Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 696

Search results for: FTIR

696 Comparison of Process Slaughtered on Beef Cattle Based on Level of Cortisol and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Authors: Pudji Astuti, C. P. C. Putro, C. M. Airin, L. Sjahfirdi, S. Widiyanto, H. Maheshwari


Stress of slaughter animals starting long before until at the time of process of slaughtering which cause misery and decrease of meat quality. Meanwhile, determination of animal stress using hormonal such as cortisol is expensive and less practical so that portable stress indicator for cows based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) must be provided. The aims of this research are to find out the comparison process of slaughter between Rope Casting Local (RCL) and Restraining Box Method (RBM) by measuring of cortisol and wavelength in FTIR methods. Thirty two of male Ongole crossbred cattle were used in this experiment. Blood sampling was taken from jugular vein when they were rested and repeated when slaughtered. All of blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 minutes to get serum, and then divided into two parts for cortisol assayed using ELISA and for measuring the wavelength using FTIR. The serum then measured at the wavelength between 4000-400 cm-1 using MB3000 FTIR. Band data absorption in wavelength of FTIR is analyzed descriptively by using FTIR Horizon MBTM. For RCL, average of serum cortisol when the animals rested were 11.47 ± 4.88 ng/mL, when the time of slaughter were 23.27 ± 7.84 ng/mL. For RBM, level of cortisol when rested animals were 13.67 ± 3.41 ng/mL and 53.47 ± 20.25 ng/mL during the slaughter. Based on student t-Test, there were significantly different between RBM and RCL methods when beef cattle were slaughtered (P < 0.05), but no significantly different when animals were rested (P > 0.05). Result of FTIR with the various of wavelength such as methyl group (=CH3) 2986cm-1, methylene (=CH2) 2827 cm-1, hydroxyl (-OH) 3371 cm-1, carbonyl (ketones) (C=O) 1636 cm-1, carboxyl (COO-1) 1408 cm-1, glucosa 1057 cm-1, urea 1011 cm-1have been obtained. It can be concluded that the RCL slaughtered method is better than the RBM method based on the increase of cortisol as an indicator of stress in beef cattle (P<0.05). FTIR is really possible to be used as stub of stress tool due to differentiate of resting and slaughter condition by recognizing the increase of absorption and the separation of component group at the wavelength.

Keywords: cows, cortisol, FTIR, RBM, RCL, stress indicator

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695 Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium and Strontium Doped Sulphate-Hydroxyapatite

Authors: Ammar Z. Alshemary, Yi-Fan Goh, Rafaqat Hussain


Magnesium (Mg2+), strontium (Sr2+) and sulphate ions (SO42-) were successfully substituted into hydroxyapatite (Ca10-x-y MgxSry(PO4)6-z(SO4)zOH2-z) structure through ion exchange process at cationic and anionic sites. Mg2+and Sr2+ ions concentrations were varied between (0.00-0.10), keeping concentration of SO42- ions at z=0.05. [Mg (NO3)2], [Sr (NO3)2] and (Na2SO4) were used as Mg2+, Sr2+, and SO42- sources respectively. The synthesized white precipitate were subjected to heat treatment at 500ºC and finally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the substitution of Mg2+, Sr2+ and SO42- ions into the HA lattice resulted in an increase in the broadness and reduction of XRD peaks. This confirmed that the crystallinity was reduced due to the substitution of ions. Similarly, FTIR result showed the effect of substitution on phosphate bands as well as exchange of hydroxyl group by SO42- ions to balance the charges on HA surface.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, substitution, characterization, XRD, FTIR

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694 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Duzgun, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal


Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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693 SEM and FTIR Study of Adsorption Characteristics Using Xanthate (KIBX) Synthesized Collectors on Sphalerite

