Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 142

Search results for: Hashim Salih Al Bayati

142 Determination of Cadmium , Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati

Abstract:

Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: tea, infusion, metals, Libya

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141 Determination of Lead , Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati, Eltayeb M. Emmima

Abstract:

Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: boiling, infusion, metals, tea

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
140 Energy Calculation for Excited Lithium Atom in Position Space

Authors: Khalil H. Al-Bayati, Khalid Omar Al-Baiti

Abstract:

The energy expectation value for Li-like ions systems (Li, Be+ and Be2+) hasbeen calculated and examined within the ground state (1s2sα)^2 S and the excited state (1s3sα)^2 S in position space. The partitioning technique of Hartree-Fock (H-F) has been used for existing wavefnctions.

Keywords: energy expectation value, atomic systems, ground and excited states, Hartree-Fock approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
139 Potential Energy Expectation Value for Lithium Excited State (1s2s3s)

Authors: Khalil H. Al-Bayati, G. Nasma, Hussein Ban H. Adel

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work is to calculate the expectation value of potential energy for different spin states (ααα ≡ βββ, αβα ≡ βαβ) and compare it with spin states (αββ, ααβ ) for lithium excited state (1s2s3s) and Li-like ions (Be+, B+2) using Hartree-Fock wave function by partitioning technique. The result of inter particle expectation value shows linear behaviour with atomic number and for each atom and ion the shows the trend ααα < ααβ < αββ < αβα.

Keywords: lithium excited state, potential energy, 1s2s3s, mathematical physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
138 Determination of Cadmium and Lead in Sewage Sludge from the Middle Region (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah Cities) of Libya

Authors: J. A. Mayouf, Q. A. Najim, H. S. Al-Bayati

Abstract:

The concentrations of cadmium and lead in sewage sludge samples were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method. Samples of sewage sludge were obtained from three sewage treatment plants localised in Middle Region of Libya (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah cities). The results shows that, the mean levels of Cadmium for all regions are ranges from 81 to 123.4 ppm and these values are higher than the limitations for the international standard which are not registered more than 50 ppm (dry weight) in USA, Egypt and the EU countries. While, the lead concentrations are ranged from 8.0 to 189.2 ppm and all values are within the standard limits which graduated between (275–613) ppm.

Keywords: cadmium, lead, sewage, spectrometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
137 Analytical Investigation of Modeling and Simulation of Different Combinations of Sinusoidal Supplied Autotransformer under Linear Loading Conditions

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır

Abstract:

This paper investigates the operation of a sinusoidal supplied autotransformer on the different states of magnetic polarity of primary and secondary terminals for four different step-up and step-down analytical conditions. In this paper, a new analytical modeling and equations for dot-marked and polarity-based step-up and step-down autotransformer are presented. These models are validated by the simulation of current and voltage waveforms for each state. PSpice environment was used for simulation.

Keywords: autotransformer modeling, autotransformer simulation, step-up autotransformer, step-down autotransformer, polarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
136 Growth Nanostructured CdO Thin Film via Solid-Vapor Deposition

Authors: A. S. Obaid, K. H. T. Hassan, A. M. Asij, B. M. Salih, M. Bououdina

Abstract:

Cadmium Oxide (CdO) thin films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on Si (111) substrate at room temperature using CdCl2 as a source of Cd. Detailed structural properties of the films are presented using XRD and SEM. The films was pure polycrystalline CdO phase with high crystallinity. The lattice constant average crystallite size of the nanocrystalline CdO thin films were calculated. SEM image confirms the formation nanostructure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra of CdO thin films shows the presence of Cd and O peaks only, no additional peaks attributed to impurities or contamination are observed.

Keywords: nanostructured CdO, solid-vapor deposition, quantum size effect, cadmium oxide

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135 Analyzing and Determining the Ideal Response Force for Combatting Terrorist Groups

Authors: Erhan Turgut, Salih Ergün, Abdülkadir Öz

Abstract:

Terror is a modern war strategy which uses violence as a means of communication in order to achieve political objectives. In today’s security environment narrowing the propaganda field of terrorist organization is the primary goal for the security forces. In this sense, providing and maintaining public support is the most necessary ability for security units. Rather than enemy and threat-oriented approach, homeland security oriented approach is essential to ensure public support. In this study, terror assumed as a homeland security issue and assigning the law enforcement forces with military status is analyzed.

