Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 142

Search results for: Libya

142 The Failure of Democracy in Libya

Authors: Ali Musbah Mohamed Elwahishi

Abstract:

Democracy is demand for the majority of people in the whole world, Specifically in the regions that are still outside the democratic life such as Libya and other Arab countries. Although democracy has spread across the world through three waves of democratization, Libya is still outside the democratic process, even recently its regime has changed. The challenges of democracy in Libya are not new, they represent accumulations over time that impeded to achieve this goal. This paper concludes that the absence of democracy in Libya because of set of factors that include: colonial legacy, oil wealth, the lack of institutions, the lack of political parties, tribal factor and recently the spread of the armed groups. These factors prevented Libya to be democratic state whether during King Idris’, Qaddafi’s or even after Qaddafi rule.

Keywords: the failure of democracy, political transition, the lack of institutions, Libya, Arab countries

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141 Italian Colonial Strategy in Libya and the Conflict of Super Powers

Authors: Mohamed Basheer Abdul Atti Hassan

Abstract:

This research paper will follow the main outlines of the Italian colonization in Libya in a historical geopolitical approach; before we reach the contemporary map. In this study, we are also concerned with following the chain's links, not as drama in time, but as a strategy in place, so that it draws to us a map of power and the distribution of political formations throughout this period within and around Libya. From the sum of these variable distributions and successive balances, we can come up with the basic principles that determined the Italian history in Libya and formed its political entity, which is a compass of guidance and an indication of the future.

Keywords: conflict, Mediterranean, colonization, political history

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140 Mobile Phone Banking Applies and Customer Intention: A Case Study in Libya

Authors: Iman E. Bouthahab, Badea B. Geador

Abstract:

Aim of this paper is to explore the prospect of a new approach of mobile phone banking in Libya. This study evaluates customer knowledge on commercial mobile banking in Libya. To examine the relationship between age, occupation and intention for using mobile banking for commercial purpose, a survey was conducted to gather information from one hundred Libyan bank clients. The results indicate that Libyan customers have accepted the new technology and they are ready to use it. There is no significant joint relationship between age and occupation found in intention to use mobile banking in Libya. On the other hand, the customers’ knowledge about mobile banking has a greater relationship with the intention. This study has implications for demographic researches and consumer behaviour disciplines. It also has profitable implications for banks and managers in Libya, as it will assist in better understanding of the Libyan consumers and their activities, when they develop their market strategies and new service.

Keywords: mobile banking, intention, customer knowledge, banks in Libya

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139 Effect of Political and Social Context in Libya on Accounting Information System to Meet Development Needs

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia, Almuetaz R. Boubakr

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show how Libya’s legal, economic, political, social, and cultural systems have shaped Libyan development. This will provide a background to develop an understanding of the current role of the accounting information system in Libya and the challenges facing the design of the aeronautical information system to meet the development needs of Libya. Our knowledge of the unified economic operating systems of the world paves the way for the economic development of every developing country. In order to achieve this understanding, every developing country should be provided with a high-efficiency communications system in order to be able to interact globally. From the point of view of the theory of globalization, Libya's understanding of its socio-economic and political systems is vital in order to be able to adopt and apply accounting techniques that will assist in the economic development of Libya.

Keywords: accounting, economic development, globalisation theory, information system

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138 Epidemiology of Bone Hydatidosis in Eastern Libya from 1995 to 2013

Authors: Sadek A. Makhlouf, Hassan M. Nouh

Abstract:

Bone hydatidosis is an infection in worldwide distribution. Although there is no evidence in literature on Bone Hydatid disease in Libya, we tried to present the first epidemiological study of this disease in Eastern Libya through retrospective study from 1995 to 2013. Our data were collected from 3 hospitals in Eastern Libya particularly the sheep-raising areas with total number of musculoskeletal infection cases of two thousand one hundred ninety-four (2,194). There were five (5) five cases of bone infection, four (4) of it have been diagnosed after more than three (3) months. Our study is comparable to other international study but this type of bone infection need further studies for effective control strategies for all dogs to avoid serious complications that might happened from the delay in diagnosing this type of disease.

