Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 840

Search results for: nickel electrode

840 Investigation of the Effect of Nickel Electrodes as a Stainless Steel Buffer Layer on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Authors: Meisam Akbari, Seyed Hossein Elahi, Mohammad Mashadgarmeh

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of nickel-electrode as a stainless steel buffer layer is considered. Then, the effect of dilution of the last layer of welding on two samples of steel plate A516 Gr70 (C-Mn-Si) with SMAW welding process was investigated. Then, in a sample, the ENI-cl nickel electrode was welded as the buffer layer and the E316L-16 electrode as the last layer of welding and another sample with an E316L-16 electrode in two layers. The chemical composition of the latter layer was determined by spectrophotometry method. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the latter layer is different and the lowest dilution rate is obtained using the nickel electrode.

Keywords: degree of dilution, C-Mn-Si, spectrometry, nickel electrode, stainless steel

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839 Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires at an Electrode Distance of 20mm

Authors: Mahendran Samykano, Ram Mohan, Shyam Aravamudhan

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to study the effect of two key factors-external magnetic field and applied current density during the template-based electrodeposition of nickel nanowires using an electrode distance of 20 mm. Morphology, length, crystallite size, and crystallographic characterization of the grown nickel nanowires at an electrode distance of 20mm are presented. For this electrode distance of 20 mm, these two key electrodeposition factors when coupled was found to reduce crystallite size with a higher growth length and preferred orientation of Ni crystals. These observed changes can be inferred to be due to coupled interaction forces induced by the intensity of applied electric field (current density) and external magnetic field known as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect during the electrodeposition process.

Keywords: anodic alumina oxide, electrodeposition, nanowires, nickel

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838 Comparison of Transparent Nickel Doped Cobalt Sulfide and Platinum Counter Electrodes Used in Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Dimitra Sygkridou, Dimitrios Karageorgopoulos, Elias Stathatos, Evangelos Vitoratos

Abstract:

Transparent nickel doped cobalt sulfide was fabricated on a SnO2:F electrode and tested as an efficient electrocatalyst and as an alternative to the expensive platinum counter electrode. In order to investigate how this electrode could affect the electrical characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we manufactured cells with the same TiO2 photoanode sensitized with dye (N719) and employing the same quasi-solid electrolyte, altering only the counter electrode used. The cells were electrically and electrochemically characterized and it was observed that the ones with the Ni doped CoS2 outperformed the efficiency of the cells with the Pt counter electrode (3.76% and 3.44% respectively). Particularly, the higher efficiency of the cells with the Ni doped CoS2 counter electrode (CE) is mainly because of the enhanced photocurrent density which is attributed to the enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the CE and the low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface.

Keywords: nickel doped cobalt sulfide, counter electrodes, dye-sensitized solar cells, quasi-solid state electrolyte, hybrid organic-inorganic materials

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837 Mesoporous Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core-Shell Microspheres for Supercapacitor Electrode Material

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Marjorie Baynosa, Jae-Jin Shim

Abstract:

The depletion of non-renewable sources had led to the continuous development of various energy storage systems in order to cope with the world’s demand in energy. Supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because they can store more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The combination of carbon-based material and metal chalcogenides are now being considered in response to the search for active electrode materials exhibiting high electrochemical performance. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon [email protected] cobalt sulfide ([email protected]) core-shell was synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method. The [email protected] core-shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724.4 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Good specific retention of 86.1% and high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9% was obtained after 2000 charge-discharge cycles. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 (1440 W kg−1) and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 (34.2 Wh kg−1). The reaction involved green synthesis without further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. Through this study, a cost-effective and facile synthesis of [email protected] as an active electrode showed favorable electrochemical performance.

