Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: malachite

25 Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye on Graphene Oxide Nanosheets from Aqueous Solution: Kinetics and Thermodynamics Studies

Authors: Abeer S. Elsherbiny, Ali H. Gemeay


In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have been synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic tools such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy, BET specific surface area and Transmission Electronic Microscope (TEM). The prepared GO was investigated for the removal of malachite green, a cationic dye from aqueous solution. The removal methods of malachite green has been proceeded via adsorption process. GO nanosheets can be predicted as a good adsorbent material for the adsorption of cationic species. The adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption kinetics, concentration of adsorbate, pH, and temperature. The kinetics of the adsorption data were analyzed using four kinetic models such as the pseudo first-order model, pseudo second-order model, intraparticle diffusion, and the Boyd model to understand the adsorption behavior of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets and the mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm of adsorption of the malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated at 25, 35 and 45 °C. The equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) change were also evaluated. The interaction of malachite green onto the GO nanosheets has been investigated by infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

Keywords: adsorption, graphene oxide, kinetics, malachite green

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24 Copper Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by a Novel Fluidized-bed Homogeneous Crystallization (FBHC) Technology

Authors: Cheng-Yen Huang, Yu-Jen Shih, Ming-Chun Yen, Yao-Hui Huang


This research developed a fluidized-bed homogeneous crystallization (FBHC) process to remove copper from synthetic wastewater in terms of recovery of highly pure malachite (Cu2(OH)2CO3) pellets. The experimental parameters of FBHC which included pH, molar ratio of copper to carbonate, copper loading, upper flowrate and bed height were tested in the absence of seed particles. Under optimized conditions, both the total copper removal (TR) and crystallization ratio (CR) reached 99%. The malachite crystals were characterized by XRD and SEM. FBHC was capable of treating concentrated copper (1600 ppm) wastewater and minimizing the sludge production.

Keywords: copper, carbonate, fluidized-bed, crystallization, malachite

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23 Comparison Methyl Orange and Malachite Green Dyes Removal by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH as Adsorbents

Authors: Omid Moradi, Mostafa Rajabi


Graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes MWCNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized carboxyl (MWCNT-COOH), and multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized thiol (MWCNT-SH) were used as efficient adsorbents for the rapid removal two dyes methyl orange (MO) and malachite green (MG) from the aqueous phase. The impact of several influential parameters such as initial dye concentrations, contact time, temperature, and initial solution pH was well studied and optimized. The optimize time for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 25, and 60 min, respectively and The optimize time for adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 15, and 60 min, respectively. The maximum removal efficiency for methyl orange dye by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 2, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively and for malachite green dye were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 9, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively. The effect of temperature showed that adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic and for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic but while adsorption of methyl orange and malachite green dyes on MWCNT-COOH surface were exothermic.On increasing the initial concentration of methyl orange dye adsorption capacity on GO surface was decreased and on rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased and with increasing the initial concentration of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased.

Keywords: adsorption, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, methyl orange, malachite green, removal

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22 Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye onto Industrial Waste Materials: Full Factorial Design

Authors: Semra Çoruh, Yusuf Tibet


Dyes are widely used in industries such as textiles, paper, paints, leather, rubber, plastics, cosmetics, food, and drug etc, to color their products. Due to their chemical structures, dyes are resistant to fading on exposure to light, water and many chemicals and, therefore, are difficult to be decolorized once released into the aquatic environment. Many of the organic dyes are hazardous and may affect aquatic life and even the food chain. This study deals with the adsorption of malachite green dye onto fly ash and red mud. The effects of experimental factors (adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and temperature) on the adsorption process were examined by using 24 full factorial design. The results were statistically analyzed by using the student’s t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an F-test to define important experimental factors and their levels. A regression model that considers the significant main and interaction effects was suggested. The results showed that initial dye concentration an pH is the most significant factor that affects the removal of malachite green.

Keywords: malachite green, adsorption, red mud, fly ash, full factorial design

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21 Bioremoval of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae: Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanistic Study

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian


This study reports the removal of Malachite Green (MG) from simulated wastewater by using marine macro algae Ulva lactuca. Batch biosorption experiments were carried out to determine the biosorption capacity. The biosorption capacity was found to be maximum at pH 10. The effect of various other operation parameters such as biosorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time and agitation was also investigated. The equilibrium attained at 120 min with 0.1 g/L of biosorbent. The isotherm experimental data fitted well with Langmuir Model with R² value of 0.994. The maximum Langmuir biosorption capacity was found to be 76.92 mg/g. Further, Langmuir separation factor RL value was found to be 0.004. Therefore, the adsorption is favorable. The biosorption kinetics of MG was found to follow pseudo second-order kinetic model. The mechanistic study revealed that the biosorption of malachite onto Ulva lactuca was controlled by film diffusion. The solute transfer in a solid-liquid adsorption process is characterized by the film diffusion and/or particle diffusion. Thermodynamic study shows ΔG° is negative indicates the feasibility and spontaneous nature for the biosorption of malachite green. The biosorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (CHNS: Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulphur). This study showed that Ulva lactuca can be used as promising biosorbent for the removal of MG from wastewater.

