Search results for: Shashikant R. Kuchekar
9 Removal of Vanadium from Industrial Effluents by Natural Ion Exchanger
Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Haribhau R. Aher, Priti M. Dhage
Abstract:The removal vanadium from aqueous solution using natural exchanger was investigated. The effects of pH, contact time and exchanger dose were studied at ambient temperature (25 0C ± 2 0C). The equilibrium process was described by the Langmuir isotherm model with adsorption capacity for vanadium. The natural exchanger i.e. tamarindus seeds powder was treated with formaldehyde and sulpuric acid to increase the adsorptivity of metals. The maximum exchange level was attained as 80.1% at pH 3 with exchanger dose 5 g and contact time 60 min. Method is applied for removal of vanadium from industrial effluents.
Keywords: industrial effluent, natural ion exchange, Tamarindous indica, vanadiumProcedia PDF Downloads 171
8 Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent
Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami
Abstract:A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.
Keywords: solvent extraction, PMPT, Palladium (II), spectrophotometryProcedia PDF Downloads 402
7 Solvent Extraction, Spectrophotometric Determination of Antimony(III) from Real Samples and Synthetic Mixtures Using O-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Sensitive Reagent
Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Shivaji D. Pulate, Vishwas B. Gaikwad
Abstract:A simple and selective method is developed for solvent extraction spectrophotometric determination of antimony(III) using O-Methylphenyl Thiourea (OMPT) as a sensitive chromogenic chelating agent. The basis of proposed method is formation of antimony(III)-OMPT complex was extracted with 0.0025 M OMPT in chloroform from aqueous solution of antimony(III) in 1.0 M perchloric acid. The absorbance of this complex was measured at 297 nm against reagent blank. Beer’s law was obeyed up to 15µg mL-1 of antimony(III). The Molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of the antimony(III)-OMPT complex in chloroform are 16.6730 × 103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.00730282 µg cm-2 respectively. The stoichiometry of antimony(III)-OMPT complex was established from slope ratio method, mole ratio method and Job’s continuous variation method was 1:2. The complex was stable for more than 48 h. The interfering effect of various foreign ions was studied and suitable masking agents are used wherever necessary to enhance selectivity of the method. The proposed method is successfully applied for determination of antimony(III) from real samples alloy and synthetic mixtures. Repetition of the method was checked by finding relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 determinations which was 0.42%.
Keywords: solvent extraction, antimony, spectrophotometry, real sample analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 279
6 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film
Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal
Abstract:A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Due to annealing the average grain size increased by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.
Keywords: electrodeposition, non-aqueous medium, SEM, XRDProcedia PDF Downloads 418
5 Optimization of Pretreatment Process of Napier Grass for Improved Sugar Yield
Authors: Shashikant Kumar, Chandraraj K.
Abstract:Perennial grasses have presented interesting choices in the current demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources to alleviate the load of the global energy problem. The perennial grass Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is a promising feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. The conversion of biomass into glucose and xylose is a crucial stage in the production of bioethanol, and it necessitates optimal pretreatment. Alkali treatment, among the several pretreatments available, effectively reduces lignin concentration and crystallinity of cellulose. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the alkali pretreatment of Napier grass for maximal reducing sugar production. The combined effects of three independent variables, viz. sodium hydroxide concentration, temperature, and reaction time, were studied. A second-order polynomial equation was used to fit the observed data. Maximum reducing sugar (590.54 mg/g) was obtained under the following conditions: 1.6 % sodium hydroxide, a reaction period of 30 min., and 120˚C. The results showed that Napier grass is a desirable feedstock for bioethanol production.
Keywords: Napier grass, optimization, pretreatment, sodium hydroxideProcedia PDF Downloads 69
4 Effect of Annealing on Electrodeposited ZnTe Thin Films in Non-Aqueous Medium
Authors: Shyam Ranjan Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal
Abstract:Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material. This semiconducting material has several applications in sensors, photo-electrochemical devices and photovoltaic solar cell. In this study, Zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were deposited on nickel substrate by electrodeposition technique using potentiostat/galvanostat at -0.85 V using AR grade of Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2), Tellurium Tetrachloride (TeCl4) in non-aqueous bath. The developed films were physically stable and showed good adhesion. The as deposited ZnTe films were annealed at 400ºC in air. The solid state properties and optical properties of the as deposited and annealed films were carried out by XRD, EDS, SEM, AFM, UV–Visible spectrophotometer, and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The diffraction peak observed at 2θ = 49.58° with (111) plane indicate the crystalline nature of ZnTe film. Annealing improves the crystalline nature of the film. Compositional analysis reveals the presence of Zn and Te with tellurium rich ZnTe film. SEM photograph at 10000X shows that grains of film are spherical in nature and densely distributed over the surface. The average roughness of the film is measured by atomic force microscopy and it is nearly equal to 60 nm. The direct wide band gap of 2.12 eV is observed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Luminescence peak of the ZnTe films are also observed in as deposited and annealed case.