Keywords: bone infection, hydatidosis, Eastern Libya, sheep-raising areas

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137 The Grain Size Distribution of Sandy Soils in Libya

Authors: Massoud Farag Abouklaish

Abstract:

The main aim of the present study is to investigate and classify the particle size distribution of sandy soils in Libya. More than fifty soil samples collected from many regions in North, West and South of Libya. Laboratory sieve analysis tests performed on disturbed soil samples to determine grain size distribution. As well as to provide an indicator of general engineering behavior and good understanding, test results are presented and analysed. In addition, conclusions, recommendations are made.

Keywords: Libya, grain size, sandy soils, sieve analysis tests

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136 Responsibility to Protect in Practice: Libya and Syria

Authors: Guram Esakia, Giorgi Goguadze

Abstract:

The following paper is written due to overview the concept of R2P, this new dimension in International Relations field. Paper contains the general description of previously mentioned concept, its advantages and disadvantages. We also compare each other R2P and“humanitarian intervention“, trying to make clear division between these two approaches in conflict solution. There is also discussed R2P in real action, successful one in Libya and yet failed in Syria. Essay doesn’t claim to be the part of scientific chain and is based only on personal subjection as well on information gathered from various scholars and UN resolutions.

Keywords: the concept of R2P, humanitarian intervention, Libya, Syria

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135 An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Capital Formation in Libya (1970–2010)

Authors: Khaled Ramadan Elbeydi

Abstract:

This study is carried out to provide an insight into the analysis of the impact of selected macro-economic variables on gross fixed capital formation in Libya using annual data over the period (1970-2010). The importance of this study comes from the ability to show the relative important factors that impact the Libyan gross fixed capital formation. This understanding would give indications to decision makers on which policy they must focus to stimulate the economy. An Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling process is employed to investigate the impact of the gross domestic product, monetary base, and trade openness on gross fixed capital formation in Libya. The results of this study reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between capital formation and its determinants. The results also indicate that GDP and trade openness largely explain the pattern of capital formation in Libya. The findings and recommendations provide vital information relevant for policy formulation and implementation aimed to improve capital formation in Libya.

Keywords: ARDL, bounds test, capital formation, co-integration, Libya

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134 Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Western North Part of Libya

Authors: Mustafa Ali Abugila

Abstract:

A total of 13807 diabetic patients [(males 5893(42.68%), females 7914 (57.32%)] were on the registered in diabetic clinics in the western north of Libya at the end of 2012. Of the total clinic population, 865 patients had Type 1 IDDM (6.26%) and the rest cases had Type 2 NIDDM (93.74%). Diabetes mellitus was higher in females than in males (57.32% , 42.68%), the male to female ratio was (0.74 : 1).

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus (DM), gestational diabetes mellitus, North Western of Libya,

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133 Order vs. Justice: The Cases of Libya and Syria from the Perspective of the English School Theory

Authors: A. Gün Güneş

Abstract:

This study aims to explicate the functionality of the responsibility to protect (R2P) in terms of order and justice within the context of the main traditions of the English School theory. The conflicts in Libya and Syria and the response of the international society to these crises are analyzed in the pluralism-solidarism dichotomy of the English School. In this regard, the intervention under R2P in Libya exemplifies the solidaristic side emphasizing justice, while the non-intervention in Syria exemplifies the pluralistic side emphasizing order. This study discusses the cases of Libya and Syria on the basis of Great Powers.

Keywords: English school theory, international society, order, justice, responsibility to protect

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132 The Reality of the Application of Environmental Accounting in the Iron and Steel Sector in Libya: A Case Study in the Libyan Iron and Steel Company, Misurata, Libya

Authors: Eltaib Elzarrouk E. E. Abdalmajeed

Abstract:

This research aims at shedding the light on environmental accounting, which is considered to be one of the most important areas in accounting discipline. It also studies the reality of the application of environmental accounting in the iron and steel sector in Libya. The questionnaire of this study was used for data collection from respondents who are employed in the Libyan Iron and Steel Company, Misurata – Libya (LISC). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was also used for the analysis. Several important results were revealed include that the (LISC) relatively applies environmental accounting, and it faces some obstacles in conducting its application. Furthermore, the researched company realizes the importance of applying environmental accounting as a need for quality procedures. It was suggested that training courses should be held periodically to spread the awareness of environmental accounting environment. In addition, social responsibility and sustainability should be taken into consideration in the company's strategic plan.