Keywords: biosorption, Ulva lactuca, wastewater, malachite green, isotherm, kinetics

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20 Fixed-Bed Column Studies of Green Malachite Removal by Use of Alginate-Encapsulated Aluminium Pillared Clay

Authors: Lazhar mouloud, Chemat Zoubida, Ouhoumna Faiza


The main objective of this study, concerns the modeling of breakthrough curves obtained in the adsorption column of malachite green into alginate-encapsulated aluminium pillared clay in fixed bed according to various operating parameters such as the initial concentration, the feed rate and the height fixed bed, applying mathematical models namely: the model of Bohart and Adams, Wolborska, Bed Depth Service Time, Clark and Yoon-Nelson. These models allow us to express the different parameters controlling the performance of the dynamic adsorption system. The results have shown that all models were found suitable for describing the whole or a definite part of the dynamic behavior of the column with respect to the flow rate, the inlet dye concentration and the height of fixed bed.

Keywords: adsorption column, malachite green, pillared clays, alginate, modeling, mathematic models, encapsulation.

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19 Bioprophylaxis of Saprolegniasis in Incubated Clarias gariepinus Eggs Using Pyocyanin Extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: G. A. Oladosu1, P. O. Ogbodogbo, C. I. Makinde1, M. O. Tijani, O. A. Adegboyega


Saprolegniasis is a major pathogenic infection that contributes significantly to poor hatching rates in incubated fish eggs in the Africa catfish hatchery in Nigeria. Malachite green known to be very effective against this condition has been banned because it is carcinogenic. There is, therefore, the need for other effective yet safer methods of controlling saprolegniasis in incubated fish eggs. A total of 50 ml crude, chloroform extract of pyocyanin from which solvent was removed to attain 30 ml, having a concentration of 12.16 ug/ml was produced from 700 ml broth culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a previous study. In-vitro susceptibility of the fungus was investigated by exposing fungal infected eggs to two different time-concentration ratios of pyocyanin; 0.275 ug/ml and 2.75 ug/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and 5 mg/L malachite green as positive control while normal saline was the control. The efficacy of pyocyanin was evaluated using the degree of mycelial growth inhibition in different treatments. Fertilized Clarias gariepinus eggs (between 45 to 64 eggs) were then incubated in 20 ml of medium containing similar concentrations of pyocyanin and malachite green, with freshwater as a control for 24 hours. Hatching rates of the incubated eggs were observed. Three samples of un-hatched eggs were taken from each medium and observed for the presence of fungal pathogens using microscopy. Another batch of three samples of un-hatched eggs from each treatment was also inoculated on Sabourand dextrose agar (SDA) using Egg-Agar Transfer Technique to observe for fungal growth. Mycelial growth was inhibited in fungal infected eggs treated with 2.75 ug/ml for 24 hrs and the 5 mg/L malachite green for both 1 hr and 24 hrs. The mortality rate was 100% in fertilized C. gariepinus eggs exposed for 24 hrs to 0.275 and 2.75 ug/ml of pyocyanin. The mortality rate was least in malachite green followed by the control treatment. Embryonic development was observed to be arrested in the eggs treated with the two pyocyanin concentrations as they maintain their colour but showed no development beyond the gastrula stage, whereas viable eggs in the control and malachite green treatments developed fully into healthy hatchlings. Furthermore, microscopy of the un-hatched eggs revealed the presence of a protozoan ciliate; Colpidium sp, (Tetrahymenidae), as well as a pathogenic fungus; Saprolegnia sp. in the control but not in the malachite green and pyocyanin treatments. Growth of Saprolegnia sp was also observed in SDA culture of un-hatched eggs from the control, but not from pyocyanin and malachite green treated eggs. Pyocyanin treatment of incubated eggs of Clarias gariepinus effectively prevented fungal infection in the eggs, but also arrested the development of the embryo. Therefore, crude chloroform extract of pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used in the control of Saprolegniasis in incubated Clarias gariepinus eggs at the concentration and duration tested in this study.

Keywords: African catfish, bioprophylaxis, catfish embryo, Saprolegniasis

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18 Mechanism of Formation, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Iron Mineralization in M'Taguinarou North Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: Fakher Eddine Messaoudi


The M'Taguinarou North iron occurrence contains Iron and polymetallic mineralization (Fe-Zn-Cu), hosted in Turonian limestone. It manifests in metric clusters of goethite and hematite and in centimetre veins of smithsonite, malachite, and azurite. The genesis of this mineralization is clearly polyphased and results from the supergene processes superposed on hydrothermal phases where the Triassic diapirs probably generated the circulation of hydrothermal fluids through the sedimentary series, and the alteration of the Turonian limestone gave the formation of the hydrothermal primary ore composed of iron carbonates (siderite). Several uplift episodes affected the mineralization and the host rocks, generating the genesis of a polymetallic supergene assembly (goethite, malachite, azurite, quartz, and calcite). In M’taguinarou North, iron oxy-hydroxides are mainly observed in the form of fibrous stalactites, stalagmites, and Botroydale structures, where hematite precipitated first, followed immediately by goethite, limonite, and smithsonite. Siderite is completely absent. Subsequently, malachite, azurite, and calcite formed in the form of small veins intersecting the surrounding limestone.

