Search results for: Dan Palmer
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Dan Palmer

22 Matching Law in Autoshaped Choice in Neural Networks

Authors: Giselle Maggie Fer Castañeda, Diego Iván González


The objective of this work was to study the autoshaped choice behavior in the Donahoe, Burgos and Palmer (DBP) neural network model and analyze it under the matching law. Autoshaped choice can be viewed as a form of economic behavior defined as the preference between alternatives according to their relative outcomes. The Donahoe, Burgos and Palmer (DBP) model is a connectionist proposal that unifies operant and Pavlovian conditioning. This model has been used for more than three decades as a neurobehavioral explanation of conditioning phenomena, as well as a generator of predictions suitable for experimental testing with non-human animals and humans. The study consisted of different simulations in which, in each one, a ratio of reinforcement was established for two alternatives, and the responses (i.e., activations) in each of them were measured. Choice studies with animals have demonstrated that the data generally conform closely to the generalized matching law equation, which states that the response ratio equals proportionally to the reinforcement ratio; therefore, it was expected to find similar results with the neural networks of the Donahoe, Burgos and Palmer (DBP) model since these networks have simulated and predicted various conditioning phenomena. The results were analyzed by the generalized matching law equation, and it was observed that under some contingencies, the data from the networks adjusted approximately to what was established by the equation. Implications and limitations are discussed.

Keywords: matching law, neural networks, computational models, behavioral sciences

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21 The Theotokos of the Messina Missal as a Byzantine Icon in Norman Sicily: A Study on Patronage and Devotion

Authors: Jesus Rodriguez Viejo


The aim of this paper is to study cross-cultural interactions between the West and Byzantium, in the fields of art and religion, by analyzing the decoration of one luxury manuscript. The Spanish National Library is home to one of the most extraordinary examples of illuminated manuscript production of Norman Sicily – the Messina Missal. Dating from the late twelfth century, this liturgical book was the result of the intense activity of artistic patronage of an Englishman, Richard Palmer. Appointed bishop of the Sicilian city in the second half of the century, Palmer set a painting workshop attached to his cathedral. The illuminated manuscripts produced there combine a clear Byzantine iconographic language with a myriad of elements imported from France, such as a large number of decorated initials. The most remarkable depiction contained in the Missal is that of the Theotokos (fol. 80r). Its appearance immediately recalls portative Byzantine icons of the Mother of God in South Italy and Byzantium and implies the intervention of an artist familiar with icon painting. The richness of this image is a clear proof of the prestige that Byzantine art enjoyed in the island after the Norman takeover. The production of the school of Messina under Richard Palmer could be considered a counterpart in the field of manuscript illumination of the court art of the Sicilian kings in Palermo and the impressive commissions for the cathedrals of Monreale and Cefalù. However, the ethnic composition of Palmer’s workshop has never been analyzed and therefore, we intend to shed light on the permanent presence of Greek-speaking artists in Norman Messina. The east of the island was the last stronghold of the Greeks and soon after the Norman conquest, the previous exchanges between the cities of this territory and Byzantium restarted again, mainly by way of trade. Palmer was not a Norman statesman, but a churchman and his love for religion and culture prevailed over the wars and struggles for power of the Sicilian kingdom in the central Mediterranean. On the other hand, the representation of the Theotokos can prove that Eastern devotional approaches to images were still common in the east of the island more than a century after the collapse of Byzantine rule. Local Norman lords repeatedly founded churches devoted to Greek saints and medieval Greek-speaking authors were widely copied in Sicilian scriptoria. The Madrid Missal and its Theotokos are doubtless the product of Western initiative but in a land culturally dominated by Byzantium. Westerners, such as Palmer and his circle, could have been immersed in this Hellenophile culture and therefore, naturally predisposed to perform prayers and rituals, in both public and private contexts, linked to ideas and practices of Greek origin, such as the concept of icon.

Keywords: history of art, byzantine art, manuscripts, norman sicily, messina, patronage, devotion, iconography

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20 Water Balance Components under Climate Change in Croatia

Authors: Jelena Bašić, Višnjica Vučetić, Mislav Anić, Tomislav Bašić


Lack of precipitation combined with high temperatures causes great damage to the agriculture and economy in Croatia. Therefore, it is important to understand water circulation and balance. We decided to gain a better insight into the spatial distribution of water balance components (WBC) and their long-term changes in Croatia. WBC are precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PET), actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture content (S), runoff (RO), recharge (R), and soil moisture loss (L). Since measurements of the mentioned components in Croatia are very rare, the Palmer model has been applied to estimate them. We refined method by setting into the account the corrective factor to include influence effects of the wind as well as a maximum soil capacity for specific soil types. We will present one hundred years’ time series of PET and ET showing the trends at few meteorological stations and a comparison of components of two climatological periods. The meteorological data from 109 stations have been used for the spatial distribution map of the WBC of Croatia.