Keywords: environment, environmental accounting, environmental accounting disclosure, The Libyan Iron and Steel Company, Misurata- Libya (LISC)

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131 Prevalence of Nasal Botfly Cephalopenia titillator in Camels in Tripoli-Libya

Authors: A. S. El Naas, K. S. Ganghish, A. O. Booker, O. Elwaer

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10 out of 40 camels examined at Tripoli slaughter places were infected with the camel nasal bot fly Cephalopenia titillator. The larvae occurred mainly in the nasopharynx and occasionally the larvae were found embedded between turbinated bones. The nasal cavity was congested and filled with mucus in which some larvae were entangled. This work is undertaken to determine the Prevalence of Cephalopenia titillator of camel slaughtered in Tripoli-Libya.

Keywords: Cephalopenia titillator, camels, Libya, larvae, nasopharynx

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130 Political Alienation and Corruption in Libya

Authors: Mabroka B. Al-Werfalli

Abstract:

This paper looks at some aspects of Libya’s political culture relating to corruption and tries to map the links that bond political alienation to corruption. The subject was approached by surveying opinion. The study, of which culture of corruption was part, concerned the phenomena of political alienation in Libya. It was based on a survey conducted in winter 2001 and targeted a sample of 877 participants from the city of Benghazi. The questions were designed to determine the extent to which corruption is seen, by the Libyans, as a national problem. It also describes perceptions about levels, types and causes of corruption; trust in governmental institutions and senior officials of the State and assessments of anti-corruption regulations and actions taken by the regime.

Keywords: anti-corruption, corruption, culture of corruption, participating in corruption, political alienation, political culture

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129 Sustainability as a Criterion in the Reconstruction of Libya’s Public Transport Infrastructure

Authors: Haitam Emhemad, Brian Agnew, David Greenwood

Abstract:

Amongst the many priorities facing Libya following the 2011 uprising is the provision of a transport infrastructure that will meet the nation’s needs and not undermine its prospects for economic prosperity as with many developing economies non-technical issues such as management, planning and financing are the major barriers to the efficient and effective provision of transport infrastructure. This is particularly true in the case of the effective incorporation of sustainability criteria, and the research upon which this paper is based involves the examination of alternative ways of approaching this problem. It is probably fair to say that criteria that relate to sustainability have not, historically, featured strongly in Libya’s approach to the development of its transport infrastructure. However, the current reappraisal of how best to redevelop the country’s transport infrastructure that has been afforded by recent events may offer the opportunity to alter this. The research examines recent case studies from a number of countries to explore ways in which sustainability has been included as a criterion for planning and procurement decisions. There will also be an in-depth investigation into the Libyan planning and legislative context to examine the feasibility of the introduction of such sustainability criteria into the process of planning and procurement of Libya’s transport infrastructure.

Keywords: Libya reconstruction, sustainability criteria, transport infrastructure, public transport

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128 The Violations of Human Rights After the February Revolution in Libya

Authors: Abdsalam Alahwal, Suren Pillay

Abstract:

Libya saw the occurrence of violations of human rights on a large scale as well as the deterioration of the rule of law in large parts of the country after the February 17 revolution that removed the Colonel Muammar Gaddafi from power in what is known upheaval of the Arab Spring. Although Libya, a country with a modern democracy, but he has declared unconstitutional temporarily allowed to exercise all the rights of political, civil and judicial, but the presence of weapons in the hands of militias list on the basis of regional, tribal and ideology was the main reason for the deterioration of the humanitarian situation as well as the foreign intervention in Libya. Where reports stressed that violations are serious committed by the conflicting parties from power after the fall of Gaddafi of assassinations and kidnapping of identity and practices related to human trafficking Some of these reports indicate that some ethnic ingredients such as Tawergha and Epiphyseal where was deliberately targeted by some militias were displacement around the city because of their allegiance to the former regime after the war ended in 2012. It is noteworthy that many of these violations and abuses committed by these militias that participated overthrow Gaddafi may rise to war crimes and crimes against humanity. That the intervention in Libya, although it had a human purpose and under the pretext of reducing the political system of human rights violations, but that the main objective, which was behind the international intervention was to overthrow the existing political system and the elimination of Muammar Gaddafi.