Keywords: carbon sphere, electrochemical, hydrothermal, nickel cobalt sulfide, supercapacitor

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836 Electro-Oxidation of Glycerol Using Nickel Deposited Carbon Ceramic Electrode and Product Analysis Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Mulatu Kassie Birhanu

Abstract:

Electro-oxidation of glycerol is an important process to convert the less price glycerol into other expensive (essential) and energy-rich chemicals. In this study, nickel was electro-deposited on laboratory-made carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) substrate using electrochemical techniques that is cyclic voltammetry (CV) to prepare an electro-catalyst (Ni/CCE) for electro-oxidation of glycerol. Carbon ceramic electrode was prepared from graphite and methyl tri-methoxy silane (MTMOS) through the processes called hydrolysis and condensation with methanol in acidic media (HCl) by a sol-gel technique. Physico-chemical characterization of bare CCE and modified (deposited) CCE (Ni/CCE) was measured and evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electro-oxidation of glycerol was performed in 0.1 M glycerol in alkaline media (0.5 M NaOH). High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique was used to identify and determine the concentration of glycerol, reaction intermediates and oxidized products of glycerol after its electro-oxidation is performed. The conversion (%) of electro-oxidation of glycerol during 9-hour oxidation was 73% and 36% at 1.8V and 1.6V vs. RHE, respectively. Formate, oxalate, glycolate and glycerate are the main oxidation products of glycerol with selectivity (%) of 75%, 8.6%, 1.1% and 0.95 % at 1.8 V vs. RHE and 55.4%, 2.2%, 1.0% and 0.6% at 1.6 V vs. RHE respectively. The result indicates that formate is the main product in the electro-oxidation of glycerol on Ni/CCE using the indicated applied potentials.

Keywords: carbon-ceramic electrode, electrodeposition, electro-oxidation, Methyltrimethoxysilane

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835 Evaluation of Salivary Nickel Level During Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Mudafara S. Bengleil, Juma M. Orfi, Iman Abdelgader

Abstract:

Since nickel is a known toxic and carcinogenic metal, the present study was designed to evaluate the level of nickel released into the saliva of orthodontic patients. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from 18 patients attending The Orthodontic Clinic of Dental Faculty of Benghazi University. Patients were divided into two groups and level of nickel was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nickel concentration values (mg/L) in first group prior to starting treatment was 0.097± 0.071. An increase in level of nickel was followed by decrease 4 and 8 weeks after applying the arch wire (0.208± 0.112) and (0.077±0.056 mg/L) respectively. Nickel levels in saliva of the second group were showed minimal variation and ranged from 0.061± 0.044mg/L to 0.083±0.054 throughout period of study. It may be concluded that there could be a release of nickel from the appliance used in first group but it doesn't reach toxic level in saliva.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nickel, orthodontic treatment, saliva, toxicity

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834 Selective Oxidation of Ammonia to Nitrogen over Nickel Oxide-hydroxide /Graphite Prepared with an Electro Deposition Method

Authors: Marzieh Joda, Narges Fallah, Neda Afsham

Abstract:

Graphite-supported two different of morphology α and β -Ni (OH)₂ electrodes were prepared by electrochemical deposition at appropriate potentials with regard to Ni (II)/Ni (III) redox couple under alkaline and acidic conditions, respectively, for selective oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen in the direct electro-oxidation process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the electrolyte containing NH₃ indicated mediation of electron transfer by Ni (OH)₂ and the electrode surface was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectrometer (RS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results of surface characterization indicated the presence of α polymorphs which is the stable phase of Ni (OH)₂ /Graphite. Cyclic voltammograms gave information on the nature of electron transfer between nitrogen species and working electrode and revealed that the potential has depended on both nature ammonia oxidation and that of concentration. The mechanism of selective ammonia conversion to nitrogen and byproducts, namely NO₂- and NO₃- was established by Cyclic voltammograms and current efficiency. The removal efficiency and selective conversion of ammonia (0.1 M KNO₃ + 0.01 M Ni(NO₃)₂, pH 11, 250°C) on Nickel Oxide-hydroxide /Graphite was determined based on potential controlled experiments.

Keywords: Electro deposition, Nickel oxide-hydroxide, Nitrogen selectivity, Ammonia oxidation

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833 Synthesis of NiNW/ Cellulose Nano Hybrid via Liquid-Phase Reduction

Authors: Siti Rahmah Shamsuri, Eiichiro Matsubara, Shohei Shiomi

Abstract:

The 1D nanomaterial is far surpassed the 0D nanomaterial. It does not just offer most of the benefit of the 0D nanomaterial such as the large surface area, a great number of active site and an efficient interfacial charge transfer but also can assemble into free-standing and flexible electrode due to their high aspect ratio. Thus, it is essential to develop a simple and ease synthesis of this 1D nanomaterial for the practical application. Here, nickel nanowire/cellulose hybrid has been successfully fabricated via a simple liquid-phase method with the assist of the magnetic field. A finer nickel nanowire was heterogeneously nucleated on the surface of the cellulose fiber, which demonstrated the effect of the hydroxyl group on the cellulose structure. The result of the nickel nanowire size was found to vary from 66-114 nm. A detailed discussion on the mechanism of the nickel nanowire/ cellulose hybrid formation is also shown in this paper.