Keywords: terrorism, counter-terrorism, military status law-enforcement, terrorist groups

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134 Experimental Investigation of Performance Anode Side of PEM Fuel Cell with Spin Method Coated with YSZ+SDC

Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dinçer, Salih Yayla

Abstract:

In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell was experimentally investigated. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using YSZ+SDC. A solution having 0,1 gr YttriaStabilized Zirconia (YSZ) + 0,1 Samarium-Doped Ceria (SDC) + 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a micro-pipette. Then the anode side of PEM fuel cell was coated with YSZ+ SDC by using spin method. In the experimental study, current, voltage and power performances before and after coating were recorded and then compared to each other. It was found that the efficiency of PEM fuel cell increases after the coating with YSZ+SDC.

Keywords: fuel cell, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), membrane, spin method

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133 Effects of Al on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of (Nd,Pr)-(Fe,Co)-B Alloys Prepared by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: Rahim Sabbaghizadeh, Mansor Hashim, Nooshin Shourcheh

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline Nd8Pr2Fe79-xCo5B6Alx (x=0, 1, 2, 3) magnets were prepared by mechanical alloying and respective heat treatment, and the effects of the addition of Al on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-Co-B alloy were studied. The changes in the nanostructure and magnetic properties were examined by X-Ray diffraction, combined with Field Emission Scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Addition of Al was found to be effective for improving the coercivity and the hysteresis squareness in Nd–Fe–Co–B magnets without decreasing much the remanent magnetization.

Keywords: mechanical alloying, nanocrystalline, Nd-Fe-B, vibrating sample magnetomete

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
132 Combined Surface Tension and Natural Convection of Nanofluids in a Square Open Cavity

Authors: Habibis Saleh, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Combined surface tension and natural convection heat transfer in an open cavity is studied numerically in this article. The cavity is filled with water-{Cu} nanofluids. The left wall is kept at low temperature, the right wall at high temperature and the bottom and top walls are adiabatic. The top free surface is assumed to be flat and non--deformable. Finite difference method is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. It is found that the insignificant effect of adding the nanoparticles were obtained about $Ma_{bf}=250$.

Keywords: natural convection, marangoni convection, nanofluids, square open cavity

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131 Preparation of Nanophotonics LiNbO3 Thin Films and Studying Their Morphological and Structural Properties by Sol-Gel Method for Waveguide Applications

Authors: A. Fakhri Makram, Marwa S. Alwazni, Al-Douri Yarub, Evan T. Salim, Hashim Uda, Chin C. Woei

Abstract:

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanostructures are prepared on quartz substrate by the sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentration and annealed at 500°C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measured results showed an importance increasing in molarity concentrations that indicate the structure starts to become crystal, regular, homogeneous, well crystal distributed, which made it more suitable for optical waveguide application.

Keywords: lithium niobate, morphological properties, thin film, pechini method, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
130 The Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Optical Properties of (PVP-PEG) Blend

Authors: Hussein Hakim, Zainab Al-Ramadhan, Ahmed Hashim

Abstract:

Polymer nano composites of polyvinylpyrrolidone and poly-ethylene glycol with different concentrations of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nano particles have been prepared by solution cast method. The optical characterizations have been done by analyzing the absorption (A) spectra in the 300–800 nm spectral region. It was found that the optical energy gap decreases with the increasing of Al2O3 nano particles content. The optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant) are changing with increasing aluminum oxide nano particle concentrations.

Keywords: nanocomposites, polyvinylpyrrolidone, optical constants, polymers, blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
129 The Relationship between Absorptive Capacity and Green Innovation

Authors: R. Hashim, A. J. Bock, S. Cooper

Abstract:

Absorptive capacity generally facilitates the adoption of innovation. How does this relationship change when economic return is not the sole driver of innovation uptake? We investigate whether absorptive capacity facilitates the adoption of green innovation based on a survey of 79 construction companies in Scotland. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, we confirm that existing knowledge utilisation (EKU), knowledge building (KB) and external knowledge acquisition (EKA) are significant predictors of green process GP), green administrative (GA) and green technical innovation (GT), respectively. We discuss the implications for theories of innovation adoption and knowledge enhancement associated with environmentally-friendly practices.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, construction industry, environmental, green innovation

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128 Insulation and Architectural Design to Have Sustainable Buildings in Iran

Authors: Ali Bayati, Jamileh Azarnoush

Abstract:

Nowadays according to increasing the population all around the world, consuming of fossil fuels increased dramatically. Many believe that most of the atmospheric pollution comes by using fossil fuels. The process of natural sources entering cities shows one of the large challenges in consumption sources management. Nowadays, everyone considered about the consumption of fossil fuels and also Reduction of consumption civil energy in megacities that play a key role in solving serious problems such as air pollution, producing greenhouse gasses, global warming and damage ozone layer. In the construction industry, we should use the materials with the lowest need to energy for making and carrying them, and also the materials which need the lowest energy and expenses to recycling. In this way, the kind of usage material, the way of processing, regional materials and the adaptation with the environment is critical. Otherwise, the isolation should be use and mention in the long term. Accordingly, in this article we investigates the new ways in order to reduce environmental pollution and save more energy by using materials that are not harmful to the environment, fully insulated materials in buildings, sustainable and diversified buildings, suitable urban design and using solar energy more efficiently in order to reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: building design, construction masonry, insulation, sustainable construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
127 EFL Learners’ Perceptions in Using Online Tools in Developing Writing Skills

Authors: Zhikal Qadir Salih, Hanife Bensen

Abstract:

As the advent of modern technology continues to make towering impacts on everything, its relevance permeates to all spheres, language learning, and writing skills in particular not an exception. This study aimed at finding out how EFL learners perceive online tools to improve their writing skills. The study was carried out at Tishk University. Copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the participants, in order to elicit their perceptions. The collected data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. The outcome revealed that the participants have positive perceptions about online tools in using them to enhance their writing skills. The study however found out that both gender and the class level of the participants do not make any significant difference in their perceptions about the use of online tools, as far as writing skill is concerned. Based on these outcomes, relevant recommendations were made.

Keywords: online tools, writing skills, EFL learners, language learning

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126 Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions Related to the Concept of Laboratory: A Metaphorical Analysis

Authors: Salih Uzun

Abstract:

The laboratory activities are seen an indispensable part of science, teaching, and learning. In this study, the aim was to identify pre-service science teachers’ perceptions related to the concept of laboratory through metaphors. It is expressed that metaphors can be used as a powerful research tool in order to understand personal perceptions. Therefore, metaphors were used with the aim of revealing a picture regarding how pre-service science teachers perceive laboratory. Within the scope of this aim, phenomenographic research design was adopted for this study and an answer was sought to the question; ‘What are pre-service science teachers’ perceptions about the concept of laboratory?’. The sample of this study was a total of 80 pre-service science teachers at various grade levels in Turkey. Participants were asked to complete the sentence; ‘Laboratory is like…; because…’. Documents including pre-service science teachers’ answers to the open-ended questions were used as data sources and the data were analysed with content analysis.

Keywords: laboratory, metaphor, phenomenology, pre-service science teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
125 Insulation, Sustainable Construction, and Architectural Design to Reduce Energy Consumption in Sustainable Buildings

Authors: Gholamreza Namavar, Ali Bayati

Abstract:

Nowadays according to increasing the population all around the world, consuming of fossil fuels increased dramatically. Many believe that most of the atmospheric pollution comes by using fossil fuels. The process of natural sources entering cities show one of the large challenges in consumption sources management. Nowadays, everyone considered about the consumption of fossil fuels and also reduction of consumption civil energy in megacities that play a key role in solving serious problems such as air pollution, producing greenhouse gasses, global warming and damage ozone layer. In construction industry we should use the materials with the lowest need to energy for making and carrying them, and also the materials which need the lowest energy and expenses to recycling. In this way, the kind of usage material, the way of processing, regional materials and the adaption with environment is critical. Otherwise, the isolation should be use and mention in long term. Accordingly, in this article we investigates the new ways in order to reduce environmental pollution and save more energy by using materials that are not harmful to the environment, fully insulated materials in buildings, sustainable and diversified buildings, suitable urban design and using solar energy more efficiently in order to reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: architectural design, insulation, sustainable construction, reducing energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
124 Architectural Design, Low Energy, and Isolation Materials to Have Sustainable Buildings in Iran

Authors: Mohammadreza Azarnoush, Ali Bayati, Jamileh Azarnoush

Abstract:

Nowadays according to increasing the population all around the world, consuming of fossil fuels increased dramatically. Many believe that most of the atmospheric pollution comes by using fossil fuels. The process of natural sources entering cities shows one of the large challenges in consumption sources management. Nowadays, everyone considers the consumption of fossil fuels and also reduction of consumption civil energy in megacities as playing a key role in solving serious problems such as air pollution, producing greenhouse gasses, global warming, and damage ozone layer. In the construction industry, we should use the materials with the lowest need to energy for making and carrying them, and also the materials which need the lowest energy and expenses to recycling. In this way, the kind of usage material, the way of processing, regional materials, and the adoption to the environment is critical. Otherwise, the isolation should be use and mention in the long term. Accordingly, in this article, we investigate the new ways in order to reduce environmental pollution and save more energy by using materials that are not harmful to the environment, fully insulated materials in buildings, sustainable and diversified buildings, suitable urban design and using solar energy more efficiently in order to reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: building design, construction masonry, insulation, sustainable construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
123 Chemical Variability in the Essential Oils from the Leaves and Buds of Syzygium Species

Authors: Rabia Waseem, Low Kah Hin, Najihah Mohamed Hashim

Abstract:

The variability in the chemical components of the Syzygium species essential oils has been evaluated. The leaves of Syzygium species have been collected from Perak, Malaysia. The essential oils extracted by using the conventional Hydro-distillation extraction procedure and analyzed by using Gas chromatography System attached with Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Twenty-seven constituents were found in Syzygium species in which the major constituents include: α-Pinene (3.94%), α-Thujene (2.16%), α-Terpineol (2.95%), g-Elemene (2.89%) and D-Limonene (14.59%). The aim of this study was the comparison between the evaluated data and existing literature to fortify the major variability through statistical analysis.

Keywords: chemotaxonomy, cluster analysis, essential oil, medicinal plants, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
122 Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır

Abstract:

In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.

Keywords: transformer, simulation, equivalent model, parallel series combinations

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
121 Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Microbial Study of Urethanized Poly Vinyl Alcohol Metal Complexes

Authors: Maha A. Younus, Dhefaf H. Badri, Maha A. Al Abayaji, Taha M. Salih

Abstract:

Polymer metal complexes of poly vinyl alcohol and Cu (II), Ni (II), Mn (II) and Co (III) were prepared from the reaction of PVA with three different percentages of urea. The compound was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Analysis. It has been established that the polymer and its metal complexes showed good activities against nine pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumonae, Staphylococcusaureus, Staphylococcus Albus, Salmonella Typhoid, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Shigella Dysentery, Proteus Morgani, Brucella Militensis). The polymer metal complexes show activity higher than that of the free polymer. The increasing activities were in the order (polymer < pol-Mn< pol-Co < pol-Ni ˂ pol-Cu). The ability of these compounds to show antimicrobial properties suggests that they can be further evaluated for medicinal and/or environmental applications.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, PVA, polymer-metal complex, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
120 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim

Abstract:

The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.

Keywords: electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
119 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Ali W. Alattabi, Khalid S. Hashim, Hassnen M. Jafer, Ali Alzeyadi

Abstract:

This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: ammonia-nitrogen, retention time, nitrate, nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics

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118 Speech Enhancement Using Kalman Filter in Communication

Authors: Eng. Alaa K. Satti Salih

Abstract:

Revolutions Applications such as telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, etc. which need at least one microphone, the signal is usually infected by noise and echo. The important application is the speech enhancement, which is done to remove suppressed noises and echoes taken by a microphone, beside preferred speech. Accordingly, the microphone signal has to be cleaned using digital signal processing DSP tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored. Engineers have so far tried different approaches to improving the speech by get back the desired speech signal from the noisy observations. Especially Mobile communication, so in this paper will do reconstruction of the speech signal, observed in additive background noise, using the Kalman filter technique to estimate the parameters of the Autoregressive Process (AR) in the state space model and the output speech signal obtained by the MATLAB. The accurate estimation by Kalman filter on speech would enhance and reduce the noise then compare and discuss the results between actual values and estimated values which produce the reconstructed signals.

Keywords: autoregressive process, Kalman filter, Matlab, noise speech

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
117 Development of Macrobenthic Communities in the North Port, West Coastal Water of Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Aishah Salleh

Abstract:

The primary objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution and composition of the macrobenthic community and their response to environmental parameters in the North Port, west coastal waters of Malaysia. A total of 25 species were identified, including 13 bivalvia, 4 gastropoda, and 3 crustacea. The other taxa were less diversified. There were no temporal changes in the macrobenthic community composition, but significant effects (p < 0.05) on the benthic community composition were found on a spatial scale. The correlation analyses and similarity tests were in good agreement, confirming the significant response of macrobenthic community composition to variations of environmental parameters.