Keywords: Arab Spring, democracy, revolution , Libya

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127 Efficient Management through Predicting of Use E-Management within Higher Educational Institutions

Authors: S. Maddi Muhammed, Paul Davis, John Geraghty, Mabruk Derbesh

Abstract:

This study discusses the probability of using electronic management in higher education institutions in Libya. This could be as sampled by creating an electronic gate at the faculties of Engineering and Computing "Information Technology" at Zaytuna University or any other university in Libya. As we all know, the competitive advantage amongst universities is based on their ability to use information technology efficiently and broadly. Universities today value information technology as part of the quality control and assurance and a ranking criterion for a range of services including e-learning and e-Registration. This could be done by developing email systems, electronic or virtual libraries, electronic cards, and other services provided to all students, faculty or staff. This paper discusses a range of important topics that explain how to apply the gate "E" with the faculties at Zaytuna University, Bani Walid colleges in Libya.

Keywords: e-management, educational institutions (EI), Libya, Zaytuna, information technology

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126 Pros and Cons of Different Types of Irrigation Systems for Date Palm Production in Sebha, Libya

Authors: Ahmad Aridah, Maria Fay Rola-Rubzen, Zora Singh

Abstract:

This study investigated the effectiveness of various types of irrigation systems in regards to the impact that these have on the productivity of date palms in the semi-arid and arid region of Sebha, Southwest Libya. The date palm is an economically important crop in Libya and contributes to the agriculture industry, foreign exchange earnings, farmers’ income, and employment in the country. The date palm industry relies on large amounts of water for growing the crop. Farmers in Southwest Libya use a variety of irrigation systems, but the quality and quantity of water varies between systems and this affects the productivity and income of farmers. Using survey data from 210 farmers, this study estimated and assessed the pros and cons of different types of irrigation systems for date palm production under various irrigation systems currently used in Sebha, Libya. The number of years farmers have used irrigation, the area, irrigation water consumption, time of irrigation, number of farm workers (including family labour) and inputs used were measured for surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods. Findings from this research provide new insights into the advantages and disadvantages of the various irrigation systems, problems encountered by farmers and the factors that affect the quality and quantity of the irrigation system. The paper discussed proposed solutions to deal with the problems including timing of irrigation, canal maintenance, repair of wells and water control.

Keywords: Libya, factors, irrigation method, date palm

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125 The Re-Emergence of Slavery in Libya Is a Crime against Humanity That Must Be Eradicated without Delay

Authors: Vincent Jones

Abstract:

The North African country of Libya is in crisis and is currently a humanitarian disaster. The current American ‘hands off’ foreign policy appear to have contributed to this crisis. The research upon which this paper is based focused on a qualitative analysis of migration to Libya and its history with slavery, current conditions that have contributed to the re-emergence of slavery, an analysis of available resources in the effected region, and an analysis of legal remedies pursuant to international law. In addition, a qualitative analysis of American foreign policy from the Reagan Administration through the current Trump administration has been a focus of analysis. The major findings of this research are: (1) Since the removal of Muammar Gadhafi, a move that the United States played a major role in achieving, the nation of Libya has been in free fall and the rule of law has all but disappeared. As a major port stop for refugees and migrants fleeing atrocities in sub-Saharan African states, Libya has become the gate way to European ports of asylum. The problem is these migrant refugees are unwanted, caught between rival and often ineffective governments, profiteers, and inaction from the international community. (2) The outlook for these refugees is bleak: the ineffective government of Libya is ill-equipped to handle the large influx, European refugee destination states like Italy and Greece are already overburdened by the Syrian refugee crisis and are reluctant to accept more refugees, leaving the powerful and armed Libyan militia in control of a situation that is ripe for exploitation. (3) The combined intervention of the international community, led by a newly committed and engaged American foreign policy. In conclusion, a new American foreign policy approach along with the active engagement of the United Nations, EU, and the African Union can effectively resolve this humanitarian crisis.