Keywords: cellulose nanofiber, liquid-phase reduction, metal nanowire, nano hybrid material

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832 Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Kai Huang, Assamen Ayalew Ejigu, Mu-Jie Lin, Liang-Chiun Chao

Abstract:

Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.

Keywords: copper, ion beam, NiO, oxide, resistivity, transparent

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831 Simple Fabrication of Au (111)-Like Electrode and Its Applications to Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Zahrah Thamer Althagafi, Mohamed I. Awad

Abstract:

A simple method for the fabrication of Au (111)-like electrode via controlled reductive desorption of a pre-adsorbed cysteine monolayer onto polycrystalline gold (poly-Au) electrode is introduced. Then, the voltammetric behaviour of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the thus modified electrode is investigated. Electrochemical characterization of the modified electrode is achieved using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. For the binary mixture of DA and AA, the results showed that Au (111)-like electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and AA. This allows highly selective and simultaneous determination of DA and AA. The effect of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric responses of DA and AA was investigated. The enrichment of the Au (111) facet of the poly-Au electrode is thought to be behind the electrocatalytic activity.

Keywords: gold electrode, electroanalysis, electrocatalysis, monolayers, self-assembly, cysteine, dopamine, ascorbic acid

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830 Hydrometallurgical Production of Nickel Ores from Field Bugetkol

Authors: A. T. Zhakiyenova, E. E. Zhatkanbaev, Zh. K. Zhatkanbaeva

Abstract:

Nickel plays an important role in mechanical engineering and creation of military equipment; practically all steel are alloyed by nickel and other metals for receiving more durable, heat-resistant, corrosion-resistant steel and cast iron. There are many ways of processing of nickel in the world. Generally, it is igneous metallurgy methods. In this article, the review of majority existing ways of technologies of processing silicate nickel - cobalt ores is considered. Leaching of ores of a field Bugetkol is investigated by solution of sulfuric acid. We defined a specific consumption of sulfuric acid in relation to the mass of ore and to the mass of metal.

Keywords: cobalt, degree of extraction, hydrometallurgy, igneous metallurgy, leaching, matte, nickel

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829 Facile Fabrication of Nickel/Zinc Oxide Hollow Spheres Nanostructure and Photodegradation of Congo Red

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Behjat Afshari

Abstract:

In this work, Nickel/Zinc Oxide hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template Fructose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using a ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized hollow spherical Nickel/Zinc Oxide was studied in the destruction of Congo red as Azo dye. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Nickel/ Zinc Oxide hollow spherical nanostructures is improved compared with zinc oxide hollow sphere and other morphologies.

Keywords: azo dye, hollow spheres, photocatalyst, nickel/zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
828 Effect of Leaks in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Tested for Durability under Co-Electrolysis Conditions

Authors: Megha Rao, Søren H. Jensen, Xiufu Sun, Anke Hagen, Mogens B. Mogensen

Abstract:

Solid oxide electrolysis cells have an immense potential in converting CO2 and H2O into syngas during co-electrolysis operation. The produced syngas can be further converted into hydrocarbons. This kind of technology is called power-to-gas or power-to-liquid. To produce hydrocarbons via this route, durability of the cells is still a challenge, which needs to be further investigated in order to improve the cells. In this work, various nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) fuel electrode supported or YSZ electrolyte supported cells, cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) barrier layer, and an oxygen electrode are investigated for durability under co-electrolysis conditions in both galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions. While changing the gas on the oxygen electrode, keeping the fuel electrode gas composition constant, a change in the gas concentration arc was observed by impedance spectroscopy. Measurements of open circuit potential revealed the presence of leaks in the setup. It is speculated that the change in concentration impedance may be related to the leaks. Furthermore, the cells were also tested under pressurized conditions to find an inter-play between the leak rate and the pressure. A mathematical modeling together with electrochemical and microscopy analysis is presented.