Keywords: annealing, electrodeposition, optical properties, thin film, XRD, ZnTeProcedia PDF Downloads 133
3 The Effect of Costus igneus Extract on Learning and Memory in Normal and Diabetic Rats
Authors: Shalini Adiga, Shashikant Chetty, Jisha, Shobha Kamath
Abstract:Background: Moderate impairment of learning and memory has been observed in both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus in humans and experimental animals. A Change in glucose utilization and oxidative stress that occur in diabetes are considered the main reasons for cognitive dysfunction. Objective: Costus igneus (CI) which is known to possess hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in this study for its effect on learning and memory in normal and diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control, CI-alcoholic extract treated normal (250 and 500mg/kg), diabetic control and CI-treated diabetic groups. CI treatment was continued for 4 weeks. For induction of diabetes, a single dose of streptozotocin was injected (30 mg/kg i.p). Entrance latency and time spent in the dark room during acquisition and at 24 and 48h after an aversive shock in a passive avoidance model was used as an index of learning and memory. Glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in brain and blood glucose were measured. Data was analysed using ANOVA. Results: During the three trials in exploration test, the diabetic control rats exhibited no significant change in entrance latency or in the total time spent in the dark compartment. During retention testing, the entrance latency of the diabetic treated groups was two times less at 24h and three times less at 48h after aversive stimulus as compared to diabetic rats. The normal drug-treated rats showed similar behaviour as the saline control. Treatment with CI significantly reduced the raised blood sugar and MDA levels of diabetic rats. Conclusion: Costus igneus prevented the cognitive dysfunction in diabetic rats which can be attributed to its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities.
Keywords: Costus igneous, diabetes, learning and memory, cognitive dysfunctionProcedia PDF Downloads 295
2 Formulation and Evaluation of Curcumin-Zn (II) Microparticulate Drug Delivery System for Antimalarial Activity
Authors: M. R. Aher, R. B. Laware, G. S. Asane, B. S. Kuchekar
Abstract:Objective: Studies have shown that a new combination therapy with Artemisinin derivatives and curcumin is unique, with potential advantages over known ACTs. In present study an attempt was made to prepare microparticulate drug delivery system of Curcumin-Zn complex and evaluate it in combination with artemether for antimalarial activity. Material and method: Curcumin Zn complex was prepared and encapsulated using sodium alginate. Microparticles thus obtained are further coated with various enteric polymers at different coating thickness to control the release. Microparticles are evaluated for encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and in vitro drug release. Roentgenographic Studies was conducted in rabbits with BaSO 4 tagged formulation. Optimized formulation was screened for antimalarial activity using P. berghei-infected mice survival test and % paracetemia inhibition, alone (three oral dose of 5mg/day) and in combination with arthemether (i.p. 500, 1000 and 1500µg). Curcumin-Zn(II) was estimated in serum after oral administration to rats by using spectroflurometry. Result: Microparticles coated with Cellulose acetate phthalate showed most satisfactory and controlled release with 479 min time for 60% drug release. X-ray images taken at different time intervals confirmed the retention of formulation in GI tract. Estimation of curcumin in serum by spectroflurometry showed that drug concentration is maintained in the blood for longer time with tmax of 6 hours. The survival time (40 days post treatment) of mice infected with P. berghei was compared to survival after treatment with either Curcumin-Zn(II) microparticles artemether combination, curcumin-Zn complex and artemether. Oral administration of Curcumin-Zn(II)-artemether prolonged the survival of P.berghei-infected mice. All the mice treated with Curcumin-Zn(II) microparticles (5mg/day) artemether (1000µg) survived for more than 40 days and recovered with no detectable parasitemia. Administration of Curcumin-Zn(II) artemether combination reduced the parasitemia in mice by more than 90% compared to that in control mice for the first 3 days after treatment. Conclusion: Antimalarial activity of the curcumin Zn-artemether combination was more pronounced than mono therapy. A single dose of 1000µg of artemether in curcumin-Zn combination gives complete protection in P. berghei-infected mice. This may reduce the chances of drug resistance in malaria management.
Keywords: formulation, microparticulate drug delivery, antimalarial, pharmaceuticsProcedia PDF Downloads 341
1 Emerging Issues for Global Impact of Foreign Institutional Investors (FII) on Indian Economy
Authors: Kamlesh Shashikant Dave
Abstract:The global financial crisis is rooted in the sub-prime crisis in U.S.A. During the boom years, mortgage brokers attracted by the big commission, encouraged buyers with poor credit to accept housing mortgages with little or no down payment and without credit check. A combination of low interest rates and large inflow of foreign funds during the booming years helped the banks to create easy credit conditions for many years. Banks lent money on the assumptions that housing price would continue to rise. Also the real estate bubble encouraged the demand for houses as financial assets .Banks and financial institutions later repackaged these debts with other high risk debts and sold them to worldwide investors creating financial instruments called collateral debt obligations (CDOs). With the rise in interest rate, mortgage payments rose and defaults among the subprime category of borrowers increased accordingly. Through the securitization of mortgage payments, a recession developed in the housing sector and consequently it was transmitted to the entire US economy and rest of the world. The financial credit crisis has moved the US and the global economy into recession. Indian economy has also affected by the spill over effects of the global financial crisis. Great saving habit among people, strong fundamentals, strong conservative and regulatory regime have saved Indian economy from going out of gear, though significant parts of the economy have slowed down. Industrial activity, particularly in the manufacturing and infrastructure sectors decelerated. The service sector too, slow in construction, transport, trade, communication, hotels and restaurants sub sectors. The financial crisis has some adverse impact on the IT sector. Exports had declined in absolute terms in October. Higher inputs costs and dampened demand have dented corporate margins while the uncertainty surrounding the crisis has affected business confidence. To summarize, reckless subprime lending, loose monetary policy of US, expansion of financial derivatives beyond acceptable norms and greed of Wall Street has led to this exceptional global financial and economic crisis. Thus, the global credit crisis of 2008 highlights the need to redesign both the global and domestic financial regulatory systems not only to properly address systematic risk but also to support its proper functioning (i.e financial stability).Such design requires: 1) Well managed financial institutions with effective corporate governance and risk management system 2) Disclosure requirements sufficient to support market discipline. 3)Proper mechanisms for resolving problem institution and 4) Mechanisms to protect financial services consumers in the event of financial institutions failure.
Keywords: FIIs, BSE, sensex, global impactProcedia PDF Downloads 393