Keywords: slavery, Libya, migrants, slave auction

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124 The microbial evaluation of cow raw milk used in private dairy factories in of Zawia city, Libya

Authors: Obied A. Alwan, Elgerbi, M. Ali

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This study was conducted on the cow milk which is used in the local milk factories of Zawia. This was completely random sampling the unscheduled samples. The microbiologic result have approved that the count of bacteria and the count of E.Coli are very high and all the manufacturing places which were included in the study have lacked the health conditions.

Keywords: raw milk, dairy factories, Libya, microbiologic

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123 Mapping the Ties That Bind: Corruption, Political Alienation and Culture of Corruption

Authors: Mabrouka Immhemd Al-Werfalli

Abstract:

How are political alienation and corruption related? What is the nature of relationship linking corruption and political alienation? When citizens withdraw their loyalty from their political regime and leaders, they highlight their alienation from them. The link between corruption and political alienation is that the individual would intentionally involve in corruption particularly when a state of lawlessness prevails. This paper represents a challenge- how to gauge a link between political alienation culture of corruption and corruption. It aims to highlight the political alienation related factors that determine the levels of corruption in Libya. One of the most prominent reasons for the Libyan uprising in February 2011 was the pervasiveness of corruption. Corruption in Libya remained a significant problem despite a robust anti-corruption discourse and harsh legislation undertaken by the previous regime. The long-standing political corruption in Libya has offered ample opportunity for the evolution of a structure of negative values and morals. This has formed what is termed as a ‘culture of corruption’, which has induced people to accept and justify corrupt behavior. The paper is a part of a study concerns the phenomenon of political alienation in Libya which was based on a survey conducted in 2001 in the city of Benghazi. The finding shows that abuse of power, embezzlement and misuse of public funds for personal enrichment was thought to be rife within public bodies, institutions, companies, factories, banks and enterprises owned entirely or partially by the state.

Keywords: Libya, abuse of power, anti-corruption, corruption, culture of corruption, embezzlement, participation in corruption, political alienation

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122 Corporate Governance Role of Audit Committees in the Banking Sector: Evidence from Libya

Authors: Abdulaziz Abdulsaleh

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This study aims at identifying the practices that should be taken into consideration by audit committees as a tool of corporate governance in Libyan commercial banks by investigating various perceptions on this topic. The study is based on a questionnaire submitted to audit committees ‘members at Libyan commercial banks, directors of internal audit departments as well as members of board of directors at these banks in addition to a number of external auditors and academic staff from Libyan universities. The study reveals that the role of audit committees has to be shifted from traditional areas of accounting to a broader role including functions related to financial reporting, audit planning, support the independence of internal and external auditors, acting as a channel of communication between external auditors and board of directors, reviewing external audit, and evaluating internal control systems. Although the study is a starting point in developing a framework of good audit committees’ practices in Libya, it is believed that the adoption of its results can result in enhancing the corporate governance practices not only in the banking sector but also in the entire corporate sector in Libya.

Keywords: audit committees, corporate governance, commercial banks, Libya

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121 Modelling the Long Rune of Aggregate Import Demand in Libya

Authors: Said Yousif Khairi

Abstract:

Being a developing economy, imports of capital, raw materials and manufactories goods are vital for sustainable economic growth. In 2006, Libya imported LD 8 billion (US$ 6.25 billion) which composed of mainly machinery and transport equipment (49.3%), raw material (18%), and food products and live animals (13%). This represented about 10% of GDP. Thus, it is pertinent to investigate factors affecting the amount of Libyan imports. An econometric model representing the aggregate import demand for Libya was developed and estimated using the bounds test procedure, which based on an unrestricted error correction model (UECM). The data employed for the estimation was from 1970–2010. The results of the bounds test revealed that the volume of imports and its determinants namely real income, consumer price index and exchange rate are co-integrated. The findings indicate that the demand for imports is inelastic with respect to income, index price level and The exchange rate variable in the short run is statistically significant. In the long run, the income elasticity is elastic while the price elasticity and the exchange rate remains inelastic. This indicates that imports are important elements for Libyan economic growth in the long run.