Keywords: co-electrolysis, durability, leaks, gas concentration arc

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827 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Milled Nickel Powder

Authors: O. M. Lemine

Abstract:

The effect of milling parameters on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel powder was investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results did not reveal any phase change of nickel during the milling. The average crystallite size decreases with a prolongation of milling times, whereas the lattice parameters increase. The hysteresis loop reveals the intrinsic magnetic behaviour. It was observed an increase in the magnetization which can be correlated to the volume expansion showed by XRD results.

Keywords: nickel powders, nanocrystallines, XRD, VSM

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826 An Automated Sensor System for Cochlear Implants Electrode Array Insertion

Authors: Lei Hou, Xinli Du, Nikolaos Boulgouris

Abstract:

A cochlear implant, referred to as a CI, is a small electronic device that can provide direct electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. During cochlear implant surgery, atraumatic electrode array insertion is considered to be a crucial step. However, during implantation, the mechanical behaviour of an electrode array inside the cochlea is not known. The behaviour of an electrode array inside of the cochlea is hardly identified by regular methods. In this study, a CI electrode array capacitive sensor system is proposed. It is able to automatically determine the array state as a result of the capacitance variations. Instead of applying sensors to the electrode array, the capacitance information from the electrodes will be gathered and analysed. Results reveal that this sensing method is capable of recognising different states when fed into a pre-shaped model.

Keywords: cochlear implant, electrode, hearing preservation, insertion force, capacitive sensing

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825 Chelator-assisted Phytoextraction of Nickel from Nickeliferous Lateritic Soil by Phyllanthus sp. nov.

Authors: Grecco M. Ante, Princess Rochelle O. Gan

Abstract:

Plants that can absorb greater than 10,000 µg Ni/g dry mass in their stems and leaves are termed as ‘hypernickelophores’. Chelators are chemicals that make the metals in the soil more soluble, making them a potential enhancer for phytoextraction. This study aims to observe the effect of different concentrations of the chelating agent ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on the metal uptake (or rate of phytoextraction) of Nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. The plant is found to be a hyperickelophore in normal conditions. The addition of EDTA increased the metal uptake of the plant. The increasing amount of the chelating agent causes a decrease in the phytoextraction of the plant but moves the onset of its peak of maximum nickel content in its tissue to an earlier time. The chelator-assisted phytoextraction of nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. is proven to be an efficient auxiliary mining operation for nickel laterite mines.

Keywords: phytomining, Phyllanthus sp. nov., EDTA, nickel, laterite

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824 The Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique (SVET) as a Tool for Optimising a Printed Ni(OH)2 Electrode under Charge Conditions

Authors: C. F. Glover, J. Marinaccio, A. Barnes, I. Mabbett, G. Williams

Abstract:

The aim of the current study is to optimise formulations, in terms of charging efficiency, of a printed Ni(OH)2 precursor coating of a battery anode. Through the assessment of the current densities during charging, the efficiency of a range of formulations are compared. The Scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) is used extensively in the field of corrosion to measure area-averaged current densities of freely-corroding metal surfaces when fully immersed in electrolyte. Here, a Ni(OH)2 electrode is immersed in potassium hydroxide (30% w/v solution) electrolyte and charged using a range of applied currents. Samples are prepared whereby multiple coatings are applied to one substrate, separated by a non-conducting barrier, and charged using a constant current. With a known applied external current, electrode efficiencies can be calculated based on the current density outputs measured using SVET. When fully charged, a green Ni(OH)2 is oxidised to a black NiOOH surface. Distinct regions displaying high current density, and hence a faster oxidising reaction rate, are located using the SVET. This is confirmed by a darkening of the region upon transition to NiOOH. SVET is a highly effective tool for assessing homogeneity of electrodes during charge/discharge. This could prove particularly useful for electrodes where there are no visible surface appearance changes. Furthermore, a scanning Kelvin probe technique, traditionally used to assess underfilm delamination of organic coatings for the protection of metallic surfaces, is employed to study the change in phase of oxides, pre and post charging.

