Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Bhaskar H. Zaware

30 Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami


A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.

Keywords: solvent extraction, PMPT, Palladium (II), spectrophotometry

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29 Isolation and Synthesis of 1’-S-1’-Acetoxycavicol Acetate as Potent Antidandruff Agent

Authors: M. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy


The air-dried and powdered methanol solvent extraction of the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal is subjected to bio-assay guided fractionation and isolation yielded a known compound namely, 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (1). The isolated known compound has been identified based on the physical, spectral data (IR, ¹H, ¹³C, NMR and mass spectroscopy) and comparison with an authentic sample. Finally isolated 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (1) was confirmed by synthesis. The crude methanol extract and identified known compound (1) were tested for antidandruff property against Malassezia furfur showed with MIC 1000 µg/mL and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga, isolation, 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, antidandruff activity, Malassezia furfur

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28 Automatic Segmentation of Lung Pleura Based On Curvature Analysis

Authors: Sasidhar B., Bhaskar Rao N., Ramesh Babu D. R., Ravi Shankar M.


Segmentation of lung pleura is a preprocessing step in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) which helps in reducing false positives in detection of lung cancer. The existing methods fail in extraction of lung regions with the nodules at the pleura of the lungs. In this paper, a new method is proposed which segments lung regions with nodules at the pleura of the lungs based on curvature analysis and morphological operators. The proposed algorithm is tested on 06 patient’s dataset which consists of 60 images of Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and the results are found to be satisfactory with 98.3% average overlap measure (AΩ).

Keywords: curvature analysis, image segmentation, morphological operators, thresholding

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27 Mind Your Product-Market Strategy on Selecting Marketing Inputs: An Uncertainty Approach in Indian Context

Authors: Susmita Ghosh, Bhaskar Bhowmick


Market is an important factor for start-ups to look into during decision-making in product development and related areas. Emerging country markets are more uncertain in terms of information availability and institutional supports. The literature review of market uncertainty reveals the need for identifying factors representing the market uncertainty. This paper identifies factors for market uncertainty using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and confirms the number of factor retention using an alternative factor retention criterion, ‘Parallel Analysis’. 500 entrepreneurs, engaged in start-ups from all over India participated in the study. This paper concludes with the factor structure of ‘market uncertainty’ having dimensions of uncertainty in industry orientation, uncertainty in customer orientation and uncertainty in marketing orientation.

Keywords: uncertainty, market, orientation, competitor, demand

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26 In Silico Studies on Selected Drug Targets for Combating Drug Resistance in Plasmodium Falcifarum

Authors: Deepika Bhaskar, Neena Wadehra, Megha Gulati, Aruna Narula, R. Vishnu, Gunjan Katyal


With drug resistance becoming widespread in Plasmodium falciparum infections, development of the alternative drugs is the desired strategy for prevention and cure of malaria. Three drug targets were selected to screen promising drug molecules from the GSK library of around 14000 molecules. Using an in silico structure-based drug designing approach, the differences in binding energies of the substrate and inhibitor were exploited between target sites of parasite and human to design a drug molecule against Plasmodium. The docking studies have shown several promising molecules from GSK library with more effective binding as compared to the already known inhibitors for the drug targets. Though stronger interaction has been shown by several molecules as compare to reference, few molecules have shown the potential as drug candidates though in vitro studies are required to validate the results.

Keywords: plasmodium, malaria, drug targets, in silico studies

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25 Analysis of Different Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for a Five-Phase Inverter

Authors: K. A. Chinmaya, M. Udaya Bhaskar


Multiphase motor drives are now a day considered for numerous applications due to the advantages that they offer when compared to their three-phase counterparts. Proper modeling of inverters and motors are important in devising an appropriate control algorithm. This paper develops a complete modeling of a five-phase inverter and five-phase space vector modulation schemes which can be used for five-phase motor drives. A novel modified algorithm is introduced which enables the sinusoidal output voltages up to certain voltage value. The waveforms of phase to neutral voltage are compared with the different modulation techniques and also different modulation indexes in terms of Low-order Harmonic (LH) voltage of 3rd and 7th present. A detailed performance evolution of existing and newly modified schemes is done in terms of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