Keywords: import demand, UECM, bounds test, Libya

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120 Some Characteristics and Identification of Fungi Contaminated by Alkomos Cement Factory

Authors: Abdulmajeed Bashir Mlitan, Ethan Hack

Abstract:

Soil samples were collected from and around Alkomos cement factory, Alkomos town, Libya. Soil physiochemical properties were determined. In addition, olive leaves were scanned for their fungal content. This work can conclude that the results obtained for the examined physiochemical characteristics of soil in the area studied prove that cement dust from the Alkomos cement factory in Libya has had a significant impact on the soil. The affected soil properties are pH and total calcium content. These characteristics were found to be higher than those in similar soils from the same area. The increment of soil pH in the same area may be a result of precipitation of cement dust over the years. Different responses were found in each season and each site. For instance, the dominance of fungi of soil and leaves was lowest at 100 m from the factory and the evenness and diversity increased at this site compared to the control area and 250 m from the factory.

Keywords: pollution, soil microbial, alkomos, Libya

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119 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Infectious Bronchitis Virus from Libya

Authors: Abdulwahab Kammon, Tan Sheau Wei, Abdul Rahman Omar, Abdunaser Dayhum, Ibrahim Eldghayes, Monier Sharif

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Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a very dynamic and evolving virus which causing major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Recently, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreak of respiratory distress associated with high mortality and dramatic drop in egg production. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were analyzed for several poultry viruses. IBV was detected using SYBR Green I real-time PCR detection based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Sequence analysis of the partial N gene indicated high similarity (~ 94%) to IBV strain 3382/06 that was isolated from Taiwan. Even though the IBV strain 3382/06 is more similar to that of the Mass type H120, the isolate has been implicated associated with intertypic recombinant of 3 putative parental IBV strains namely H120, Taiwan strain 1171/92 and China strain CK/CH/LDL/97I. Complete sequencing and antigenicity studies of the Libya IBV strains are currently underway to determine the evolution of the virus and its importance in vaccine induced immunity. In this paper, we documented for the first time the presence of possibly variant IBV strain from Libya which required a dramatic change in the vaccination program.

Keywords: Libya, infectious bronchitis, molecular characterization, viruses, vaccine

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118 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in Al-Khoms City-Libya

Authors: Mustafa S. Agha, Asma M. Eshahriy

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The propagation of electromagnetic waves in millimeter band is severely affected by rain, and dust particles in terms of attenuation and de-polarization. The computations of dust and/or sand storms require knowledge of electrical properties of the scattering particles and climate conditions at the studied region in the west north region of Libya. (Al -Khoms) To compute the effect of dust and sand particles on the propagation of electromagnetic waves, it is required to collect the sand particles carried out by the wind, measure the particles size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and carry chemical analysis of the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The main object of this paper is to study the effect of sand and dust storms on wireless communication, such as microwave links, in the north region of Libya (Al -Khoms) of Libya (Nagaza stations, Al-khoms center stations, Al-khoms gateway stations) by determining of the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change due to the effect of sand and dust storms on wireless communication systems (GSM signal). The result showed that there is some consideration that has to be taken into account in the communication power budget .

Keywords: attenuation, scattering, transmission loss, electromagnetic waves

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117 Ectoparasites Infestation of Free-Ranging Hedgehog (Etelerix Algirus) in North Western Libya

Authors: M. M. Hosni, A. A. El Maghrbi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human.