Keywords: battery, electrode, nickel hydroxide, SVET, printed

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823 Study of Parameters Affecting the Electrostatic Attractions Force

Authors: Vahid Sabermand, Yousef Hojjat, Majid Hasanzadeh

Abstract:

This paper contains two main parts. In the first part of paper we simulated and studied three type of electrode patterns used in various industries for suspension and handling of the semiconductor and glass and we selected the best pattern by evaluating the electrostatic force, which was comb pattern electrode. In the second part, we investigated the parameters affecting the amount of electrostatic force such as the gap between surface and electrode (g), the electrode width (w), the gap between electrodes (t), the surface permittivity and electrode Length and methods of improvement of adhesion force by changing these values.

Keywords: electrostatic force, electrostatic adhesion, electrostatic chuck, electrostatic application in industry, electroadhesive grippers

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822 Production of Hard Nickel Particle Reinforced Ti6Al4V Matrix Composites by Hot Pressing

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu

Abstract:

In the current study, titanium based composites reinforced by hard nickel alloy particles were produced. Powder metallurgical hot pressing technique was used for the fabrication of composite materials. The composites containing different ratio of hard nickel particles were sintered at 900 oC for 15 and 30 minutes under 50 MPa pressure. All titanium based composites were obtained under a vacuum atmosphere of 10-4 mbar to prevent of oxidation of titanium due to its high reactivity to oxygen. The microstructural characterization of the composite samples was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined by means of hardness and wear tests. The results showed that when the nickel particle content increased the mechanical properties of the composites enhanced. The results are discussed in detail and optimum nickel particle content were determined.

Keywords: titanium, composite, nickel, hot pressing

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821 Constraining the Potential Nickel Laterite Area Using Geographic Information System-Based Multi-Criteria Rating in Surigao Del Sur

Authors: Reiner-Ace P. Mateo, Vince Paolo F. Obille

Abstract:

The traditional method of classifying the potential mineral resources requires a significant amount of time and money. In this paper, an alternative way to classify potential mineral resources with GIS application in Surigao del Sur. The three (3) analog map data inputs integrated to GIS are geologic map, topographic map, and land cover/vegetation map. The indicators used in the classification of potential nickel laterite integrated from the analog map data inputs are a geologic indicator, which is the presence of ultramafic rock from the geologic map; slope indicator and the presence of plateau edges from the topographic map; areas of forest land, grassland, and shrublands from the land cover/vegetation map. The potential mineral of the area was classified from low up to very high potential. The produced mineral potential classification map of Surigao del Sur has an estimated 4.63% low nickel laterite potential, 42.15% medium nickel laterite potential, 43.34% high nickel laterite potential, and 9.88% very high nickel laterite from its ultramafic terrains. For the validation of the produced map, it was compared with known occurrences of nickel laterite in the area using a nickel mining tenement map from the area with the application of remote sensing. Three (3) prominent nickel mining companies were delineated in the study area. The generated potential classification map of nickel-laterite in Surigao Del Sur may be of aid to the mining companies which are currently in the exploration phase in the study area. Also, the currently operating nickel mines in the study area can help to validate the reliability of the mineral classification map produced.

Keywords: mineral potential classification, nickel laterites, GIS, remote sensing, Surigao del Sur

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820 Rapid Processing Techniques Applied to Sintered Nickel Battery Technologies for Utility Scale Applications

Authors: J. D. Marinaccio, I. Mabbett, C. Glover, D. Worsley

Abstract:

Through use of novel modern/rapid processing techniques such as screen printing and Near-Infrared (NIR) radiative curing, process time for the sintering of sintered nickel plaques, applicable to alkaline nickel battery chemistries, has been drastically reduced from in excess of 200 minutes with conventional convection methods to below 2 minutes using NIR curing methods. Steps have also been taken to remove the need for forming gas as a reducing agent by implementing carbon as an in-situ reducing agent, within the ink formulation.

Keywords: batteries, energy, iron, nickel, storage

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819 Mathematical Modeling of Switching Processes in Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov, Dmitry Yu. Tarabrin

Abstract:

The operating principle of magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is based on controlling the beam movement under the influence of a magnetic field. Currently, there is a MEMS switch design with a flexible ferromagnetic electrode in the form of a fixed-terminal beam, with an electrode fastened on a straight or cranked anchor. The basic performance characteristics of magnetically controlled MEMS switches (service life, sensitivity, contact resistance, fast response) are largely determined by the flexible electrode design. To ensure the stable and controlled motion of the flexible electrode, it is necessary to provide the optimal design of a flexible electrode.

