Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: fissure sealant

12 Comparison Between Nano Composite and Pits and Fissure Sealant: In Vitro Study

Authors: Osama Safwat Mohamed

Abstract:

Pits and fissures dental caries can be prevented using sealant material. This study aimed to compare the microleakage and interfacial morphology of flowable nanocomposites and conventional pit and fissure sealants. 60 extracted intact and caries-free permanent mandibular third molars. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20) according to the material used for pit and fissure sealant. Group I: Unfilled resin-based pits and fissure sealant, Group II: Unfilled resin-based pits and fissure sealant with bond and Group III: Nano flowable composite resin with bond. The results showed that nano-flowable composite was significantly better than the conventional sealants groups p = 0.000. As well there was better as well, there were gaps between sealants and the tooth surfaces in groups I and II, but for group III, there was close contact between the nano-flowable composite and tooth surfaces. It was concluded that nano-flowable composite showed better microleakage and interfacial morphology results than conventional pits and fissure sealant and offered promising results at the fissure sealing.

Keywords: pits and fissures, Sealant, nanocomposite, dental caries

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11 Antibacterial Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride Incorporated in Fissure Sealants

Authors: Nélio Veiga, Paula Ferreira, Tiago Correia, Maria J. Correia, Carlos Pereira, Odete Amaral, Ilídio J. Correia

Abstract:

Introduction: The application of fissure sealants is considered to be an important primary prevention method used in dental medicine. However, the formation of microleakage gaps between tooth enamel and the fissure sealant applied is one of the most common reasons of dental caries development in teeth with fissure sealants. The association between various dental biomaterials may limit the major disadvantages and limitations of biomaterials functioning in a complementary manner. The present study consists in the incorporation of a cariostatic agent – silver diamine fluoride (SDF) – in a resin-based fissure sealant followed by the study of release kinetics by spectrophotometry analysis of the association between both biomaterials and assessment of the inhibitory effect on the growth of the reference bacterial strain Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: An experimental in vitro study was designed consisting in the entrapment of SDF (Cariestop® 12% and 30%) into a commercially available fissure sealant (Fissurit®), by photopolymerization and photocrosslinking. The same sealant, without SDF was used as a negative control. The effect of the sealants on the growth of S. mutans was determined by the presence of bacterial inhibitory halos in the cultures at the end of the incubation period. In order to confirm the absence of bacteria in the surface of the materials, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) characterization was performed. Also, to analyze the release profile of SDF along time, spectrophotometry technique was applied. Results: The obtained results indicate that the association of SDF to a resin-based fissure sealant may be able to increase the inhibition of S. mutans growth. However, no SDF release was noticed during the in vitro release studies and no statistical significant difference was verified when comparing the inhibitory halo sizes obtained for test and control group.  Conclusions: In this study, the entrapment of SDF in the resin-based fissure sealant did not potentiate the antibacterial effect of the fissure sealant or avoid the immediate development of dental caries. The development of more laboratorial research and, afterwards, long-term clinical data are necessary in order to verify if this association between these biomaterials is effective and can be considered for being used in oral health management. Also, other methodologies for associating cariostatic agents and sealant should be addressed.

Keywords: biomaterial, fissure sealant, primary prevention, silver diamine fluoride

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10 Physicochemical-Mechanical, Thermal and Rheological Properties Analysis of Pili Tree (Canarium Ovatum) Resin as Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Sealant

Authors: Mark Kennedy, E. Bantugon, Noruane A. Daileg

Abstract:

Leaks arising from aircraft fuel tanks is a protracted problem for the aircraft manufacturers, operators, and maintenance crews. It principally arises from stress, structural defects, or degraded sealants as the aircraft age. It can be ignited by different sources, which can result in catastrophic flight and consequences, exhibiting a major drain both on time and budget. In order to mitigate and eliminate this kind of problem, the researcher produced an experimental sealant having a base material of natural tree resin, the Pili Tree Resin. Aside from producing an experimental sealant, the main objective of this research is to analyze its physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties, which is beneficial and effective for specific aircraft parts, particularly the integral fuel tank. The experimental method of research was utilized in this study since it is a product invention. This study comprises two parts, specifically the Optimization Process and the Characterization Process. In the Optimization Process, the experimental sealant was subjected to the Flammability Test, an important test and consideration according to 14 Code of Federal Regulation Appendix N, Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis, to get the most suitable formulation. Followed by the Characterization Process, where the formulated experimental sealant has undergone thirty-eight (38) different standard testing including Organoleptic, Instrumental Color Measurement Test, Smoothness of Appearance Test, Miscibility Test, Boiling Point Test, Flash Point Test, Curing Time, Adhesive Test, Toxicity Test, Shore A Hardness Test, Compressive Strength, Shear Strength, Static Bending Strength, Tensile Strength, Peel Strength Test, Knife Test, Adhesion by Tape Test, Leakage Test), Drip Test, Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Calorific Value, Viscosity Test, Creep Test, and Anti-Sag Resistance Test to determine and analyze the five (5) material properties of the sealant. The numerical values of the mentioned tests are determined using product application, testing, and calculation. These values are then used to calculate the efficiency of the experimental sealant. Accordingly, this efficiency is the means of comparison between the experimental and commercial sealant. Based on the results of the different standard testing conducted, the experimental sealant exceeded all the data results of the commercial sealant. This result shows that the physicochemical-mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of the experimental sealant are far more effective as an aircraft integral fuel tank sealant alternative in comparison to the commercial sealant. Therefore, Pili Tree possesses a new role and function: a source of ingredients in sealant production.

Keywords: Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank, Physicochemi-mechanical, Pili Tree Resin, Properties, Rheological, Sealant, Thermal

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9 Injunctions, Disjunctions, Remnants: The Reverse of Unity

Authors: Igor Guatelli

Abstract:

The universe of aesthetic perception entails impasses about sensitive divergences that each text or visual object may be subjected to. If approached through intertextuality that is not based on the misleading notion of kinships or similarities a priori admissible, the possibility of anachronistic, heterogeneous - and non-diachronic - assemblies can enhance the emergence of interval movements, intermediate, and conflicting, conducive to a method of reading, interpreting, and assigning meaning that escapes the rigid antinomies of the mere being and non-being of things. In negative, they operate in a relationship built by the lack of an adjusted meaning set by their positive existences, with no remainders; the generated interval becomes the remnant of each of them; it is the opening that obscures the stable positions of each one. Without the negative of absence, of that which is always missing or must be missing in a text, concept, or image made positive by history, nothing is perceived beyond what has been already given. Pairings or binary oppositions cannot lead only to functional syntheses; on the contrary, methodological disturbances accumulated by the approximation of signs and entities can initiate a process of becoming as an opening to an unforeseen other, transformation until a moment when the difficulties of [re]conciliation become the mainstay of a future of that sign/entity, not envisioned a priori. A counter-history can emerge from these unprecedented, misadjusted approaches, beginnings of unassigned injunctions and disjunctions, in short, difficult alliances that open cracks in a supposedly cohesive history, chained in its apparent linearity with no remains, understood as a categorical historical imperative. Interstices are minority fields that, because of their opening, are capable of causing opacity in that which, apparently, presents itself with irreducible clarity. Resulting from an incomplete and maladjusted [at the least dual] marriage between the signs/entities that originate them, this interval may destabilize and cause disorder in these entities and their own meanings. The interstitials offer a hyphenated relationship: a simultaneous union and separation, a spacing between the entity’s identity and its otherness or, alterity. One and the other may no longer be seen without the crack or fissure that now separates them, uniting, by a space-time lapse. Ontological, semantic shifts are caused by this fissure, an absence between one and the other, one with and against the other. Based on an improbable approximation between some conceptual and semantic shifts within the design production of architect Rem Koolhaas and the textual production of the philosopher Jacques Derrida, this article questions the notion of unity, coherence, affinity, and complementarity in the process of construction of thought from these ontological, epistemological, and semiological fissures that rattle the signs/entities and their stable meanings. Fissures in a thought that is considered coherent, cohesive, formatted are the negativity that constitutes the interstices that allow us to move towards what still remains as non-identity, which allows us to begin another story.