Keywords: mineralization, genetic model, hydrothermal iron, supergene, Tebessa, Algeria

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17 Malachite Green and Red Congo Dyes Adsorption onto Chemical Treated Sewage Sludge

Authors: Zamouche Meriem, Mehcene Ismahan, Temmine Manel, Bencheikh Lehocine Mosaab, Meniai Abdeslam Hassen


In this study, the adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) by chemical treated sewage sludge has been studied. The sewage sludge, collected from drying beds of the municipal wastewater treatment station of IBN ZIED, Constantine, Algeria, was treated by different acids such us HNO₃, H₂SO₄, H₃PO₄ for modifying its aptitude to removal the MG from aqueous solutions. The results obtained shows that the sewage sludge activated by sulfuric acid give the highest elimination amounts of MG (9.52 mg/L) compared by the other acids used. The effects of operation parameters have been investigated, the results obtained show that the adsorption capacity per unit of adsorbent mass decreases from 18.69 to 1.20 mg/g when the mass of the adsorbent increases from 0.25 to 4 g respectively, the optimum mass for which a maximum of elimination of the dye is equal to 0.5g. The increasing in the temperature of the solution results in a slight decrease in the adsorption capacity of the chemically treated sludge. The highest amount of dye adsorbed by CSSS (9.56 mg/g) was observed for the optimum temperature of 25°C. The chemical activated sewage sludge proved its effectiveness for the removal of the Red Congo (RC), but by comparison the adsorption of the two dyes studies, we noted that the sludge has more affinity to adsorb the (MG).

Keywords: adsorption, chemical activation, malachite green, sewage sludge

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16 Eu³⁺ Ions Doped-SnO₂ for Effective Degradation of Malachite Green Dye

Authors: Ritu Malik, Vijay K. Tomer, Satya P. Nehra, Anshu Nehra


Visible light sensitive Eu³⁺ doped-SnO₂ nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal method and extensively characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N₂ adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET). Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated using Malachite Green (MG) as decomposition objective by varying the concentration of Eu³⁺ in SnO₂. The XRD analysis showed that lanthanides phase was not observed on lower loadings of Eu³⁺ ions doped-SnO₂. Eu³⁺ ions can enhance the photocatalytic activity of SnO₂ to some extent as compared with pure SnO₂, and it was found that 3 wt% Eu³⁺ -doped SnO₂ is the most effective photocatalyst due to its lowest band gap, crystallite size and also the highest surface area. The photocatalytic tests indicate that at the optimum conditions, illumination time 40 min, pH 65, 0.3 g/L photocatalyst loading and 50 ppm dye concentration, the dye removal efficiency was 98%.

Keywords: photocatalyst, visible light, lanthanide, SnO₂

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15 Determination of Optimum Conditions for the Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ores with Ammonium Nitrate

Authors: Javier Paul Montalvo Andia, Adriana Larrea Valdivia, Adolfo Pillihuaman Zambrano


The most common lixiviant in the leaching process of copper minerals is H₂SO₄, however, the current situation requires more environmentally friendly reagents and in certain situations that have a lower consumption due to the presence of undesirable gangue as muscovite or kaolinite that can make the process unfeasible. The present work studied the leaching of an oxidized copper mineral in an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, in order to obtain the optimum leaching conditions of the copper contained in the malachite mineral from Peru. The copper ore studied comes from a deposit in southern Peru and was characterized by X-ray diffractometer, inductively coupled-plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The experiments were developed in batch reactor of 600 mL where the parameters as; temperature, pH, ammonium nitrate concentration, particle size and stirring speed were controlled according to experimental planning. The sample solution was analyzed for copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). A simulation in the HSC Chemistry 6.0 program showed that the predominance of the copper compounds of a Cu-H₂O aqueous system is altered by the presence in the system of ammonium complexes, the compound being thermodynamically more stable Cu(NH3)₄²⁺, which predominates in pH ranges from 8.5 to 10 at a temperature of 25 °C. The optimum conditions for copper leaching of the malachite mineral were a stirring speed of 600 rpm, an ammonium nitrate concentration of 4M, a particle diameter of 53 um and temperature of 62 °C. These results showed that the leaching of copper increases with increasing concentration of the ammonium solution, increasing the stirring rate, increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle diameter. Finally, the recovery of copper in optimum conditions was above 80%.

Keywords: ammonium nitrate, malachite, copper oxide, leaching

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14 Dye Retention by a Photochemicaly Crosslinked Poly(2-Hydroxy-Ethyl-Meth-Acrylic) Network in Water

Authors: Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Tewfik Bouchaour, Meriem Merad, Ulrich Maschke


The purpose of this work is to study retention of dye dissolved in distilled water, by an hydrophilic acrylic polymer network. The polymer network considered is Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA): it is prepared by photo-polymerization under UV irradiation in the presence of a monomer (HEMA), initiator and an agent cross-linker. PHEMA polymer network obtained can be used in the retention of dye molecules present in the wastewater. The results obtained are interesting in the study of the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling of cross linked polymer networks PHEMA in colored aqueous solutions. The dyes used for retention by the PHEMA networks are eosin Y and Malachite Green, dissolved in distilled water. Theoretical conformational study by a simplified molecular model of system cross linked PHEMA / dye (eosin Y and Malachite Green), is used to simulate the retention phenomenon (or Docking) dye molecules in cavities in nano-domains included in the PHEMA polymer network.