Keywords: flexible electrode, magnetically controlled MEMS, mathematical modeling, mechanical stress

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818 Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA

Authors: Alexandre S. Guimarães, Marcelo B. Mansur

Abstract:

The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, organophosphorus extractants, alkaline earth metals, nickel

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817 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Copper (II) at the Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) MWCNT Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

A highly selective and sensitive electrode for determination of trace amounts of Cu (II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was proposed. The electrode was made of the paste of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) at 100:5 (w/w). Under optimal conditions the electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu (II) and limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M Cu (II). The relative standard deviation (n = 5) of response to 1.0 × 10–6 M Cu(II) was 0.036. The interferences of cations such as Ni(II), Mg(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) are negligible except from Pb (II). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favorable. Result of analysis of Cu(II) in several water samples agreed well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The proposed electrode was then recommended as an alternative to spectroscopic technique in analyzing Cu (II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

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816 Calculation of Electronic Structures of Nickel in Interaction with Hydrogen by Density Functional Theoretical (DFT) Method

Authors: Choukri Lekbir, Mira Mokhtari

Abstract:

Hydrogen-Materials interaction and mechanisms can be modeled at nano scale by quantum methods. In this work, the effect of hydrogen on the electronic properties of a cluster material model «nickel» has been studied by using of density functional theoretical (DFT) method. Two types of clusters are optimized: Nickel and hydrogen-nickel system. In the case of nickel clusters (n = 1-6) without presence of hydrogen, three types of electronic structures (neutral, cationic and anionic), have been optimized according to three basis sets calculations (B3LYP/LANL2DZ, PW91PW91/DGDZVP2, PBE/DGDZVP2). The comparison of binding energies and bond lengths of the three structures of nickel clusters (neutral, cationic and anionic) obtained by those basis sets, shows that the results of neutral and anionic nickel clusters are in good agreement with the experimental results. In the case of neutral and anionic nickel clusters, comparing energies and bond lengths obtained by the three bases, shows that the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2 is most suitable to experimental results. In the case of anionic nickel clusters (n = 1-6) with presence of hydrogen, the optimization of the hydrogen-nickel (anionic) structures by using of the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2, shows that the binding energies and bond lengths increase compared to those obtained in the case of anionic nickel clusters without the presence of hydrogen, that reveals the armor effect exerted by hydrogen on the electronic structure of nickel, which due to the storing of hydrogen energy within nickel clusters structures. The comparison between the bond lengths for both clusters shows the expansion effect of clusters geometry which due to hydrogen presence.

Keywords: binding energies, bond lengths, density functional theoretical, geometry optimization, hydrogen energy, nickel cluster

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815 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core/Shell Microstructure and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Marjorie Baynosa, Jae-Jin Shim

Abstract:

Electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because of their high potential as an efficient energy storage system. The combination of carbon-based material and transition metal oxides/sulfides are studied because they have long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon sphere/nickel cobalt sulfide (CS/Ni-Co-S) core/shell structure was synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method without any further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. The CS/Ni-Co-S core/shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. After 2000 charge-discharge cycles, it retained 86.1% of its original capacitance, with high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9%. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 at an energy density of 1440 W kg−1, and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 at an energy density of 34.2 Wh kg−1. The successful synthesis was considered to be simple and cost-effective which supports the viability of this composite as an alternative activated material for high performance supercapacitors.

Keywords: carbon sphere, electrochemical, hydrothermal, nickel cobalt sulfide, supercapacitor

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814 Eu³⁺ PVC Membrane Sensor Based on 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-Tetraacetic Acid

Authors: Noshin Mehrabian, Mohammad Reza Abedi, Hassan Ali Zamani

Abstract:

A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane sensor produced by using 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (DAPTA) as active material is described. The electrode displays Nernstian behavior over the concentration range 1.0×10⁻⁶ to 1.0×10⁻² M. The detection limit of the electrode is 7.2×10⁻⁷ M. The best performance was obtained with the membrane containing 30% polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 65% nitrobenzene (NB), 2% sodium tetra phenyl borate (Na TPB), 3% DAPTA. The potentiometric response of the proposed electrode is pH independent in the range of 2.5–‎‎9.1. ‎The proposed sensor displays a fast response time 'less than 10s'. The electrode shows a good selectivity for Eu (III) ion with respect to most common cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric ‎titration of 25 mL of a 1.0×10⁻⁴ M Eu (III) solution with a 1.0×10⁻² M EDTA solution.