Authors: Zohir Nedjar, Djamel Barkat


Thiols such as alkyl xanthates are commonly used as collectors in the froth flotation of sulfide minerals. Under the concen-tration, pH and Eh conditions relevant to flotation, the thermodynamically favoured reaction between a thiol and a sulfide mineral surface is charge transfechemisorption in which the collector becomes bonded to metal atoms in the outermost layer of the sulfide lattice. The adsorption of potassium isobutyl xanthate (KIBX 3.10-3M) on sphalerite has been also studied using electrochemical potential, FTIR technique and SEM. Non activated minerals and minerals activated with copper sulfate (10-4 M) and copper nitrate (10-4 M) have been investigated at pH = 7.5. Surface species have been identified by FTIR and correlated with SEM. After copper sulfate activation, copper xanthate exists on all of the minerals studied. Neutral pH is most favorable for potassium isobutyl xanthate adsorption on sphalerite.

Keywords: flotation, adsorption, xanthate KIBX, sphalerite

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692 Adsorbed Probe Molecules on Surface for Analyzing the Properties of Cu/SnO2 Supported Catalysts

Authors: Neha Thakur, Pravin S. More


The interaction of CO, H2 and LPG with Cu-dosed SnO2 catalysts was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). With increasing Cu loading, pronounced and progressive red shifts of the C–O stretching frequency associated with molecular CO adsorbed on the Cu/SnO2 component were observed. This decrease in n(CO) correlates with enhancement of CO dissociation at higher temperatures on Cu promoted SnO2 catalysts under conditions, where clean Cu is almost ineffective. In the conclusion, the capability of our technique is discussed, and a technique for enhancing the sensitivity in our technique is proposed.

Keywords: FTIR, spectroscopic, dissociation, n(CO)

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
691 Preparation and Characterization of Nickel-Tungsten Nanoparticles Using Microemulsion Mediated Synthesis

Authors: S. Pal, R. Singh, S. Sivakumar, D. Kunzru


AOT stabilized reverse micelles of deionized water, dispersed in isooctane have been used to synthesize bimetallic nickel tungsten nanoparticles. Prepared nanoparticles were supported on γ-Al2O3 followed by calcination at 500oC. Characterizations of the nanoparticles were done by TEM, XRD, FTIR, XRF, TGA and BET. XRF results showed that this method gave good composition control with W/Ni weight ratio equal to 3.2. TEM images showed particle size of 5-10 nm. Removal of surfactant after calcination was confirmed by TGA and FTIR.

Keywords: nanoparticles, reverse micelles, nickel, tungsten

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
690 FTIR Characterization of EPS Ligands from Mercury Resistant Bacterial Isolate, Paenibacillus jamilae PKR1

Authors: Debajit Kalita, Macmillan Nongkhlaw, S. R. Joshi


Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic heavy metal released both from naturally occurring volcanoes and anthropogenic activities like alkali and mining industries as well as biomedical wastes. Exposure to mercury is known to affect the nervous, gastrointestinal and renal systems. In the present study, a bacterial isolate identified using 16S rRNA marker as Paenibacillus jamilae PKR1 isolated from India’s largest sandstone-type uranium deposits, containing an average of 0.1% U3O8, was found to be resistance to Hg contamination under culture conditions. It showed strong hydrophobicity as revealed by SAT, MATH, PAT, SAA adherence assays. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the presence of hydroxyl, amino and carboxylic functional groups on the cell surface EPS which are known to contribute in the binding of metals. It is proposed that the characterized isolate tolerating up to 4.0mM of mercury provides scope for its application in bioremediation of mercury from contaminated sites.