Keywords: dye retention, molecular modeling, photochemically crosslinked polymer network, swelling deswelling, PHEMA, HEMA

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13 Luffa cylindrica as Alternative for Treatment of Waste in the Classroom

Authors: Obradith Caicedo, Paola Devia


Methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) are substances commonly used in classrooms for academic purposes. Nevertheless, in most cases, there is no adequate disposal of this type of waste, their presence in the environment affects ecosystems due to the presence of color and the reduction of photosynthetic processes. In this work, we evaluated properties of fibers of Luffa cylindrica in removal from dyes of aqueous solutions through an adsorption process. The point of zero charge, acid and basic sites was also investigated. The best conditions of the adsorption process were determined under a discontinuous system, evaluating an interval of the variables 2 3 : pH value, particle size of the adsorbent and contact time. The temperature (18ºC), agitation (220 rpm) and adsorbent dosage (10g/L) were constant. Measurements were made using UV- Visible spectrophotometry. The point of zero charge for Luffa cylindrica was 4,3. The number of acidic and basic sites was 2.441 meq/g and 1,009 meq/g respectively. These indicate a prevalence of acid groups. The maximum dye sorption was found to be at a pH of 5,5 (97,1 % for MB) and 5,0 (97,7% for MG) and particle size of the adsorbent 850 µm. The equilibrium uptake was attained within 60 min. With this study, it has been shown that Luffa cylindrica can be used as efficient adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue, and malachite green from aqueous solution in classrooms.

Keywords: adsorption, dye removal, low-cost adsorbents, Luffa cylindrical

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12 Improved Visible Light Activities for Degrading Pollutants on ZnO-TiO2 Nanocomposites Decorated with C and Fe Nanoparticles

Authors: Yuvraj S. Malghe, Atul B. Lavand


In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic degradation processes have attracted a lot of attention and are used widely for the destruction of organic pollutants present in waste water. Among various semiconductors, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most popular photocatalyst due to its excellent chemical stability, non-toxicity, relatively low cost and high photo-oxidation power. It has been known that zinc oxide (ZnO) with band gap energy 3.2 eV is a suitable alternative to TiO2 due to its high quantum efficiency, however it corrodes in acidic medium. Unfortunately TiO2 and ZnO both are active only in UV light due to their wide band gaps. Sunlight consist about 5-7% UV light, 46% visible light and 47% infrared radiation. In order to utilize major portion of sunlight (visible spectrum), it is necessary to modify the band gap of TiO2 as well as ZnO. This can be done by several ways such as semiconductor coupling, doping the material with metals/non metals. Doping of TiO2 using transition metals like Fe, Co and non-metals such as N, C or S extends its absorption wavelengths from UV to visible region. In the present work, we have synthesized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite using reverse microemulsion method. Visible light photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposite was investigated for degradation of aqueous solution of malachite green (MG). To increase the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite, it is decorated with C and Fe. Pure, carbon (C) doped and carbon, iron(C, Fe) co-doped nanosized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized using reverse microemulsion method. These composites were characterized using, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV visible spectrophotometery and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Visible light photocatalytic activities of synthesized nanocomposites were investigated for degradation of aqueous malachite green (MG) solution. C, Fe co-doped ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibit better photocatalytic activity and showed threefold increase in photocatalytic activity. Effect of amount of catalyst, pH and concentration of MG solution on the photodegradation rate is studied. Stability and reusability of photocatalyst is also studied. C, Fe decorated ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite shows threefold increase in photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: malachite green, nanocomposite, photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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11 Pisolite Type Azurite/Malachite Ore in Sandstones at the Base of the Miocene in Northern Sardinia: The Authigenic Hypothesis