Keywords: potentiometry, PVC membrane, sensor, ion-selective electrode

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813 The Effects of pH on the Electrochromism in Nickel Oxide Films

Authors: T. Taşköprü, M. Zor, E. Turan

Abstract:

The advantages of nickel oxide as an electrochromic material are its good contrast of transmittance and its suitable use as a secondary electrochromic film with WO3 for electrochromic devices. Electrochromic nickel oxide film was prepared by using a simple and inexpensive chemical deposition bath (CBD) technique onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel nitrate solution. The films were ace centered cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (2 0 0) direction. The electrochromic (EC) properties of the films were studied as a function of pH (8, 9, 10 and 11) in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte (0.3 M KOH) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The EC cell was formed with the following configuration; FTO/nickel oxide film/0.3 M KOH/Pt The potential was cycled from 0.1 to 0.6V at diffferent potential sweep rates in the range 10- 50 mV/s. The films exhibit anodic electrochromism, changing colour from transparent to black.CV results of a nickel oxide film showed well-resolved anodic current peak at potential; 45 mV and cathodic peak at potential 28 mV. The structural, morphological, and optical changes in NiO film following the CV were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis- NIR spectrophotometry. No change was observed in XRD, besides surface morphology undergoes change due to the electrical discharge. The change in tansmittance between the bleached and colored state is 68% for the film deposited with pH=11 precursor.

Keywords: nickel oxide, XRD, SEM, cyclic voltammetry

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812 Fabrication and Characteristics of Ni Doped Titania Nanotubes by Electrochemical Anodization

Authors: J. Tirano, H. Zea, C. Luhrs

Abstract:

It is well known that titanium dioxide is a semiconductor with several applications in photocatalytic process. Its band gap makes it very interesting in the photoelectrodes manufacturing used in photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen production, a clean and environmentally friendly fuel. The synthesis of 1D titanium dioxide nanostructures, such as nanotubes, makes possible to produce more efficient photoelectrodes for solar energy to hydrogen conversion. In essence, this is because it increases the charge transport rate, decreasing recombination options. However, its principal constraint is to be mainly sensitive to UV range, which represents a very low percentage of solar radiation that reaches earth's surface. One of the alternatives to modifying the TiO2’s band gap and improving its photoactivity under visible light irradiation is to dope the nanotubes with transition metals. This option requires fabricating efficient nanostructured photoelectrodes with controlled morphology and specific properties able to offer a suitable surface area for metallic doping. Hence, currently one of the central challenges in photoelectrochemical cells is the construction of nanomaterials with a proper band position for driving the reaction while absorbing energy over the VIS spectrum. This research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of Nidoped TiO2 nanotubes for improving its photocatalytic activity in solar energy conversion applications. Initially, titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) with controlled morphology were synthesized by two-step potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil. The anodization was carried out at room temperature in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride, deionized water and ethylene glycol. Consequent thermal annealing of as-prepared TNTs was conducted in the air between 450 °C - 550 °C. Afterwards, the nanotubes were superficially modified by nickel deposition. Morphology and crystalline phase of the samples were carried out by SEM, EDS and XRD analysis before and after nickel deposition. Determining the photoelectrochemical performance of photoelectrodes is based on typical electrochemical characterization techniques. Also, the morphological characterization associated electrochemical behavior analysis were discussed to establish the effect of nickel nanoparticles modification on the TiO2 nanotubes. The methodology proposed in this research allows using other transition metal for nanotube surface modification.

Keywords: dimensionally stable electrode, nickel nanoparticles, photo-electrode, TiO₂ nanotubes

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811 Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction

Authors: Yong-Su Jo, Seung-Min Yang, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.

Keywords: nanoparticle, hydrazine reduction, continuous process, microemulsion method

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