Keywords: mercury, Domiasiat, uranium, paenibacillus jamilae, hydrophobicity, FTIR

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689 Physicochemical and Optical Characterization of Rutile TiO2 Thin Films Grown by APCVD Technique

Authors: Dalila Hocine, Mohammed Said Belkaid, Abderahmane Moussi


In this study, pure rutile TiO2 thin films were directly synthesized on silicon substrates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique (APCVD) using TiCl4 as precursor. We studied the physicochemical properties and the optical properties of the produced coatings by means of standard characterization techniques of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry. The absorption peaks at 423 cm-1 and 610 cm-1 were observed for the rutile TiO2 thin films, by FTIR measurements. The absorption peak at 739 cm-1 due to the vibration of the Ti-O bonds, was also detected. UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry is employed for measuring the optical band gap from the measurements of the TiO2 films reflectance. The optical band gap was then extracted from the reflectance data for the TiO2 sample. It was estimated to be 3.05 eV which agrees with the band gap of commercial rutile TiO2 sample.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, physicochemical properties, APCVD, FTIR, band gap

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
688 Isolation and Molecular IdentıFıCation of Polyethylene Degrading Bacteria From Soil and Degradation Detection by FTIR Analysis

Authors: Morteza Haghi, Cigdem Yilmazbas, Ayse Zeynep Uysal, Melisa Tepedelen, Gozde Turkoz Bakirci


Today, the increase in plastic waste accumulation is an inescapable consequence of environmental pollution; the disposal of these wastes has caused a significant problem. Variable methods have been utilized; however, biodegradation is the most environmentally friendly and low-cost method. Accordingly, the present study aimed to isolate the bacteria capable of biodegradation of plastics. In doing so, we applied the liquid carbon-free basal medium (LCFBM) prepared with deionized water for the isolation of bacterial species obtained from soil samples taken from the Izmir Menemen region. Isolates forming biofilms on plastic were selected and named (PLB3, PLF1, PLB1B) and subjected to a degradation test. FTIR analysis, 16s rDNA amplification, sequencing, identification of isolates were performed. Finally, at the end of the process, a mass loss of 16.6% in PLB3 isolate and 25% in PLF1 isolate was observed, while no mass loss was detected in PLB1B isolate. Only PLF1 and PLB1B created transparent zones on plastic texture. Considering the FTIR result, PLB3 changed plastic structure by 13.6% and PLF1 by 17%, while PLB1B did not change the plastic texture. According to the 16s rDNA sequence analysis, FLP1, PLB1B, and PLB3 isolates were identified as Streptomyces albogriseolus, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively.

Keywords: polyethylene, biodegradation, bacteria, 16s rDNA, FTIR

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687 Control of Microbial Pollution Using Biodegradable Polymer

Authors: Mahmoud H. Abu Elella, Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa


Introduction: Microbial pollution is global problem threatening the human health. It is resulted by pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and other pathogenic strains. They cause a dangerous effect on human health, so great efforts have been exerted to produce new and effective antimicrobial agents. Nowadays, natural polysaccharides, such as chitosan and its derivatives are used as antimicrobial agents. The aim of our work is to synthesize of a biodegradable polymer such as N-quaternized chitosan (NQC) then Characterization of NQC by using different analysis techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and using it as an antibacterial agent against different pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Synthesis of NQC using dimethylsulphate. Results: FTIR technique exhibited absorption peaks of NQC, SEM images illustrated that surface of NQC was smooth and antibacterial results showed that NQC had a high antibacterial effect. Discussion: NQC was prepared and it was proved by FTIR technique and SEM images antibacterial results exhibited that NQC was an antibacterial agent.

Keywords: antimicrobial agent, N-quaternized chitosan chloride, silver nanocomposites, sodium polyacrylate

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686 Effects of Elevated Temperatures on the Pumice Based Geoplymer Microstructure

Authors: Mehrzad Mohabbi Yadollahi, Pouneh Abdollahifard, Behzad Mokhtare, Majid Atashafrazeh


Geopolymers are believed to provide good fire resistance. The effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical and microstructural properties of pumice-based geopolymer were investigated in this study. Pumice based geopolymer was exposed to elevated temperatures of 200, 400, 600, and 800 ºC for 3 hours. The residual strength of these specimens was determined after cooling at room temperature and microstructures of these samples were investigated by FTIR and SEM analyses. Specimens which were initially grey turned reddish accompanied by the appearance of cracks as temperatures increased to 600 and 800 ºC.