Authors: S. Fadda, M. Fiori, C. Matzuzzi


Mineralized formations in the bottom sediments of a Miocene transgression have been discovered in Sardinia. The mineral assemblage consists of copper sulphides and oxidates suggesting fluctuations of redox conditions in neutral to high-pH restricted shallow-water coastal basins. Azurite/malachite has been observed as authigenic and occurs as loose spheroidal crystalline particles associated with the transitional-littoral horizon forming the bottom of the marine transgression. Many field observations are consistent with a supergenic circulation of metals involving terrestrial groundwater-seawater mixing. Both clastic materials and metals come from Tertiary volcanic edifices while the main precipitating anions, carbonates, and sulphides species are of both continental and marine origin. Formation of Cu carbonates as a supergene secondary 'oxide' assemblage, does not agree with field evidences, petrographic observations along with textural evidences in the host-rock types. Samples were collected along the sedimentary sequence for different analyses: the majority of elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence and plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Mineral identification was obtained by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microprobe. Thin sections of the samples were examined in microscopy while porosity measurements were made using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. Cu-carbonates deposited at a temperature below 100 C° which is consistent with the clay minerals in the matrix of the host rock dominated by illite and montmorillonite. Azurite nodules grew during the early diagenetic stage through reaction of cupriferous solutions with CO₂ imported from the overlying groundwater and circulating through the sandstones during shallow burial. Decomposition of organic matter in the bottom anoxic waters released additional carbon dioxide to pore fluids for azurite stability. In this manner localized reducing environments were also generated in which Cu was fixed as Cu-sulphide and sulphosalts. Microscopic examinations of textural features of azurite nodules give evidence of primary malachite/azurite deposition rather than supergene oxidation in place of primary sulfides. Photomicrographs show nuclei of azurite and malachite surrounded by newly formed microcrystalline carbonates which constitute the matrix. The typical pleochroism of crystals can be observed also when this mineral fills microscopic fissures or cracks. Sedimentological evidence of transgression and regression indicates that the pore water would have been a variable mixture of marine water and groundwaters with a possible meteoric component in an alternatively exposed and subaqueous environment owing to water-level fluctuation. Salinity data of the pore fluids, assessed at random intervals along the mineralised strata confirmed the values between about 7000 and 30,000 ppm measured in coeval sediments at the base of Miocene falling in the range of a more or less diluted sea water. This suggests a variation in mean pore-fluids pH between 5.5 and 8.5, compatible with the oxidized and reduced mineral paragenesis described in this work. The results of stable isotopes studies reflect the marine transgressive-regressive cyclicity of events and are compatibile with carbon derivation from sea water. During the last oxidative stage of diagenesis, under surface conditions of higher activity of H₂O and O₂, CO₂ partial pressure decreased, and malachite becomes the stable Cu mineral. The potential for these small but high grade deposits does exist.

Keywords: sedimentary, Cu-carbonates, authigenic, tertiary, Sardinia

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10 Effects of Malachite Green Contaminated Water on Production of Pak Choy and Chinese Convolvulus

Authors: N. Piwpuan, J. Tosalee, N. Phonkerd


Malachite green (MG), a synthetic dye, is used in industries and aquaculture and also disposed in the effluent. Use of wastewater in irrigation increases due to water shortage. However, wastewater containing dyes, MG, are toxic to biological systems. Therefore, effects of MG on growth of vegetables were evaluated in order to utilize dye-contaminated wastewater for irrigation. In this study, Pak choy (Brassica chinensis) and Chinese convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) were grown in growing material (mixture of soil, coconut fiber, and compost) for four weeks and afterward kept watering with 200 ml of tap water containing MG at the concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 10, and 20 mg/L. At harvest, number of leaf and shoot and root dry weight of the treated plants were measured and compared with control. For both species, their biomass values were similar among treatments and did not differ from the control plants (dry weight were 0.6-1.0 and 1.1-1.7 g/plant for B. chinensis and I. aquatica, respectively). B. chinensis treated with 2, 10, and 20 mg/L of MG produced lower number of new leaf and had smaller and shorter leaf compared to control and treatment of 1 mg/L. These results indicate the different responses between plant species, which B. chinensis is more sensitive to contaminant compared to I. aquatica. There was no sign of MG and leucomalachite green (LMG) detected in root and shoot tissues of plants treated with MG at 20 mg/L, tested by thin layer chromatography. After plant harvest, toxicity of the growing material from all treatments was tested on mung beans. Percent germination (83-97%), seedling fresh weight (0.3-0.5 g/plant), and shoot length (11-12.5 cm) were similar to the control. These indicated that contaminant in growing material did not pose detrimental effect on mung beans. Based on these results, the water contaminated with low concentration of MG, such as discharge from aquaculture, may serve as ferti-irrigation water to compensate water shortage.

Keywords: ferti-irrigation, soil toxicity, triphenylmethane dye, wastewater reuse

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9 Preparation and Characterization of Biosorbent from Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes and its Application for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Manisha Choudhary, Sudarsan Neogi


Malachite green (MG), an organic basic dye, has been widely used for the dyeing purpose, as well as a fungicide and antiseptic in aquaculture industry to control fish parasites and disease. However, MG has now turned out to be an extremely controversial compound due to its adverse impact on living beings. Due to high toxicity, proper treatment of wastewater containing MG is utmost important. Among different available technologies, adsorption process is one of the most efficient and cost-effective treatment method due to its simplicity of design, ease of operation and regeneration of used materials. Nonetheless, commercial activated carbon is expensive leading the researchers to focus on utilizing natural resources. In the present work, a species of cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI), was used to develop a highly efficient, low-cost powdered activated carbon by chemical activation using NaOH. The biosorbent was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and X-ray diffraction analysis. Batch adsorption studies were performed to remove MG from an aqueous solution as a function of contact time, initial solution pH, initial dye concentration, biosorbent dosages, the presence of salt and temperature. By increasing the initial dye concentration from 100 to 500 mg/l, adsorption capacity increased from 165.45 to 831.58 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model and the chemisorption mechanisms were revealed. The electrostatic attractions and chemical interactions were observed between amino and hydroxyl groups of the biosorbent and amine groups of the dye. The adsorption was solely controlled by film diffusion. Different isotherm models were used to fit the adsorption data. The excellent recovery of adsorption efficiency after the regeneration of biosorbent indicated the high potential of this adsorbent to remove MG from aqueous solution and an excellent cost-effective biosorbent for wide application in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: adsorption, biosorbent, cactus, malachite green