Keywords: croatia, long-term trends, the palmer method, water balance components

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19 Physical Physics: Enhancing the Learning Experience for Undergraduate Game Development Students

Authors: Y. Kavanagh, N. O'Hara, R. Palmer, P. Lowe, D. Rafferty


Physical Physics is a physics education methodology for games programfmes that integrates physical activity with movement tracking and modelling. It significantly enhances the learning experience and it is effective in illustrating how physics is core in games design and programming, while allowing students to be active participants and take ownership of the learning process. It has been successfully piloted with undergraduate students studying Games Development.

Keywords: activity, enhanced learning, game development, physics

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18 Multi-Indicator Evaluation of Agricultural Drought Trends in Ethiopia: Implications for Dry Land Agriculture and Food Security

Authors: Dawd Ahmed, Venkatesh Uddameri


Agriculture in Ethiopia is the main economic sector influenced by agricultural drought. A simultaneous assessment of drought trends using multiple drought indicators is useful for drought planning and management. Intra-season and seasonal drought trends in Ethiopia were studied using a suite of drought indicators. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and Z-index for long-rainy, dry, and short-rainy seasons are used to identify drought-causing mechanisms. The Statistical software package R version 3.5.2 was used for data extraction and data analyses. Trend analysis indicated shifts in late-season long-rainy season precipitation into dry in the southwest and south-central portions of Ethiopia. Droughts during the dry season (October–January) were largely temperature controlled. Short-term temperature-controlled hydrologic processes exacerbated rainfall deficits during the short rainy season (February–May) and highlight the importance of temperature- and hydrology-induced soil dryness on the production of short-season crops such as tef. Droughts during the long-rainy season (June–September) were largely driven by precipitation declines arising from the narrowing of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Increased dryness during long-rainy season had severe consequences on the production of corn and sorghum. PDSI was an aggressive indicator of seasonal droughts suggesting the low natural resilience to combat the effects of slow-acting, moisture-depleting hydrologic processes. The lack of irrigation systems in the nation limits the ability to combat droughts and improve agricultural resilience. There is an urgent need to monitor soil moisture (a key agro-hydrologic variable) to better quantify the impacts of meteorological droughts on agricultural systems in Ethiopia.

Keywords: autocorrelation, climate change, droughts, Ethiopia, food security, palmer z-index, PDSI, SPEI, SPI, trend analysis

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17 Transformative Pedagogy and Online Adult Education

Authors: Glenn A. Palmer, Lorenzo Bowman, Juanita Johnson-Bailey


The ubiquitous economic upheaval that has gripped the global environment in the past few years displaced many workers through unemployment or underemployment. Globally, this disruption has caused many adult workers to seek additional education or skills to remain competitive, and acquire the ability and options to find gainful employment. While many learners have availed themselves of some opportunities to be retrained and retooled at locations within their communities, others have explored those options through the online learning environment. This paper examines the empirical research that explores the various strategies that are used in the adult online learning community that could also foster transformative learning.

Keywords: online learning, transformational learning, adult education, economic crisis, unemployment

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16 The HSBC Building in Shanghai: Diverse Styles of Ornament and the Construction of a Financial Empire

Authors: Lin Ji


The 1923 HSBC Building is one of the landmarks of Shanghai's Bund complex and is described as "one of the finest buildings from the Suez Canal to the Bering Strait". Mr George Leopold Wilson of Palmer&Turner and his design team combine the latest British design taste with Chinese elements and bring the high standard of London manufacturing to Shanghai. This paper reviews the establishment background and construction process of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Corporation in Shanghai, and analyzes the characteristics of various styles and ornament of HSBC. At the same time, using the research method of iconography, compared with Britain's exploration of modern design mode in the early 20th century, we can deeply understand how this "monument of world commerce and prosperity" realizes the identity construction of its financial empire in the Far East in the perfect combination of practicality and artistry.

Keywords: early 20-century Shanghai, the bund, the HSBC building, classical styles, ornament, identity construction

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15 A Review on Future Safety Conditions and Requirements for E-Bikes

Authors: Jonas Palmer, Leon Brüning, Lukas Himmelsbach


The worldwide ambitions to transform the transportation sector are increasingly affecting the safety conditions for all traffic participants and the required infrastructure. To contribute to the transformation and for health aspects, individuals search for carbon-free alternatives that include physical excitation. Especially e-bikes experience a growing demand within the last few years and consequently change the safety requirements. E-cyclists are exposed to amplified risks due to higher velocity in comparison to classic cyclists. Furthermore, cyclists suffer from a lack of infrastructure, rider assistance systems as well as awareness of other road users. For minimizing the risk of accidents, it is crucial to identify, develop and implement safety measures for cyclists. The paper aims to contribute to future research with delivering an overview of the latest publications and to subsequently identify essential research gaps. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the areas of technical adjustments as well as legal aspects and the correlation of both. The review`s insights can intensify the awareness of safety issues related to e-bikes and promote the development and implementation of appropriate measures.