Keywords: geopolymer, pumice, elevated temperature, SEM, FTIR

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685 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Hydrogels Based on Chitosan Derivatives

Authors: Mahmoud H. Abu Elella, Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa


Firstly, synthesis of N-Quaternized Chitosan (NQC), then it was proven by FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis. The degree of quaternization(DQ 35% ) was determined by equation. Secondly, synthesis of cross-linked hydrogels composed of NQC and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in different weight ratios in presence of glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linking agent. Characterization of the prepared hydrogels was done using FTIR, SEM, XRD,and TGA. Swellability in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions applied on NQC / PVA hydrogels and swelling rate(Wt%) and metal ions uptake was done on it.

Keywords: hydrogel, metal ions uptake, N-quaternized chitosan, poly (vinyl alcohol), swellability

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684 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Azuraida Amat, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Ishak Mansor


The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different compositions [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes a profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defects in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give the smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation, which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: boro-tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties

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683 Tga Analysis on the Decomposition of Active Material of Aquilaria Malaccencis

Authors: Nurshafika Adira Bt Audi Ashraf, Habsah Alwi


This study describes the series of analysis conducted after the use of Vacuum far Infra Red. Parameter including the constant drying temperature at 40°C with pressure difference (-400 bar, -500 bar and -600 bar) and constant drying pressure at -400 bar with difference temperature (40°C, 50°C and 60°C). The dried leaves with constant temperature and constant pressure is compared with the fresh leaves via several analysis including TGA, FTIR and Chromameter. Results indicated that the fresh leaves shows three degradation stages while temperature constant shows four stages of degradation and at constant pressure of -400 bar, five stages of degradation is shown. However, at the temperature constant with pressure -500 bar, five degradation stages are identified and at constant pressure with temperature 40°C, three stage of degradation is presence. It is assumed that it is due to the difference size of the sample as the particle size is decrease, the peak temperature shown in TG curves is also decrease which lead to the rapid ignition. Based on the FTIR analysis, fresh leaves gives the high presence of O-H and C=O group where both of the constant parameters give the absence of those due to the drying effects. In color analysis, the constant drying parameters (pressure and temperature) both shows that as the temperature increases, the average total of color change is also increases.

Keywords: chromameter, FTIR, TGA, Vaccum far infrared dying

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682 Physicochemical Attributes of Pectin Hydrogel and Its Wound Healing Activity

Authors: Nor Khaizan Anuar, Nur Karimah Aziz, Tin Wui Wong, Ahmad Sazali Hamzah, Wan Rozita Wan Engah


The physicochemical attributes and wound healing activity of pectin hydrogel in rat models, following partial thickness thermal injury were investigated. The pectin hydrogel was prepared by solvent evaporation method with the aid of glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent and glycerol as plasticizer. The physicochemical properties were mainly evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the wound healing activity was examined by the macroscopic images, wound size reduction and histological evaluation using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for 14 days. The DSC and FTIR analysis suggested that pectin hydrogel exhibited higher extent of polymer-polymer interaction at O-H functional group in comparison to the unprocessed pectin. This was indicated by the increase of endothermic enthalpy values from 139.35 ± 13.06 J/g of unprocessed pectin to 156.23 ± 2.86 J/g of pectin hydrogel, as well as the decrease of FTIR wavenumber corresponding to O-H at 3432.07 ± 0.49 cm-1 of unprocessed pectin to 3412.62 ± 13.06 cm-1 of pectin hydrogel. Rats treated with pectin hydrogel had significantly smaller wound size (Student’s t-test, p<0.05) when compared to the untreated group starting from day 7 until day 14. H&E staining indicated that wounds received pectin hydrogel had more fibroblasts, blood vessels and collagen bundles on day 14 in comparison to the untreated rats.

