulfate as a mordant. The observed color strength was enhanced with increase in mordant concentration.

Keywords: natural dyes, plant materials, dyeing, mordant

Procedia PDF Downloads 195