Keywords: e-bike safety measures, future mobility, risk management, road safety

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14 Comprehensive Regional Drought Assessment Index

Authors: A. Zeynolabedin, M. A. Olyaei, B. Ghiasi


Drought is an inevitable part of the earth’s climate. It occurs regularly with no clear warning and without recognizing borders. In addition, its impact is cumulative and not immediately discernible. Iran is located in a semi-arid region where droughts occur periodically as natural hazard. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI), and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) are three well-known indices which describe drought severity; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. These indices take into account some factors such as precipitation, reservoir storage and discharge, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration in determining drought severity. In this paper, first all three indices are calculated in Aharchay river watershed located in northwestern part of Iran in East Azarbaijan province. Next, based on two other important parameters which are groundwater level and solar radiation, two new indices are defined. Finally, considering all five aforementioned indices, a combined drought index (CDI) is presented and calculated for the region. This combined index is based on all the meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural features of the region. The results show that the most severe drought condition in Aharchay watershed happened in Jun, 2004. The result of this study can be used for monitoring drought and prepare for the drought mitigation planning.

Keywords: drought, GIS, intensity index, regional assessment, variation maps

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13 The First Trocar Placement After Multiple Open Abdominal Surgeries in Children: A Preliminary Report

Authors: Öykü Barutçu, Mehmet Özgür Kuzdan


Aim: Laparoscopy is very risky in patients undergoing, multiple open abdominal surgeries. The aim of this study, to define a safe method for the first trocar placement in children with a history of multiple open abdominal surgeries. Methods: Children who underwent laparoscopic surgery between March 2019 and April 2020 with a history of three or more open abdominal surgeries were included in the retrospective study. Patient information was obtained from the hospital automation system. Ultrasonography was used to determine the location of adhesions preoperatively. The first trocar was placed according to ultrasonography findings, using the Hasson technique to create an air pocket with finger dissection. The patient's preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative findings are reported. Results: A total of 10 patients were included in the study. The median number of operations before laparoscopy was three. The most common site for the first trocar entry was Palmer's point (40%). No mortality or morbidity was observed amongst any patients. The average number of adhesions detected by USG and observed on laparoscopy were significantly positively correlated. Conclusion: In children with a history of multiple abdominal surgeries, abdominal wall ultrasonography for visualization of adhesions and finger dissection for the formation of an air pocket appears to be a safe method for the first trocar insertion.

Keywords: abdominal wall, child, laparoscopy, ultrasonography

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12 Pragmatic Competence in Pakistani English Language Learners

Authors: Ghazala Kausar


This study investigates Pakistani first year university students’ perception of the role of pragmatics in their general approach to learning English. The research is triggered by National Curriculum’s initiative to provide holistic opportunities to the students for language development and to equip them with competencies to use English language in academic and social contexts (New English National Curriculum for I-XII). The traditional grammar translation and examination oriented method is believed to reduce learners to silent listener (Zhang, 2008: Zhao 2009). This lead to the inability of the students to interpret discourse by relating utterances to their meaning, understanding the intentions of the users and how language is used in specific setting (Bachman & Palmer, 1996, 2010). Pragmatic competence is a neglected area as far as teaching and learning English in Pakistan is concerned. This study focuses on the different types of pragmatic knowledge, learners perception of such knowledge and learning strategies employed by different learners to process the learning in general and pragmatic in particular. This study employed three data collecting tools; a questionnaire, discourse completion task and interviews to elicit data from first year university students regarding their perception of pragmatic competence. Results showed that Pakistani first year university learners have limited pragmatic knowledge. Although they acknowledged the importance of linguistic knowledge for linguistic competence in the students but argued that insufficient English proficiency, limited knowledge of pragmatics, insufficient language material and tasks were major reasons of pragmatic failure.