Keywords: pectin, physicochemical, rats, wound

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
681 Preliminary Studies of MWCNT/PVDF Polymer Composites

Authors: Esther Lorrayne M. Pereira, Adriana Souza M. Batista, Fabíola A. S. Ribeiro, Adelina P. Santos, Clascídia A. Furtado, Luiz O. Faria


The combination of multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polymers offers an attractive route to reinforce the macromolecular compounds as well as the introduction of new properties based on morphological modifications or electronic interactions between the two constituents. As they are only a few nanometers in dimension, it offers ultra-large interfacial area per volume between the nano-element and polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the use of MWCNTs as a rough material in different applications has been largely limited by their poor processability, insolubility, and infusibility. Studies concerning the nanofiller reinforced polymer composites are justified in an attempt to overcome these limitations. This work presents one preliminary study of MWCNTs dispersion into the PVDF homopolymer. For preparation, the composite components were diluted in n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with mechanical agitation assistance. After complete dilution, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent at 60°C, the samples were dried. Films of about 80 μm were obtained. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the nanocomposites. The appearance of absorption bands in the FTIR spectra of nanofilled samples, when compared to the spectrum of pristine PVDF samples, are discussed and compared with the UV-Vis measurements.

Keywords: composites materials, FTIR, MWNTs, PVDF, UV-vis

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
680 Synthesis, Structural and Magnetic Properties of CdFe2O4 Ferrite

Authors: Justice Zakhele Msomi


Nanoparticles of CdFe2O4 with particle size of about 10 nm have been synthesized by high energy ball milling and co-precipitation processes. The synthesis route appears to have some effects on the properties. The compounds have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer and magnetization measurements. The XRD pattern of CdFe2O4 provides information about single-phase formation of spinel structure with cubic symmetry. The FTIR measurements between 400 and 4000 cm-1 indicate intrinsic cation vibration of the spinel structure. The Mössbauer spectra were recorded at 4 K and 300 K. The hyperfine fields appear to be highly sensitive on particle size. The evolution of the properties as a function of particle size is also presented.

Keywords: ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetization, Mössbauer

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
679 Effect of Extrusion Processing Parameters on Protein in Banana Flour Extrudates: Characterisation Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Surabhi Pandey, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


Extrusion processing is a high-temperature short time (HTST) treatment which can improve protein quality and digestibility together with retaining active nutrients. In-vitro protein digestibility of plant protein-based foods is generally enhanced by extrusion. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of extrusion cooking on in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and conformational modification of protein in green banana flour extrudates. Green banana flour was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder varying the moisture content, barrel temperature, screw speed in the range of 10-20 %, 60-80 °C, 200-300 rpm, respectively, at constant feed rate. Response surface methodology was used to optimise the result for IVPD. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided a convenient and powerful means to monitor interactions and changes in functional and conformational properties of extrudates. Results showed that protein digestibility was highest in extrudate produced at 80°C, 250 rpm and 15% feed moisture. FTIR analysis was done for the optimised sample having highest IVPD. FTIR analysis showed that there were no changes in primary structure of protein while the secondary protein structure changed. In order to explain this behaviour, infrared spectroscopy analysis was carried out, mainly in the amide I and II regions. Moreover, curve fitting analysis showed the conformational changes produced in the flour due to protein denaturation. The quantitative analysis of the changes in the amide I and II regions provided information about the modifications produced in banana flour extrudates.