Keywords: distribution, macrobenthic community, diversity, North Port, Malaysia

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116 Diversity and Distribution of Benthic Invertebrates in the West Port, Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Aishah Salleh, Omid Safari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of macroinvertebrate species in response to environmental forcing factors. Overall, 23 species of Mollusca, 4 species of Arthropods, 3 species of Echinodermata and 3 species of Annelida were identified at the 9 sampling stations during four sampling periods. Individual species of Mollusca constituted 36.4% of the total abundance, followed by Arthropods (27.01%), Annelida (34.3%) and Echinodermata (2.4%). The results of Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that a significant difference (p <0.05) in the abundance, richness and diversity of the macro-benthic community in different stations. The correlation analysis revealed that anthropogenic pollution and natural variability caused by these variations in spatial scales.

Keywords: benthic invertebrates, diversity, abundance, West Port

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115 Conjugate Free Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with Nanofluid and Heated from Below by Spatial Wall Temperature

Authors: Ishak Hashim, Ammar Alsabery

Abstract:

The problem of conjugate free convection in a square cavity filled with nanofluid and heated from below by spatial wall temperature is studied numerically using the finite difference method. Water-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles are chosen for the investigation. Governing equations are solved over a wide range of nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.2), wave number ((0 ≤ λ ≤ 4) and thermal conductivity ratio (0.44 ≤ Kr ≤ 6). The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It is found that the flow behavior and the heat distribution are clearly enhanced with the increment of the non-uniform heating.

Keywords: conjugate free convection, square cavity, nanofluid, spatial temperature

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114 Effect of Segregation Pattern of Mn, Si, and C on through Thickness Microstructure and Properties of Hot Rolled Steel

Authors: Waleed M. Al-Othman, Hamid Bayati, Abdullah Al-Shahrani, Haitham Al-Jabr

Abstract:

Pearlite bands commonly form parallel to the surface of the hot rolled steel and have significant influence on the properties of the steel. This study investigated the correlation between segregation pattern of Mn, Si, C and formation of the pearlite bands in hot rolled Gr 60 steel plate. Microstructural study indicated formation of a distinguished thick band at centerline of the plate with number of parallel bands through thickness of the steel plate. The thickness, frequency, and continuity of the bands are reduced from mid-thickness toward external surface of the steel plate. Analysis showed a noticeable increase of C, Si and Mn levels within the bands. Such alloying segregation takes place during metal solidification. EDS analysis verified presence of particles rich in Ti, Nb, Mn, C, N, within the bands. Texture analysis by Electron Backscatter Detector (EBSD) indicated the grains size/misorientation can noticeably change within the bands. Effect of banding on through-thickness properties of the steel was examined by carrying out microhardness, toughness and tensile tests. Results suggest the Mn and C contents are changed in sinusoidal pattern through thickness of the hot rolled plate and pearlite bands are formed at the peaks of this sinusoidal segregation pattern. Changes in grain size/misorientation, formation of highly alloyed particles, and pearlite within these bands, facilitate crack formation along boundaries of these bands.

Keywords: pearlite band, alloying segregation, hot rolling, Ti, Nb, N, C

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113 Haplotypes of the Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Different HIV-1 Groups from the Netherlands

Authors: A. Alyami, S. Christmas, K. Neeltje, G. Pollakis, B. Paxton, Z. Al-Bayati

Abstract:

The Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecule plays an important role in immunomodulation. To date, 16 untranslated regions (UTR) HLA-G haplotypes have been previously defined by sequenced SNPs in the coding region. From these, UTR-1, UTR-2, UTR-3, UTR-4, UTR-5, UTR-6 and UTR-7 are the most frequent 3’UTR haplotypes at the global level. UTR-1 is associated with higher levels of soluble HLA-G and HLA-G expression, whereas UTR-5 and UTR-7 are linked with low levels of soluble HLA-G and HLA-G expression. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection results in the progressive loss of immune function in infected individuals. The virus escape mechanism typically includes T lymphocytes and NK cell recognition and lyses by classical HLA-A and B down-regulation, which has been associated with non-classical HLA-G molecule up-regulation, respectively. We evaluated the haplotypes of the HLA-G 3′ untranslated region frequencies observed in three HIV-1 groups from the Netherlands and their susceptibility to develop infection. The three groups are made up of mainly men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU) and a high-risk-seronegative (HRSN) group. DNA samples were amplified with published primers prior sequencing. According to our results, the low expresser frequencies show higher in HRSN compared to other groups. This is indicating that 3’UTR polymorphisms may be identified as potential prognostic biomarkers to determine susceptibility to HIV.

Keywords: Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) , men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU), high-risk-seronegative (HRSN) group, high-untranslated region (UTR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 92