Keywords: pragmatic competence, Pakistani college learners, linguistic competence

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11 Bionaut™: A Microrobotic Drug-Device Platform for the Local Treatment of Brainstem Gliomas

Authors: Alex Kiselyov, Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington; Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Michael Shpigelmacher


Despite the most aggressive surgical and adjuvant therapeutic strategies, treatment of both pediatric and adult brainstem tumors remains problematic. Novel strategies, including targeted biologics, immunotherapy, and specialized delivery systems such as convection-enhanced delivery (CED), have been proposed. While some of these novel treatments are entering phase I trials, the field is still in need of treatment(s) that exhibits dramatically enhanced potency with optimal therapeutic ratio. Bionaut Labs has developed a modular microrobotic platform for performing localized delivery of diverse therapeutics in vivo. Our biocompatible particles (Bionauts™) are externally propelled and visualized in real-time. Bionauts™ are specifically designed to enhance the effect of radiation therapy via anatomically precise delivery of a radiosensitizing agent, as exemplified by temozolomide (TMZ) and Avastin™ to the brainstem gliomas of diverse origin. The treatment protocol is designed to furnish a better therapeutic outcome due to the localized (vs systemic) delivery of the drug to the neoplastic lesion(s) for use as a synergistic combination of radiation and radiosensitizing agent. In addition, the procedure is minimally invasive and is expected to be appropriate for both adult and pediatric patients. Current progress, including platform optimization, selection of the lead radiosensitizer as well as in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of porcine and ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut, brainstem, glioma, local delivery, micro-robot, radiosensitizer

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10 Computing Machinery and Legal Intelligence: Towards a Reflexive Model for Computer Automated Decision Support in Public Administration

Authors: Jacob Livingston Slosser, Naja Holten Moller, Thomas Troels Hildebrandt, Henrik Palmer Olsen


In this paper, we propose a model for human-AI interaction in public administration that involves legal decision-making. Inspired by Alan Turing’s test for machine intelligence, we propose a way of institutionalizing a continuous working relationship between man and machine that aims at ensuring both good legal quality and higher efficiency in decision-making processes in public administration. We also suggest that our model enhances the legitimacy of using AI in public legal decision-making. We suggest that case loads in public administration could be divided between a manual and an automated decision track. The automated decision track will be an algorithmic recommender system trained on former cases. To avoid unwanted feedback loops and biases, part of the case load will be dealt with by both a human case worker and the automated recommender system. In those cases an experienced human case worker will have the role of an evaluator, choosing between the two decisions. This model will ensure that the algorithmic recommender system is not compromising the quality of the legal decision making in the institution. It also enhances the legitimacy of using algorithmic decision support because it provides justification for its use by being seen as superior to human decisions when the algorithmic recommendations are preferred by experienced case workers. The paper outlines in some detail the process through which such a model could be implemented. It also addresses the important issue that legal decision making is subject to legislative and judicial changes and that legal interpretation is context sensitive. Both of these issues requires continuous supervision and adjustments to algorithmic recommender systems when used for legal decision making purposes.

Keywords: administrative law, algorithmic decision-making, decision support, public law

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9 Bionaut™: A Breakthrough Robotic Microdevice to Treat Non-Communicating Hydrocephalus in Both Adult and Pediatric Patients

Authors: Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington, Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Alex Kiselyov, Michael Shpigelmacher


Bionaut Labs, LLC is developing a minimally invasive robotic microdevice designed to treat non-communicating hydrocephalus in both adult and pediatric patients. The device utilizes biocompatible microsurgical particles (Bionaut™) that are specifically designed to safely and reliably perform accurate fenestration(s) in the 3rd ventricle, aqueduct of Sylvius, and/or trapped intraventricular cysts of the brain in order to re-establish normal cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics and thereby balance and/or normalize intra/intercompartmental pressure. The Bionaut™ is navigated to the target via CSF or brain tissue in a minimally invasive fashion with precise control using real-time imaging. Upon reaching the pre-defined anatomical target, the external driver allows for directing the specific microsurgical action defined to achieve the surgical goal. Notable features of the proposed protocol are i) Bionaut™ access to the intraventricular target follows a clinically validated endoscopy trajectory which may not be feasible via ‘traditional’ rigid endoscopy: ii) the treatment is microsurgical, there are no foreign materials left behind post-procedure; iii) Bionaut™ is an untethered device that is navigated through the subarachnoid and intraventricular compartments of the brain, following pre-designated non-linear trajectories as determined by the safest anatomical and physiological path; iv) Overall protocol involves minimally invasive delivery and post-operational retrieval of the surgical Bionaut™. The approach is expected to be suitable to treat pediatric patients 0-12 months old as well as adult patients with obstructive hydrocephalus who fail traditional shunts or are eligible for endoscopy. Current progress, including platform optimization, Bionaut™ control, and real-time imaging and in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut™, cerebrospinal fluid, CSF, fenestration, hydrocephalus, micro-robot, microsurgery

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8 Bionaut™: A Minimally Invasive Microsurgical Platform to Treat Non-Communicating Hydrocephalus in Dandy-Walker Malformation