Keywords: extrusion, FTIR, protein conformation, raw banana flour, SDS-PAGE method

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
678 Biobased Polyurethane Derived from Transesterified Castor Oil: Synthesis and Charecterization

Authors: Sonalee Das, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak


Recent years has witnessed the increasing demand for natural resources and products in polyurethane synthesis because of global warming, sustainable development and oil crisis. For this purpose, different plant oils such as soybean oil, castor oil and linseed oil are extensively used. Moreover, the isocyanate used for the synthesis of polyurethane is derived from petroleum resources. In this present work attempts have been made for the successful synthesis of biobased isocyanate from castor oil with partially biobased isocyanate in presence of catalyst dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL). The goal of the present study was to investigate the thermal, mechanical, morphological and chemical properties of the synthesized polyurethane in terms of castor oil modification. The transesterified polyol shows broad and higher hydroxyl value as compared to castor oil which was confirmed by FTIR studies. The FTIR studies also revealed the successful synthesis of bio based polyurethane by showing characteristic peaks at 3300cm-1, 1715cm-1 and 1532cm-1 respectively. The TGA results showed three step degradation mechanism for the synthesized polyurethane from modified and unmodified castor oil. However, the modified polyurethane exhibited higher degradation temperature as compared to unmodified one. The mechanical properties also demonstrated higher tensile strength for modified polyurethane as compared to unmodified one.

Keywords: castor oil, partially biobased Isocyanate, polyurethane synthesis, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
677 Dielectric Properties of PANI/h-BN Composites

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Emrah Cakmakci


Polyaniline (PANI), the most studied member of the conductive polymers, has a wide range of uses from several electronic devices to various conductive high-technology applications. Boron nitride (BN) is a boron and nitrogen containing compound with superior chemical and thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Even though several composites of PANI was prepared in literature, the preparation of h-BN/PANI composites is rare. In this work PANI was polymerized in the presence of different amounts of h-BN (1, 3 and 5% with respect to PANI) by using 0.1 M solution of NH4S2O8 in HCl as the oxidizing agent and conductive composites were prepared. Composites were structurally characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Thermal properties of conductive composites were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dielectric measurements were performed in the frequency range of 106–108 Hz at room temperature. The corresponding bands for the benzenoid and quinoid rings at around 1593 and 1496 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra of the composites proved the formation of polyaniline. Together with the FTIR spectra, XRD analysis also revealed the existence of the interactions between PANI and h-BN. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the composites increased with the increasing amount of PANI (from 87 to 101). TGA revealed that the char yield of the composites increased as the amount of h-BN was increased in the composites. Finally the dielectric permittivity of 3 wt.%h-BN-containing composite was measured and found as approximately 17. This work was supported by Marmara University, Commission of Scientific Research Project.

Keywords: dielectric permittivity, h-BN, PANI, thermal analysis

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676 Impact of Solar Radiation Effects on the Physicochemical Properties of Unformulated Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Film

Authors: A. Adelhafidhi, I. M. Babaghayou, S. F. Chabira, M. Sebaa


This study deals with the photodegradation of unformulated polyethylene films for greenhouse covering. The UV range of solar light appears as the most deleterious factor of plastic degradation in outdoor exposure. The reasons of this photosensitivity are structural defects which are light-absorbing. The use of FTIR as an investigation tool has revealed that the material reacts with surrounding oxygen via a photooxidation process. Although the photochemical process is quite complex, it appears through this study than crosslinking and chain scissions are the most important events taking place during aging These two key reactions change irremediably the average molecular weight affecting thus drastically the mechanical properties and reducing, in the same way, the service lifetime of the films.

Keywords: polyethylene, films, unformulated, FTIR, ageing

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675 Fe-Doped Graphene Nanoparticles for Gas Sensing Applications

Authors: Shivani A. Singh, Pravin S. More


In the present inspection, we indicate the falsification of Fe-doped graphene nanoparticles by modified Hummers method. Structural and physiochemical properties of the resulting pallets were explored with the help of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) for graphene sample exhibits absorption peaks ~248nm. Pure graphene shows PL peak at 348 nm. After doping of Fe with graphene the PL peak shifted from 348 nm to 332 nm. The oxidation degree, i.e. the relative amount of oxygen functional groups was estimated from the relative intensities of the oxygen related bands (ORB) in the FTIR measurements. These analyses show that this modified material can be useful for gas sensing applications and to be used in diverse areas.