Keywords: ectoparasites, etelerix algirus, hedgehogs, Libya

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116 Evaluation of Broiler Parent Breeds under Libyan Conditions

Authors: Salem A. Abdalla Bozrayda, Abulgasem M. Hubara

Abstract:

The use of commercial poultry breeds in Libya may result in large economic losses because genotypes selected in temperate climates may respond differently to other climate conditions and management. Therefore three commercial breeds (Hypeco, Avian, and Shaver) were evaluated in two regions. The data were obtained from weekly records of three parental flocks for each breed at Ghout El-sultan and Tawargha region. Feed Hen Housed (FHH), Hen Housed Egg Production (HHEP) Mortility % were the studied traits. Statistical model include location, year, month, age and breed. Hypeco produced more HHEP 68.6 with Less FHH 22.9 kg but with higher mortility 8.5 % than Avian and shaver breeds. The breeds exhibited different responses to the different months in Libya. In conclusion, the differences, which exhibited between the breeds in traits studied, indicate that genotype x environment must be considered when select breed to perform under Libyan conditions.

Keywords: hypeco avian shaver, feed hen housed, hen housed egg production, mortility, Libya

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115 Political Alienation: Paving the Road to Corruption

Authors: Mabrouka Al-Werfalli

Abstract:

This paper aims to highlight reasons beyond the prevalence of “culture of corruption” amongst Libyans. One of the most prominent reason for the Libyan revolution in February 2011 was the pervasiveness of corruption. Corruption in Libya remained a significant problem despite harsh legislation and a robust anti-corruption discourse undertaken by the previous regime. The long-standing political corruption in Libya has offered ample opportunity for the evolution of a structure of negative values and morals. This has formed what is termed as a “culture of corruption”, which has induced people to accept and justify corrupt behaviour. The paper is a part of a study concerns the phenomenon of political alienation in Libya which was based on a survey conducted in 2001 in the city of Benghazi. The finding shows that abuse of power looms large within all activities. Embezzlement and misuse of public funds for personal enrichment is thought to be rife within public bodies, institutions, companies, factories, banks and enterprises owned entirely or partially by the state.

Keywords: corruption, culture of corruption, participation in corruption, abuse of power, embezzlement, political alienation, anti-corruption

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114 Optimal Design and Simulation of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Power System for an Electrical Department in University of Tripoli, Libya

Authors: Mustafa Al-Refai

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimal design and simulation of a grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) system to supply electric power to meet the energy demand by Electrical Department in University of Tripoli Libya. Solar radiation is the key factor determining electricity produced by photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper is designed to develop a novel method to calculate the solar photovoltaic generation capacity on the basis of Mean Global Solar Radiation data available for Tripoli Libya and finally develop a system design of possible plant capacity for the available roof area. MatLab/Simulink Programming tools and monthly average solar radiation data are used for this design and simulation. The specifications of equipments are provided based on the availability of the components in the market. Simulation results and analyses are presented to validate the proposed system configuration.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV), grid, Simulink, solar energy, power plant, solar irradiation

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113 Consumers Rights during COVID-19 Pandemic Time: Evidence from Libya

Authors: Sabri Gabran Mohammed Elkrghli, Salah A. Mohamed Abdulgader

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Given the emergence and the spreading of the Covid-19 pandemic that swept the globe, it was necessary to address the issue of consumer rights in such unprecedented circumstances. Libyan consumers have been targeted in this study with the aim to measure their attitudes towards the extent to which their rights, as consumers of foodstuff, have been secured during the Covid-19 pandemic. The recommended sample size was randomly selected (384) local participants. Out of this number, only a validated number of (267) responses were deemed valid for the analysis phase. The instrument of this research was developed based on the extant published literature on consumer rights. The study concluded with a set of key results; the most important result is that consumer rights of foodstuffs were below the satisfactory level. Theoretical and practical implications have emerged from the study. The most important implication is that customers of foodstuffs need more protection in Libya. This issue should be given greater importance, especially in the light of contemporary environmental challenges such as the outbreak of Covid-19. Designing and conducting global and local awareness campaigns is another significant advice suggested by this study. Finally, the research concluded with limitations and put forward some future avenues.

Keywords: consumers rights, foodstuffs, COVID-19, Libya

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