Authors: Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington, Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Alex Kiselyov, Michael Shpigelmacher


The Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) represents a clinical syndrome manifesting as a combination of posterior fossa cyst, hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Anatomic hallmarks include hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, enlargement of the posterior fossa, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Current treatments of DWM, including shunting of the cerebral spinal fluid ventricular system and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), are frequently clinically insufficient, require additional surgical interventions, and carry risks of infections and neurological deficits. Bionaut Labs develops an alternative way to treat Dandy-Walker Malformation (DWM) associated with non-communicating hydrocephalus. We utilize our discreet microsurgical Bionaut™ particles that are controlled externally and remotely to perform safe, accurate, effective fenestration of the Dandy-Walker cyst, specifically in the posterior fossa of the brain, to directly normalize intracranial pressure. Bionaut™ allows for complex non-linear trajectories not feasible by any conventional surgical techniques. The microsurgical particle safely reaches targets in the lower occipital section of the brain. Bionaut™ offers a minimally invasive surgical alternative to highly involved posterior craniotomy or shunts via direct fenestration of the fourth ventricular cyst at the locus defined by the individual anatomy. Our approach offers significant advantages over the current standards of care in patients exhibiting anatomical challenge(s) as a manifestation of DWM, and therefore, is intended to replace conventional therapeutic strategies. Current progress, including platform optimization, Bionaut™ control, and real-time imaging and in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut™, cerebral spinal fluid, CSF, cyst, Dandy-Walker, fenestration, hydrocephalus, micro-robot

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7 A Triad Pedagogy for Increased Digital Competence of Human Resource Management Students: Reflecting on Human Resource Information Systems at a South African University

Authors: Esther Pearl Palmer


Driven by the increased pressure on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to produce work-ready graduates for the modern world of work, this study reflects on triad teaching and learning practices to increase student engagement and employability. In the South African higher education context, the employability of graduates is imperative in strengthening the country’s economy and in increasing competitiveness. Within this context, the field of Human Resource Management (HRM) calls for innovative methods and approaches to teaching and learning and assessing the skills and competencies of graduates to render them employable. Digital competency in Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) is an important component and prerequisite for employment in HRM. The purpose of this research is to reflect on the subject HRIS developed by lecturers at the Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT), with the intention to actively engage students in real-world learning activities and increase their employability. The Enrichment Triad Model (ETM) was used as theoretical framework to develop the subject as it supports a triad teaching and learning approach to education. It is, furthermore, an inter-structured model that supports collaboration between industry, academics and students. The study follows a mixed-method approach to reflect on the learning experiences of the industry, academics and students in the subject field over the past three years. This paper is a work in progress and seeks to broaden the scope of extant studies about student engagement in work-related learning to increase employability. Based on the ETM as theoretical framework and pedagogical practice, this paper proposes that following a triad teaching and learning approach will increase work-related skills of students. Findings from the study show that students, academics and industry alike regard educational opportunities that incorporate active learning experiences with the world of work enhances student engagement in learning and renders them more employable.

Keywords: digital competence, enriched triad model, human resource information systems, student engagement, triad pedagogy.

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6 Historical Tree Height Growth Associated with Climate Change in Western North America

Authors: Yassine Messaoud, Gordon Nigh, Faouzi Messaoud, Han Chen


The effect of climate change on tree growth in boreal and temperate forests has received increased interest in the context of global warming. However, most studies were conducted in small areas and with a limited number of tree species. Here, we examined the height growth responses of seventeen tree species to climate change in Western North America. 37009 stands from forest inventory databases in Canada and USA with varying establishment date were selected. Dominant and co-dominant trees from each stand were sampled to determine top tree height at 50 years breast height age. Height was related to historical mean annual and summer temperatures, annual and summer Palmer Drought Severity Index, tree establishment date, slope, aspect, soil fertility as determined by the rate of carbon organic matter decomposition (carbon/nitrogen), geographic locations (latitude, longitude, and elevation), species range (coastal, interior, and both ranges), shade tolerance and leaf form (needle leaves, deciduous needle leaves, and broadleaves). Climate change had mostly a positive effect on tree height growth. The results explained 62.4% of the height growth variance. Since 1880, height growth increase was greater for coastal, high shade tolerant, and broadleaf species. Height growth increased more on steep slopes and high soil fertility soils. Greater height growth was mostly observed at the leading range and upward. Conversely, some species showed the opposite pattern probably due to the increase of drought (coastal Mediterranean area), precipitation and cloudiness (Alaska and British Columbia) and peculiarity (higher latitudes-lower elevations and vice versa) of western North America topography. This study highlights the role of the species ecological amplitude and traits, and geographic locations as the main factors determining the growth response and its magnitude to the recent global climate change.