Keywords: chemical doping, graphene, gas sensing, sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
674 Synthesis and D.C. Conductivity Measurements of Polyaniline/CopperOxide Nanocomposites

Authors: L. N. Shubha, P. Madhusudana Rao


The Polyaniline / Copper Oxide(PANI / CuO) nanocomposite was prepared by solution mixing of prepared Polyaniline and copper Oxide in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The synthesis involved the formation of dark green colored Polyaniline-Copper Oxide nanocomposite. The synthesized polymer nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The characteristic peaks in XRD, FTIR and UV-Visible spectra confirmed the presence of CuO in the polymer structure. SEM analysis revealed formation of PANI/CuO nano composite The D.C. conductivity measurements were performed using two probe method for various temperatures.

Keywords: polyaniline/copper oxide (PANI/CuO) nanocomposite, XRD, SEM, FTIRand DC- conductivity, UV-visible spectra

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
673 Statistical Discrimination of Blue Ballpoint Pen Inks by Diamond Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FTIR

Authors: Mohamed Izzharif Abdul Halim, Niamh Nic Daeid


Determining the source of pen inks used on a variety of documents is impartial for forensic document examiners. The examination of inks is often performed to differentiate between inks in order to evaluate the authenticity of a document. A ballpoint pen ink consists of synthetic dyes in (acidic and/or basic), pigments (organic and/or inorganic) and a range of additives. Inks of similar color may consist of different composition and are frequently the subjects of forensic examinations. This study emphasizes on blue ballpoint pen inks available in the market because it is reported that approximately 80% of questioned documents analysis involving ballpoint pen ink. Analytical techniques such as thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, UV-vis spectroscopy, luminescence spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy have been used in the analysis of ink samples. In this study, application of Diamond Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FTIR is straightforward but preferable in forensic science as it offers no sample preparation and minimal analysis time. The data obtained from these techniques were further analyzed using multivariate chemometric methods which enable extraction of more information based on the similarities and differences among samples in a dataset. It was indicated that some pens from the same manufactures can be similar in composition, however, discrete types can be significantly different.

Keywords: ATR FTIR, ballpoint, multivariate chemometric, PCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
672 Preparation and Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Friday Godwin Okibe, Christian Chinweuba Onoyima, Edith Bolanle Agbaji, Victor Olatunji Ajibola


Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites are presently impacting diverse areas, specifically in biomedical sciences. In this research, hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate has been prepared, and characterized, with emphasis on the influence of sodium alginate on its characteristics. In situ wet chemical precipitation method was used in the preparation. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with image analysis, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The FTIR study shows peaks characteristics of hydroxyapatite and confirmed formation of the nanocomposite via chemical interaction between sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite. Image analysis shows the nanocomposites to be of irregular morphologies which did not show significant change with increasing sodium alginate addition, while particle size decreased with increase in sodium alginate addition (359.46 nm to 109.98 nm). From the XRD data, both the crystallite size and degree of crystallinity also decreased with increasing sodium alginate composition (32.36 nm to 9.47 nm and 72.87% to 1.82% respectively), while the specific surface area and microstrain increased with increasing sodium alginate composition (0.0041 to 0.0139 and 58.99 m²/g to 201.58 m²/g respectively). The results show that the formulation with 50%wt of sodium alginate (HASA-50%wt), possess exceptional characteristics for biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

Keywords: nanocomposite, sodium alginate, hydroxyapatite, biomedical, FTIR, XRD, SEM

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671 CO₂ Absorption Studies Using Amine Solvents with Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

Authors: Avoseh Funmilola, Osman Khalid, Wayne Nelson, Paramespri Naidoo, Deresh Ramjugernath