Keywords: clearing, interstice, negative, remnant, spectrum

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8 Analyzing the Plausible Alternatives in Contracting the Societal Fissure Caused by Digital Divide in Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

'Digital Divide' is a concept that has existed in this paradigm ever since the discovery of the first-generation technologies. Before the turn of the century, it was basically used to describe the gap between those with telephone communication access and those without it. At present, it is plainly descriptive in itself to illustrate the cavity among those with Internet access and those without. Though the concept of digital divide has been merely lying in sight for as long as time itself, the friction it caused has not yet been fully realized to solve major crisis situations. Unlike well-developed countries, Sri Lanka is still in the verge of moving farther away from a developing country in the race towards reaching a developed state. Access to technological resources varies from region to region, even within the island itself, with one region having a considerable percentage of its community exposed to the Internet and its related technologies, and the other unaware of such. Thus, this paper intends to analyze the roots for the still-extant gap instigated based on the concept of ‘Digital Divide’ and explores the plausible potentials that could be brought about by narrowing this prevailing percentage among the population, specifically entrenching the advantages reaped towards an economic augmentation and culture or lifestyle revolution on the path towards development.

Keywords: communication, digital divide, society, Sri Lanka

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7 Thermochemical Study of the Degradation of the Panels of Wings in a Space Shuttle by Utilization of HSC Chemistry Software and Its Database

Authors: Ahmed Ait Hou

Abstract:

The wing leading edge and nose cone of the space shuttle are fabricated from a reinforced carbon/carbon material. This material attains its durability from a diffusion coating of silicon carbide (SiC) and a glass sealant. During re-entry into the atmosphere, this material is subject to an oxidizing high-temperature environment. The use of thermochemical calculations resulting at the HSC CHEMISTRY software and its database allows us to interpret the phenomena of oxidation and chloridation observed on the wing leading edge and nose cone of the space shuttle during its mission in space. First study is the monitoring of the oxidation reaction of SiC. It has been demonstrated that thermal oxidation of the SiC gives the two compounds SiO₂(s) and CO(g). In the extreme conditions of very low oxygen partial pressures and high temperatures, there is a reaction between SiC and SiO₂, leading to SiO(g) and CO(g). We had represented the phase stability diagram of Si-C-O system calculated by the use of the HSC Chemistry at 1300°C. The principal characteristic of this diagram of predominance is the line of SiC + SiO₂ coexistence. Second study is the monitoring of the chloridation reaction of SiC. The other problem encountered in addition to oxidation is the phenomenon of chloridation due to the presence of NaCl. Indeed, after many missions, the leading edge wing surfaces have exhibited small pinholes. We have used the HSC Chemistry database to analyze these various reactions. Our calculations concorde with the phenomena we announced in research work resulting in NASA LEWIS Research center.

Keywords: thermochchemicals calculations, HSC software, oxidation and chloridation, wings in space

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6 Thickness Effect on Concrete Fracture Toughness K1c

Authors: Benzerara Mohammed, Redjel Bachir, Kebaili Bachir

Abstract:

The cracking of the concrete is a more crucial problem with the development of the complex structures related to technological progress. The projections in the knowledge of the breaking process make it possible today for better prevention of the risk of the fracture. The breaking strength brutal of a quasi-fragile material like the concrete called Toughness, is measured by a breaking value of the factor of intensity of the constraints K1C for which the crack is propagated, it is an intrinsic property of material. Many studies reported in the literature treating of the concrete were carried out on specimens which are in fact inadequate compared to the intrinsic characteristic to identify. We started from this established fact, in order to compare the evolution of the parameter of toughness K1C measured by calling upon ordinary concrete specimens of three prismatics geometries different (10*10*84) cm³ and (5*20*120) cm³ &(12*20*120) cm³ containing from the side notches various depths simulating of the cracks was set up. The notches are carried out using triangular pyramidal plates into manufactured out of sheet coated placed at the centre of the specimens at the time of the casting, then withdrawn to leave the trace of a crack. The tests are carried out in 3 points bending test in mode 1 of fracture, by using the techniques of mechanical fracture. The evolution of the parameter of toughness K1C measured with the three geometries specimens gives almost the same results. They are acceptable and return in the beach of the results determined by various researchers (toughness of the ordinary concrete turns to the turn of the 1 MPa √m). These results inform us about the presence of an economy on the level of the geometrie specimen (5*20*120) cm³, therefore to use plates specimens later if one wants to master the toughness of this material complexes, astonishing but always essential that is the concrete.

Keywords: elementary representative volume, concrete, fissure, toughness

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5 Influence of Specimen Geometry (10*10*40), (12*12*60) and (5*20*120), on Determination of Toughness of Concrete Measurement of Critical Stress Intensity Factor: A Comparative Study

Authors: M. Benzerara, B. Redjel, B. Kebaili

Abstract:

The cracking of the concrete is a more crucial problem with the development of the complex structures related to technological progress. The projections in the knowledge of the breaking process make it possible today for better prevention of the risk of the fracture. The breaking strength brutal of a quasi-fragile material like the concrete called Toughness is measured by a breaking value of the factor of the intensity of the constraints K1C for which the crack is propagated, it is an intrinsic property of the material. Many studies reported in the literature treating of the concrete were carried out on specimens which are in fact inadequate compared to the intrinsic characteristic to identify. We started from this established fact, in order to compare the evolution of the parameter of toughness K1C measured by calling upon ordinary concrete specimens of three prismatic geometries different (10*10*40) Cm3, (12*12*60) Cm3 & (5*20*120) Cm3 containing from the side notches various depths simulating of the cracks was set up.The notches are carried out using triangular pyramidal plates into manufactured out of sheet coated placed at the center of the specimens at the time of the casting, then withdrawn to leave the trace of a crack. The tests are carried out in 3 points bending test in mode 1 of fracture, by using the techniques of mechanical fracture. The evolution of the parameter of toughness K1C measured with the three geometries specimens gives almost the same results. They are acceptable and return in the beach of the results determined by various researchers (toughness of the ordinary concrete turns to the turn of the 1 MPa √m). These results inform us about the presence of an economy on the level of the geometry specimen (5*20*120) Cm3, therefore, to use plates specimens later if one wants to master the toughness of this material complexes, astonishing but always essential that is the concrete.

Keywords: concrete, fissure, specimen, toughness

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4 Cadaveric Study of Lung Anatomy: A Surgical Overview

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Rati Tandon, Saroj Kaler

Abstract:

Introduction: A thorough knowledge of variations in lung anatomy is of prime significance during surgical procedures like lobectomy, pneumonectomy, and segmentectomy of lungs. The arrangement of structures in the lung hilum act as a guide in performing such procedures. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures in the right lung is eparterial bronchus, pulmonary artery, hyparterial bronchus and pulmonary veins from above downwards. In the left lung, it is pulmonary artery, principal bronchus and pulmonary vein from above downwards. The arrangement of hilar structures from anterior to posterior in both the lungs is pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and principal bronchus. The bronchial arteries are very small and usually the posterior most structures in the hilum of lungs. Aim: The present study aims at reporting the variations in hilar anatomy (arrangement and number) of lungs. Methodology: 75 adult formalin fixed cadaveric lungs from the department of Anatomy AIIMS New Delhi were observed for variations in the lobar anatomy. Arrangement of pulmonary hilar structures was meticulously observed, and any deviation in the pattern of presentation was recorded. Results: Among the 75 adult lung specimens observed 36 specimens were of right lung and the rest of left lung. Seven right lung specimens showed only 2 lobes with an oblique fissure dividing them and one left lung showed 3 lobes. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures was seen in 22 right lungs and 23 left lungs. Rest of the lung specimens (14 right and 16 left) showed a varied pattern of arrangement of hilar structures. Some of them showed alterations in the sequence of arrangement of pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, bronchus, and others in the number of these structures. Conclusion: Alterations in the pattern of arrangement of structures in the lung hilum are quite frequent. A compromise in knowledge of such variations will result in inadvertent complications like intraoperative bleeding during surgical procedures.