Keywords: Height growth, global climate change, species range, species characteristics, species ecological amplitude, geographic locations, western North America

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5 Online Monitoring and Control of Continuous Mechanosynthesis by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

Authors: Darren A. Whitaker, Dan Palmer, Jens Wesholowski, James Flaherty, John Mack, Ahmad B. Albadarin, Gavin Walker


Traditional mechanosynthesis has been performed by either ball milling or manual grinding. However, neither of these techniques allow the easy application of process control. The temperature may change unpredictably due to friction in the process. Hence the amount of energy transferred to the reactants is intrinsically non-uniform. Recently, it has been shown that the use of Twin-Screw extrusion (TSE) can overcome these limitations. Additionally, TSE enables a platform for continuous synthesis or manufacturing as it is an open-ended process, with feedstocks at one end and product at the other. Several materials including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), co-crystals and small organic molecules have been produced mechanochemically using TSE. The described advantages of TSE are offset by drawbacks such as increased process complexity (a large number of process parameters) and variation in feedstock flow impacting on product quality. To handle the above-mentioned drawbacks, this study utilizes UV-Vis spectrophotometry (InSpectroX, ColVisTec) as an online tool to gain real-time information about the quality of the product. Additionally, this is combined with real-time process information in an Advanced Process Control system (PharmaMV, Perceptive Engineering) allowing full supervision and control of the TSE process. Further, by characterizing the dynamic behavior of the TSE, a model predictive controller (MPC) can be employed to ensure the process remains under control when perturbed by external disturbances. Two reactions were studied; a Knoevenagel condensation reaction of barbituric acid and vanillin and, the direct amidation of hydroquinone by ammonium acetate to form N-Acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP) commonly known as paracetamol. Both reactions could be carried out continuously using TSE, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the percentage conversion of starting materials to product. This information was used to construct partial least squares (PLS) calibration models within the PharmaMV development system, which relates the percent conversion to product to the acquired UV-Vis spectrum. Once this was complete, the model was deployed within the PharmaMV Real-Time System to carry out automated optimization experiments to maximize the percentage conversion based on a set of process parameters in a design of experiments (DoE) style methodology. With the optimum set of process parameters established, a series of PRBS process response tests (i.e. Pseudo-Random Binary Sequences) around the optimum were conducted. The resultant dataset was used to build a statistical model and associated MPC. The controller maximizes product quality whilst ensuring the process remains at the optimum even as disturbances such as raw material variability are introduced into the system. To summarize, a combination of online spectral monitoring and advanced process control was used to develop a robust system for optimization and control of two TSE based mechanosynthetic processes.

Keywords: continuous synthesis, pharmaceutical, spectroscopy, advanced process control

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4 Gamifying Content and Language Integrated Learning: A Study Exploring the Use of Game-Based Resources to Teach Primary Mathematics in a Second Language

Authors: Sarah Lister, Pauline Palmer


Research findings presented within this paper form part of a larger scale collaboration between academics at Manchester Metropolitan University and a technology company. The overarching aims of this project focus on developing a series of game-based resources to promote the teaching of aspects of mathematics through a second language (L2) in primary schools. This study explores the potential of game-based learning (GBL) as a dynamic way to engage and motivate learners, making learning fun and purposeful. The research examines the capacity of GBL resources to provide a meaningful and purposeful context for CLIL. GBL is a powerful learning environment and acts as an effective vehicle to promote the learning of mathematics through an L2. The fun element of GBL can minimise stress and anxiety associated with mathematics and L2 learning that can create barriers. GBL provides one of the few safe domains where it is acceptable for learners to fail. Games can provide a life-enhancing experience for learners, revolutionizing the routinized ways of learning through fusing learning and play. This study argues that playing games requires learners to think creatively to solve mathematical problems, using the L2 in order to progress, which can be associated with the development of higher-order thinking skills and independent learning. GBL requires learners to engage appropriate cognitive processes with increased speed of processing, sensitivity to environmental inputs, or flexibility in allocating cognitive and perceptual resources. At surface level, GBL resources provide opportunities for learners to learn to do things. Games that fuse subject content and appropriate learning objectives have the potential to make learning academic subjects more learner-centered, promote learner autonomy, easier, more enjoyable, more stimulating and engaging and therefore, more effective. Data includes observations of the children playing the games and follow up group interviews. Given that learning as a cognitive event cannot be directly observed or measured. A Cognitive Discourse Functions (CDF) construct was used to frame the research, to map the development of learners’ conceptual understanding in an L2 context and as a framework to observe the discursive interactions that occur learner to learner and between learner and teacher. Cognitively, the children were required to engage with mathematical content, concepts and language to make decisions quickly, to engage with the gameplay to reason, solve and overcome problems and learn through experimentation. The visual elements of the games supported the learning of new concepts. Children recognised the value of the games to consolidate their mathematical thinking and develop their understanding of new ideas. The games afforded them time to think and reflect. The teachers affirmed that the games provided meaningful opportunities for the learners to practise the language. The findings of this research support the view that using the game-based resources supported children’s grasp of mathematical ideas and their confidence and ability to use the L2. Engaging with the content and language through the games led to deeper learning.