The increasing global atmospheric temperature is of great concern and this has led to the development of technologies to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion are major sources of greenhouse gases. One of the ways to reduce the emission of CO₂ from flue gases is by post combustion capture process and this can be done by absorbing the gas into suitable chemical solvents before emitting the gas into the atmosphere. Alkanolamines are promising solvents for this capture process. Vapour liquid equilibrium of CO₂-alkanolamine systems is often represented by CO₂ loading and partial pressure of CO₂ without considering the liquid phase. The liquid phase of this system is a complex one comprising of 9 species. Online analysis of the process is important to monitor the concentrations of the liquid phase reacting and product species. Liquid phase analysis of CO₂-diethanolamine (DEA) solution was performed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. A robust Calibration was performed for the CO₂-aqueous DEA system prior to an online monitoring experiment. The partial least square regression method was used for the analysis of the calibration spectra obtained. The models obtained were used for prediction of DEA and CO₂ concentrations in the online monitoring experiment. The experiment was performed with a newly built recirculating experimental set up in the laboratory. The set up consist of a 750 ml equilibrium cell and ATR-FTIR liquid flow cell. Measurements were performed at 400°C. The results obtained indicated that the FTIR spectroscopy combined with Partial least square method is an effective tool for online monitoring of speciation.

Keywords: ATR-FTIR, CO₂ capture, online analysis, PLS regression

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670 Regenerated Cellulose Prepared by Using NaOH/Urea

Authors: Lee Chiau Yeng, Norhayani Othman


Regenerated cellulose fiber is fabricated in the NaOH/urea aqueous solution. In this work, cellulose is dissolved in 7 .wt% NaOH/12 .wt% urea in the temperature of -12 °C to prepare regenerated cellulose. Thermal and structure properties of cellulose and regenerated cellulose was compared and investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FeSEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Results of FeSEM revealed that the regenerated cellulose fibers showed a more circular shape with irregular size due to fiber agglomeration. FTIR showed the difference in between the structure of cellulose and the regenerated cellulose fibers. In this case, regenerated cellulose fibers have a cellulose II crystalline structure with lower degree of crystallinity. Regenerated cellulose exhibited better thermal stability than the cellulose.

Keywords: regenerated cellulose, cellulose, NaOH, urea

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669 Safety Risks of Gaseous Toxic Compounds Released from Li Batteries

Authors: Jan Karl, Ondrej Suchy, Eliska Fiserova, Milan Ruzicka


The evolving electromobility and all the electronics also bring an increase of danger with used Li-batteries. Li-batteries have been used in many industries, and currently many types of the batteries are available. Batteries have different compositions that affect their behavior. In the field of Li-battery safety, there are some areas of little discussion, such as extinguishing of fires caused by Li-batteries as well as toxicity of gaseous compounds released from Li batteries, transport or storage. Technical Institute of Fire Protection, which is a part of Fire Brigades of the Czech Republic, is dealing with the safety of Li batteries. That is the reason why we are dealing with toxicity of gaseous compounds released under conditions of fire, mechanical damage, overcharging and other emergencies that may occur. This is necessary for protection of intervening of fire brigade units, people in the vicinity and other envirnomental consequences. In this work, different types of batteries (Li-ion, Li-Po, LTO, LFP) with different kind of damage were tested, and the toxicity and total amount of released gases were studied. These values were evaluated according to their environmental hazard. FTIR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of toxicity. We used a FTIR gas cell for continuous measurement. The total amount of released gases was determined by collecting the total gas phase through the absorbers and then determining the toxicants absorbed into the solutions. Based on the obtained results, it is possible to determine the protective equipment necessary for the event of an emergency with a Li-battery, to define the environmental load and the immediate danger in an emergency.

Keywords: Li-battery, toxicity, gaseous toxic compounds, FTIR spectroscopy

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668 Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi, Alireza Baghbanan


Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.

Keywords: bacteria, biosynthesis, silver-phosphate, Sporosarcina pasteurii, nanoparticle

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667 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR

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