Keywords: fissures, hilum, lobes, pulmonary

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3 Gross and Clinical Anatomy of the Skull of Adult Chinkara, Gazella bennettii

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib Ur Rehman, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was (1) to study gross morphological, osteometric and clinical important landmarks in the skull of adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data and (2) to study sexual dimorphism in male and female adult Chinkara through osteometry. For this purpose, after performing postmortem examination, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age was buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Gross morphological features and various osteometric parameters of the skull were studied in the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The shape of the Chinkara skull was elongated and had thirty-two bones. The skull was comprised of the cranial and the facial part. The facial region of the skull was formed by maxilla, incisive, palatine, vomar, pterygoid, frontal, parietal, nasal, incisive, turbinates, mandible and hyoid apparatus. The bony region of the cranium of Chinkara was comprised of occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, interparietal, parietal, temporal, and frontal bone. The foramina identified in the facial region of the skull of Chinkara were infraorbital, supraorbital foramen, lacrimal, sphenopalatine, maxillary and caudal palatine foramina. The foramina of the cranium of the skull of the Chinkara were the internal acoustic meatus, external acoustic meatus, hypoglossal canal, transverse canal, sphenorbital fissure, carotid canal, foramen magnum, stylomastoid foramen, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and jugular foramen, and the rostral and the caudal foramina that formed the pterygoid canal. The measured craniometric parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between male and female adult Chinkara except Palatine bone, OI, DO, IOCDE, OCT, ICW, IPCW, and PCPL were significantly higher (p > 0.05) in male than female Chinkara and mean values of the mandibular parameters except b and h were significantly (p < 0.5) higher in male Chinkara than female Chinkara. Sexual dimorphism exists in some of the orbital and foramen magnum parameters, while high levels of sexual dimorphism identified in mandible. In conclusion, morphocraniometric studies of Chinkara skull made it possible to identify species-specific skull and use clinical measurements during practical application.

Keywords: Chinkara, skull, morphology, morphometrics, sexual dimorphism

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2 Benign Recurrent Unilateral Abducens (6th) Nerve Palsy in 14 Months Old Girl: A Case Report

Authors: Khaled Alabduljabbar

Abstract:

Background: Benign, isolated, recurrent sixth nerve palsy is very rare in children. Here we report a case of recurrent abducens nerve palsy with no obvious etiology. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. A recurrent benign form of 6th nerve palsy, a rarer still palsy, has been described in the literature, and it is of most likely secondary to inflammatory causes, e.g, following viral and bacterial infections. Purpose: To present a case of 14 months old girl with recurrent attacks of isolated left sixth cranial nerve palsy following upper respiratory tract infection. Observation: The patient presented to opthalmology clinic with sudden onset of inward deviation (esotropia) of the left eye with a compensatory left face turn one week following signs of upper respiratory tract infection. Ophthalmological examination revealed large angle esotropia of the left eye in primary position, with complete limitation of abduction of the left eye, no palpebral fissure changes, and abnormal position of the head (left face turn). Visual acuity was normal, and no significant refractive error on cycloplegic refraction for her age. Fundus examination was normal with no evidence of papilledema. There was no relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) and no anisocoria. Past medical history and family history were unremarkable, with no history of convulsion attacks or head trauma. Additional workout include CBC. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and angiography of the brain were performed and demonstrated the absence of intracranial and orbital lesions. Referral to pediatric neurologist was also done and concluded no significant finding. The patient showed improvement of the left sixth cranial nerve palsy and left face turn over a period of two months. Seven months since the first attack, she experienced a recurrent attack of left eye esotropia with left face turn concurrent with URTI. The rest of eye examination was again unremarkable. CT scan and MRI scan of brain and orbit were performed and showed only signs of sinusitis with no intracranial pathology. The palsy resolved spontaneously within two months. A third episode of left 6th nerve palsy occurred 6 months later, whichrecovered over one month. Examination and neuroimagingwere unremarkable. A diagnosis of benign recurrent left 6th cranial nerve palsy was made. Conclusion: Benign sixth cranial nerve palsy is always a diagnosis of exclusion given the more serious and life-threatening alternative causes. It seems to have a good prognosis with only supportive measures. The likelihood of benign 6th cranial nerve palsy to resolve completely and spontaneously is high. Observation for at least 6 months without intervention is advisable.

Keywords: 6th nerve pasy, abducens nerve pasy, recurrent nerve palsy, cranial nerve palsy

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1 Detection of Curvilinear Structure via Recursive Anisotropic Diffusion

Authors: Sardorbek Numonov, Hyohun Kim, Dongwha Shin, Yeonseok Kim, Ji-Su Ahn, Dongeun Choi, Byung-Woo Hong

Abstract:

The detection of curvilinear structures often plays an important role in the analysis of images. In particular, it is considered as a crucial step for the diagnosis of chronic respiratory diseases to localize the fissures in chest CT imagery where the lung is divided into five lobes by the fissures that are characterized by linear features in appearance. However, the characteristic linear features for the fissures are often shown to be subtle due to the high intensity variability, pathological deformation or image noise involved in the imaging procedure, which leads to the uncertainty in the quantification of anatomical or functional properties of the lung. Thus, it is desired to enhance the linear features present in the chest CT images so that the distinctiveness in the delineation of the lobe is improved. We propose a recursive diffusion process that prefers coherent features based on the analysis of structure tensor in an anisotropic manner. The local image features associated with certain scales and directions can be characterized by the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor that is often regularized via isotropic diffusion filters. However, the isotropic diffusion filters involved in the computation of the structure tensor generally blur geometrically significant structure of the features leading to the degradation of the characteristic power in the feature space. Thus, it is required to take into consideration of local structure of the feature in scale and direction when computing the structure tensor. We apply an anisotropic diffusion in consideration of scale and direction of the features in the computation of the structure tensor that subsequently provides the geometrical structure of the features by its eigenanalysis that determines the shape of the anisotropic diffusion kernel. The recursive application of the anisotropic diffusion with the kernel the shape of which is derived from the structure tensor leading to the anisotropic scale-space where the geometrical features are preserved via the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor computed from the diffused image. The recursive interaction between the anisotropic diffusion based on the geometry-driven kernels and the computation of the structure tensor that determines the shape of the diffusion kernels yields a scale-space where geometrical properties of the image structure are effectively characterized. We apply our recursive anisotropic diffusion algorithm to the detection of curvilinear structure in the chest CT imagery where the fissures present curvilinear features and define the boundary of lobes. It is shown that our algorithm yields precise detection of the fissures while overcoming the subtlety in defining the characteristic linear features. The quantitative evaluation demonstrates the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for the detection of fissures in the chest CT in terms of the false positive and the true positive measures. The receiver operating characteristic curves indicate the potential of our algorithm as a segmentation tool in the clinical environment. This work was supported by the MISP(Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the National Program for Excellence in SW (20170001000011001) supervised by the IITP(Institute for Information and Communications Technology Promotion).

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, chest CT imagery, chronic respiratory disease, curvilinear structure, fissure detection, structure tensor

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