Keywords: CLIL, gaming, language, mathematics

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3 Cystic Ganglionosis in Child: Rare Entity

Authors: Jatinder Pal Singh, Harpreet Singh, Gagandeep Singh Digra, Mandeep Kaur Sidhu, Pawan Kumar


Introduction: Ganglion cyst is a benign condition in which there is a cystic lesion in relation to a joint or a tendon sheath arising from myxoid degeneration of fibrous connective tissue. These can be unilocular or multilocular. In rare cases, there may be multiple ganglion cysts, known as cystic ganglionosis. They can occur at any age but are commonly seen in adults. Clinically they may be asymptomatic or present as swelling or mass effect in adjacent structures. These are common in extremities such as hands and feet. Case Presentation: 11-year-old female child presented with slowly progressive painless swelling of her right hand since the age of 4. Antenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Her family history was negative. She denies fever, malaise, morning stiffness, weight loss, fatigue, restriction of joint movements, or any sensory and motor deficit. Lab parameters were negative for inflammatory or infectious etiology. No other joint or extremity involvement was present. On physical examination, the swelling was present on the dorsum and palmer aspect of the right hand and wrist. They were non-tender on palpation without any motor or sensory deficit. MRI hand revealed multiple well-defined fluid signal intensity cystic appearing lesions in periarticular/intraarticular locations in relation to distal radio-ulnar, radio-carpal, intercarpal, carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints as well as peritendinous location around flexor tendons more so in the region of wrist, palm, 1st and 5th digit and along extensor tendons in the region of wrist, largest one noted along flexor pollicis longus tendon in thenar region and along 1st digit measuring approx. 4.6 x 1.2 x 1.2 centimeter. Pressure erosions and bone remodelling were noted in the bases of the 2nd to 5th metacarpals, capitate, trapezoid, the distal shaft of 1st metacarpal, and proximal phalanx of 1st digit. Marrow edema was noted in the base and proximal shaft of the 4th metacarpal and proximal shaft of the 3rd metacarpal – likely stress or pressure related. The patient was advised of aspiration, but the family refused the procedure. Therefore the patient was kept on conservative treatment. Conclusion: Cystic ganglionosis is a rare condition with very few cases reported in the medical literature. Its prevalence and association are not known because of the rarity of this condition. It should be considered as an important differential in patients presenting with soft tissue swelling in extremities. Treatment option includes conservative management, aspiration, and surgery. Aspiration has a high recurrence rate. Although surgery has a low recurrence rate, it carries a high rate of complications. Imaging with MRI is essential for confirmation of the cystic nature of lesions and their relation with the joint capsules or tendons. This helps in differentiating from other soft tissue lesions and presurgical planning.

Keywords: radiology, rare, cystic ganglionosis, child

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2 A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Investigating the Impact of Integrating Mass Drug Administration Treating Soil Transmitted Helminths with Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination in Remote Communities in Tanzania

Authors: Felix Lankester, Alicia Davis, Safari Kinung'hi, Catherine Bunga, Shayo Alkara, Imam Mzimbiri, Jonathan Yoder, Sarah Cleaveland, Guy H. Palmer