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8 Leaching of Flotation Concentrate of Oxide Copper Ore from Sepon Mine, Lao PDR

Authors: C. Rattanakawin, S. Vasailor


Acid leaching of flotation concentrate of oxide copper ore containing mainly of malachite was performed in a standard agitation tank with various parameters. The effects of solid to liquid ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, agitation speed, leaching temperature and time were examined to get proper conditions. The best conditions are 1:8 solid to liquid ratio, 10% concentration by weight, 250 rev/min, 30 oC and 5-min leaching time in respect. About 20% Cu grade assayed by atomic absorption technique with 98% copper recovery was obtained from these combined optimum conditions. Dissolution kinetics of the concentrate was approximated as a logarithmic function. As a result, the first-order reaction rate is suggested from this leaching study.

Keywords: agitation leaching, dissolution kinetics, flotation concentrate, oxide copper ore, sulfuric acid

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7 The High Efficiency of Cationic Azo Dye Removal Using Raw, Purified and Pillared Clay from Algerian Clay

Authors: Amina Ramdani, Abdelkader Kadeche, Zoubida Taleb, Safia Taleb


The aim of this present study is to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a dye, Malachite green, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, purified and Cr-pillared). Various parameters influencing the dye adsorption process ie contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Cr pillared clay has been obtained with a better surface character than purified and natural clay. An increase in basal spacing from 12.45 Å (Mont-Na) to 22.88 Å (Mont-PLCr), surface area from 67 m2 /g (Mont-Na) to 102 m2 /g (Mont-PLCr). The experimental results show that the dye adsorption kinetic were fast: 5 min for Cr-pillared clay mineral, and 30 min for raw and purified clay mineral (RC and Mont-Na). The removal efficiency on Mont-PLCr (98.64%) is greater than that of Mont-Na (86.20%) and RC (82.09%). The acidity and basicity of the medium considerably affect the adsorption of the dye. It attained its maximum at pH 4.8. The equilibrium and kinetic data were found to fit well the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model.

Keywords: Dye removal, pillared clay, isotherm, kinetic

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6 Batch Adsorption Studies for the Removal of Textile Dyes from Aqueous Solution on Three Different Pine Bark

Authors: B. Cheknane, F. Zermane


The main objective of the present study is the valorization of natural raw materials of plant origin for the treatment of textile industry wastewater. Selected bark was: maritime (MP), pinyon (PP) and Aleppo pine (AP) bark. The efficiency of these barks were tested for the removal of three dye; rhodamine B (RhB), Green Malachite (GM) and X Methyl Orange (MO). At the first time we focus to study the different parameters which can influence the adsorption processes such as: nature of the adsorbents, nature of the pollutants (dyes) and the effect of pH. Obtained results reveals that the speed adsorption is strongly influencing by the pH medium and the comparative study show that adsorption is favorable in the acidic medium with amount adsorbed of (Q=40mg/g) for rhodamine B and (Q=46mg/g) for orange methyl. Results of adsorption kinetics reveals that the molecules of GM are adsorbed better (Q=48mg/g) than the molecules of RhB (Q=46mg/g) and methyl orange (Q=18mg/g), with equilibrium time of 6 hours. The results of adsorption isotherms show clearly that the maritime pine bark is the most effective adsorbents with adsorbed amount of (QRhB=200mg/g) and (QMO=88mg/g) followed by pinyon pine (PP) with (QRhB=184mg/g) and (QMO=56mg/g) and finally Aleppo pine (AP) bark with (QRhB=131mg/g) and (QMO= 46mg/g). The different obtained isotherms were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich models and according to the adjustment coefficient values R2, the obtained isotherms are well represented by Freundlich model.

Keywords: maritime pine bark (MP), pinyon pine bark (PP), Aleppo pine (AP) bark, adsorption, dyes

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5 Modeling and Estimating Reserve of the Ali Javad Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit, East Azerbaijan, Iran

Authors: Behzad Hajalilou, Nasim Hajalilou, Saeid Ansari


The study area is located in East Azerbaijan province, north of Ahar city, and 1/100000 geological map of Varzgan. This region is located in the middle of Iran zone. Ali Javad Porphyry copper-gold ore deposit has been created in a magmatic complex containing intrusive masses, combining Granodiorite and quartz Monzonite that penetrates into the Eocene volcanic aggregate. The most important mineralization includes primary oxides minerals (magnetite), sulfide (pyrite, chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, Bornite, Chalcocite, Covollite), secondary oxide or hydroxide minerals (hematite, goethite, limonite), and carbonate (malachite and Azurite). The mineralization forms into the vein-veinlets and scattered system. The alterations observed in the region include intermediate Argillic, advanced Argillic, Phyllic, silica, Propylitic, chlorite and Potassic. The 3D model of mineralization of the Alijavad is provided by Data DATAMINE software and based on the study of 700 polished sections of 32 drilled boreholes in the region. This model is completely compatible with the model provided by Lowell and Gilbert for the mineralization of porphyry copper deposits of quartz Monzonite type. The estimated cumulative residual value of copper for Ali Javad deposit is 81.5 million tons with 0.75 percent of copper, and for gold is 8.37 million tons with 1.8 ppm.