Achieving the London Declaration goal of a 90% reduction in neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) by 2030 requires cost-effective strategies that attain high and comprehensive coverage. The first objective of this trial was to assess the impact on cost and coverage of employing a novel integrative One Health approach linking two NTD control programs: mass drug administration (MDA) for soil-transmitted helminths in humans (STH) and mass dog rabies vaccination (MDRV). The second objective was to compare the coverage achieved by the MDA, a community-wide deworming intervention, with that of the existing national primary school-based deworming program (NSDP), with particular focus on the proportion of primary school-age children reached and their school enrolment status. Our approach was unconventional because, in line with the One Health approach to disease control, it coupled the responsibilities and resources of the Ministries responsible for human and animal health into one program with the shared aim of preventing multiple NTDs. The trial was carried out in hard-to-reach pastoral communities comprising 24 villages of the Ngorongoro District, Tanzania, randomly allocated to either Arm A (MDA and MDRV), Arm B (MDA only) or Arm C (MDRV only). Objective one: The percentage of people in each target village that received treatment through MDA in Arms A and B was 63% and 65%, respectively (χ2 = 1, p = 0.32). The percentage of dogs vaccinated in Arm A and C was 70% and 81%, respectively (χ2 =9, p = 0.003). It took 33% less time for a single person and a dog to attend the integrated delivery than two separate events. Cost per dose (including delivery) was lower under the integrated strategy, with delivery of deworming and rabies vaccination reduced by $0.13 (54%) and $0.85 (19%) per dose, respectively. Despite a slight reduction in the proportion of village dogs vaccinated in the integrated event, both the integrated and non-integrated strategies achieved the target threshold of 70% required to eliminate rabies. Objective two: The percentages of primary school age children enrolled in school that was reached by this trial (73%) and the existing NSDP (80%) were not significantly different (F = 0.9, p = 0.36). However, of the primary school age children treated in this trial, 46% were not enrolled in school. Furthermore, 86% of the people treated would have been outside the reach of the NSDP because they were not primary school age or were primary school age children not enrolled in school. The comparable reach, the substantial reductions in cost per dose delivered and the decrease in participants’ time support this integrated One Health approach to control multiple NTDs. Further, the recorded level of non-enrolment at primary school suggests that, in remote areas, school-based delivery strategies could miss a large fraction of school-age children and that programs that focus delivery solely at the level of the primary school will miss a substantial proportion of both primary school age children as well as other individuals from the community. We have shown that these populations can be effectively reached through extramural programs.

Keywords: canine mediated human rabies, integrated health interventions, mass drug administration, neglected tropical disease, One Health, soil-transmitted helminths

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1 Efficacy and Safety of Sublingual Sufentanil for the Management of Acute Pain

Authors: Neil Singla, Derek Muse, Karen DiDonato, Pamela Palmer


Introduction: Pain is the most common reason people visit emergency rooms. Studies indicate however, that Emergency Department (ED) physicians often do not provide adequate analgesia to their patients as a result of gender and age bias, opiophobia and insufficient knowledge of and formal training in acute pain management. Novel classes of analgesics have recently been introduced, but many patients suffer from acute pain in settings where the availability of intravenous (IV) access may be limited, so there remains a clinical need for rapid-acting, potent analgesics that do not require an invasive route of delivery. A sublingual sufentanil tablet (SST), dispensed using a single-dose applicator, is in development for treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain in a medically-supervised setting. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the repeat-dose efficacy, safety and tolerability of sufentanil 20 mcg and 30 mcg sublingual tablets compared to placebo for the management of acute pain as determined by the time-weighted sum of pain intensity differences (SPID) to baseline over the 12-hour study period (SPID12). Key secondary efficacy variables included SPID over the first hour (SPID1), Total pain relief over the 12-hour study period (TOTPAR12), time to perceived pain relief (PR) and time to meaningful PR. Safety variables consisted of adverse events (AE), vital signs, oxygen saturation and early termination. Methods: In this Phase 2, double-blind, dose-finding study, an equal number of male and female patients were randomly assigned in a 2:2:1 ratio to SST 20 mcg, SS 30 mcg or placebo, respectively, following bunionectomy. Study drug was dosed as needed, but not more frequently than hourly. Rescue medication was available as needed. The primary endpoint was the Summed Pain Intensity Difference to baseline over 12h (SPIDI2). Safety was assessed by continuous oxygen saturation monitoring and adverse event reporting. Results: 101 patients (51 Male/50 Female) were randomized, 100 received study treatment (intent-to-treat [ITT] population), and 91 completed the study. Reasons for early discontinuation were lack of efficacy (6), adverse events (2) and drug-dosing error (1). Mean age was 42.5 years. For the ITT population, SST 30 mcg was superior to placebo (p=0.003) for the SPID12. SPID12 scores in the active groups were superior for both male (ANOVA overall p-value =0.038) and female (ANOVA overall p-value=0.005) patients. Statistically significant differences in favour of sublingual sufentanil were also observed between the SST 30mcg and placebo group for SPID1(p<0.001), TOTPAR12(p=0.002), time to perceived PR (p=0.023) and time to meaningful PR (p=0.010). Nausea, vomiting and somnolence were more frequent in the sufentanil groups but there were no significant differences between treatment arms for the proportion of patients who prematurely terminated due to AE or inadequate analgesia. Conclusions: Sufentanil tablets dispensed sublingually using a single-dose applicator is in development for treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe acute pain in a medically-supervised setting where immediate IV access is limited. When administered sublingually, sufentanil’s pharmacokinetic profile and non-invasive delivery makes it a useful alternative to IM or IV dosing.

Keywords: acute pain, pain management, sublingual, sufentanil

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