Keywords: porphyry copper, mineralization, Ali Javad, modeling, reserve estimation

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4 Zingiberaceous Plants as a Source of Anti-Bacterial Activity: Targeting Bacterial Cell Division Protein (FtsZ)

Authors: S. Reshma Reghu, Shiburaj Sugathan, T. G. Nandu, K. B. Ramesh Kumar, Mathew Dan


Bacterial diseases are considered to be one of the most prevalent health hazards in the developing world and many bacteria are becoming resistant to existing antibiotics making the treatment ineffective. Thus, it is necessary to find novel targets and develop new antibacterial drugs with a novel mechanism of action. The process of bacterial cell division is a novel and attractive target for new antibacterial drug discovery. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the major protein of the bacterial cell division machinery and is considered as an important antibacterial drug target. Zingiberaceae, the Ginger family consists of aromatic herbs with creeping rhizomes. Many of these plants have antimicrobial properties.This study aimed to determine the anti-bacterial activity of selected Zingiberaceous plants by targeting bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ. Essential oils and methanol extracts of Amomum ghaticum, Alpinia galanga, Kaempferia galanga, K. rotunda, and Zingiber officinale were tested to find its antibacterial efficiency using disc diffusion method against authentic bacterial strains obtained from MTCC (India). Essential oil isolated from A.galanga and Z.officinale were further assayed for FtsZ inhibition assay following non-radioactive malachite green-phosphomolybdate assay using E. coli FtsZ protein obtained from Cytoskelton Inc., USA. Z.officinale essential oil possess FtsZ inhibitory property. A molecular docking study was conducted with the known bioactive compounds of Z. officinale as ligands with the E. coli FtsZ protein homology model. Some of the major constituents of this plant like catechin, epicatechin, and gingerol possess agreeable docking scores. The results of this study revealed that several chemical constituents in Ginger plants can be utilised as potential source of antibacterial activity and it can warrant further investigation through drug discovery studies.

Keywords: antibacterial, FtsZ, zingiberaceae, docking

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3 Study of the Impact of Synthesis Method and Chemical Composition on Photocatalytic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Catalysts

Authors: Katerina Zaharieva, Vicente Rives, Martin Tsvetkov, Raquel Trujillano, Boris Kunev, Ivan Mitov, Maria Milanova, Zara Cherkezova-Zheleva


The nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type materials Sample A - Co0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample B - Co0.5Fe2.5O4, and Sample C - CoFe2O4 were prepared by co-precipitation in our previous investigations. The co-precipitated Sample B and Sample C were mechanochemically activated in order to produce Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample E- CoFe2O4. The PXRD, Moessbauer and FTIR spectroscopies, specific surface area determination by the BET method, thermal analysis, element chemical analysis and temperature-programmed reduction were used to investigate the prepared nano-sized samples. The changes of the Malachite green dye concentration during reaction of the photocatalytic decolorization using nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts with different chemical composition are included. The photocatalytic results show that the increase in the degree of incorporation of cobalt ions in the magnetite host structure for co-precipitated cobalt ferrite-type samples results in an increase of the photocatalytic activity: Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1) < Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) < Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1). Mechanochemically activated photocatalysts showed a higher activity than the co-precipitated ferrite materials: Sample D (16 х10-3 min-1) > Sample E (14 х10-3 min-1) > Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1) > Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) > Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1). On decreasing the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones a higher sorption ability of the dye after the dark period for the co-precipitated cobalt ferrite materials was observed: Sample C (72 %) < Sample B (78 %) < Sample A (80 %). Mechanochemically treated ferrite catalysts and co-precipitated Sample B possess similar sorption capacities, Sample D (78 %) ~ Sample E (78 %) ~ Sample B (78 %). The prepared nano-sized cobalt ferrite-type materials demonstrate good photocatalytic and sorption properties. Mechanochemically activated Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 (16х10-3 min-1) and Sample E-CoFe2O4 (14х10-3 min-1) possess higher photocatalytic activity than that of the most common used UV-light catalyst Degussa P25 (12х10-3 min-1). The dependence of the photo-catalytic activity and sorption properties on the preparation method and different degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ions in synthesized cobalt ferrite samples is established. The mechanochemical activation leads to formation of nano-structured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts (Sample D and Sample E) with higher rate constants than those of the ferrite materials (Sample A, Sample B, and Sample C) prepared by the co-precipitation procedure. The increase in the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones leads to improved photocatalytic properties and lower sorption capacities of the co-precipitated ferrite samples. The good sorption properties between 72 and 80% of the prepared ferrite-type materials show that they could be used as potential cheap absorbents for purification of polluted waters.

Keywords: nanodimensional cobalt ferrites, photocatalyst, synthesis, mechanochemical activation

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2 Antifungal Activity of Processed Sulfur Solution as Potential Eco-Friendly Disinfectant against Saprolegnia parasitica and Its Safety in Freshwater-Farmed Fish

Authors: Hye-Hyun Lee, Hyo-Kon Chun, Kyung-Hee Kim Kim, Mi-Hee Kim, Saet-Byul Chu, Sang-Jong Lee, Seung-Hyeop Lee, Seung-Won Yi


Some chemicals such as malachite green, methylene blue, and copper sulfate had been used frequently as disinfectants controlling fungal infection in aquaculture. However, their carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity were reported in mammals. After their accumulation in food fish and its consumers was confirmed, concerns about public health has resulted in enhanced monitoring and increased demand for eco-friendly treatments. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate safety to fish and efficacy of sulfur solution processed by effective microorganisms (EM-PSS) against Saprolegnia parasitica, for use of a potential aquatic fungicidal disinfectant. The natural sulfur purchased from Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia was processed by the liquid mixture consisting of following twelve effective microorganisms (Rapha-el®; Lbiotech, Jeonnam, Korea), Lactobacillus parafarraginis, L. paracasei, L. harbinensis, L. buchneri, L. perolens, L. rhamnosus, L. vaccinostercus, Acetobacter lovaniensis, A. peroxydans, Pichia fermentans, Candida ethanolica, Saccharomycopsis schoenii isolated from fermentation process of oriental medicinal herbs including green tea, privet, and puer tea. The material was applied to in vitro antifungal activity test for Saprolegnia parasitica using agar dilution method. In addition, an acute toxicity test was performed on carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla japonica), and mud fish (Misgurnus mizolepis) for 96 hours. After three species of fish (n=15) were accustomed to experimental water environment for three days, the EM-PSS was added to each tank as final concentrations to be 0 to 500 ppm. The fish were taken into necropsy, and the histological sections of the gill, liver, and spleen were counter-stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H-E). And hence, no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of the solution was used for taking a medicinal bath for mudfish infected by Saprolegnia parasitica in practice. The result of in vitro antifungal activity test showed the growth inhibition of the fungus at 100 ppm, which and the lower concentrations occurred no fatal case in any fish species tested until the end of the examination. The 125 ppm of the solution, however, resulted in 13.3 %, 13.3 %, and 6.3 % of mortality in carp, eel, and mudfish, respectively. But both 250 and 500 ppm of the solution leaded lethality to all population of each fish species within 24 hours. Besides, H-E staining also showed no specific evidence for toxicity in fish at lesser than 100 ppm of EM-PSS. On the other hand, as a result of field application of the solution, no growth of fungal mycelium was found in fish bodies from gross observation 5 days post treatment. In conclusion, 100ppm of EM-PSS resulted in inhibition and treatment of Saprolegnia parasitica infection. In addition, the use of EM-PSS lower than 100 ppm is safe for fish. Therefore, EM-PSS could be used as aquatic fungicide, and also may be possible to be a potential eco-friendly disinfectant in aquaculture.

Keywords: antifungal activity, effective microorganism, toxicity, saprolegnia, processed sulfur solution

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1 In vitro and in vivo Effects of 'Sonneratia alba' Extract against the Fish Pathogen 'Aphanomyces invadans'

Authors: S. F. Afzali, W. L. Wong


The epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by the oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans; known to be one of the infectious fish diseases for farmed and wild fishes in fresh and brackish-water from the Asia-pacific region, America and Africa. Although, EUS had been documented by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1995, hitherto, there is neither standard chemical agents that can be used for successful treatment of this destructive infection in the time of outbreak; nor available vaccine for prevention. Plant-based remedies in controlling fish diseases are gaining much attention recently as an alternative to chemical treatments, which possess negative effects to the environment and human. In present study, Sonneratia alba, a mangrove plant belongs to the Sonneratiaceae family, was screened in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against A. invadans mycelium growth and its effects on fish innate immune system and disease resistant. The in vitro tests was performed using the disc diffusion methods with measurements of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone. For in vivo study, the S. alba extract supplemented diets were administrated at 0.0, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% on healthy goldfish, Carassius auratus, which challenged with A. invadans zoospores (100 spores/ml). To compare the significant differences in the hematological and immunological parameters obtained from the experiments, the data were analysed using the SPSS. The methanol extract of S. alba effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of A. invadans at a minimum concentration of 1000 ppm for agar and filter paper diffusion experiments. In the agar diffusion test, 500 ppm of the extract inhibited the fungus mycelial growth up to 96 hours after exposure. The mycelial growth from the edge of the pre-inoculated A. invadans agar discs treated with S. alba extracts at concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 ppm were 15, 8 and 0 mm respectively. The results of the filter paper disc test showed that the S. alba extract at its minimal inhibitory concentration (1000 ppm) has similar qualitative inhibitory effect as malachite green at 1 ppm and formalin at 250 ppm. According to the in vivo tests findings, in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet, the numbers of white blood cell and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased after the second week of treatment. Whilst the numbers of red blood cell significantly decreased in the infected fish fed with 0.0 and 1.0% supplementation diet. After the third week of feeding, significant increases in the total protein, albumin level, lysozyme activity were recorded in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet. Also, the enriched diets increased the survival rate as compared to the untreated group that suffered from 90% mortality. The present study indicated that S. alba extract may inhibit the mycelial growth of A. invadans effectively, suggesting an alternative to other chemotherapeutic agents, which brought much environmental and health concerns to the public, for EUS treatment.

Keywords: fungal pathogen, goldfish, organic extract, treatment

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