Keywords: multi-phase drives, space vector modulation, voltage source inverter, low order harmonic voltages, total harmonic distortion

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24 Gut Metabolite Profiling of the Ethnic Groups from Assam, India

Authors: Madhusmita Dehingia, Supriyo Sen, Bhuwan Bhaskar, Tulsi Joishy, Mojibur R. Khan


Human gut microbes and their metabolites are important for maintaining homeostasis in the gut and are responsible for many metabolic and immune mediated diseases. In the present study, we determined the profiles of the gut metabolites of five different ethnic groups (Bodo, Tai-Phake, Karbi, Tea tribe and Tai-Aiton) of Assam. Fecal metabolite profiling of the 39 individuals belonging to the ethnic groups was carried out using Gas chromatography – Mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and comparison was performed among the tribes for common and unique metabolites produced within their gut. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of the metabolites suggested that the individuals grouped according to their ethnicity. Among the 66 abundant metabolites, 12 metabolites were found to be common among the five ethnic groups. Additionally, ethnicity wise some unique metabolites were also detected. For example, the tea tribe of Assam contained the tea components, Aniline and Benzoate more in their gut in comparison to others. Metabolites of microbial origin were also correlated with the already published metagenomic data of the same ethnic group and functional analysis were carried out based on human metabolome database.

Keywords: ethnicity, gut microbiota, GC-MS, metabolites

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23 Empirical Study on Grassroots Innovation for Entrepreneurship Development with Microfinance Provision as Moderator

Authors: Sonal H. Singh, Bhaskar Bhowmick


The research hypothesis formulated in this paper examines the importance of microfinance provision for entrepreneurship development by engendering a high level of entrepreneurial orientation among the grassroots entrepreneurs. A theoretically well supported empirical framework is proposed to identify the influence of financial services and non-financial services provided by microfinance institutes in strengthening the impact of grassroots innovation on entrepreneurial orientation under resource constraints. In this paper, Grassroots innovation is perceived in three dimensions: new learning practice, localized solution, and network development. The study analyzes the moderating effect of microfinance provision on the relationship between grassroots innovation and entrepreneurial orientation. The paper employed structural equation modelling on 400 data entries from the grassroots entrepreneurs in India. The research intends to help policymakers, entrepreneurs and microfinance providers to promote the innovative design of microfinance services for the well-being of grassroots entrepreneurs and to foster sustainable entrepreneurship development.

Keywords: entrepreneurship development, grassroots innovation, India, structural equation model

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22 Tetra Butyl Ammonium Cyanate Mediated Selective Synthesis of Sulfonyltriuret and Their Investigation towards Trypsin Protease Modulation

Authors: Amarjyoti Das Mahapatra, Umesh Kumar, Bhaskar Datta


A pseudo peptide can mimic the biological or structural properties of natural peptides. They have become an increasing attention in medicinal chemistry because of their interesting advantages like more bioavailability and less biodegradation than compare to the physiologically active native peptides which increase their therapeutic applications. Many biologically active compounds contain urea as functional groups, and they have improved pharmacokinetic properties because of their bioavailability and metabolic stability. Recently we have reported a single-step synthesis of sulfonyl urea and sulfonyltriuret from sulfonyl chloride and sodium cyanate. But the yield of sulfonyltriuret was less around 40-60% because of the formation of other products like sulfonamide and sulfonylureas. In the present work, we mainly focused on the selective synthesis of sulfonyltriuret using tetrabutylammonium cyanate and sulfonyl chloride. More precisely, we are interested in the controlled synthesis of oligomeric urea mainly sulfonyltriuret as a new class of pseudo peptide and their application as protease modulators. The distinctive architecture of these molecules in the form of their pseudo-peptide backbone offers promise as a potential pharmacophore. The synthesized molecules have been screened on trypsin enzyme, and we observed that these molecules are the efficient modulator of trypsin enzyme.

Keywords: pseudo peptide, pharmacophore, sulfonyltriuret, trypsin

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21 Hybrid Treatment Method for Decolorization of Mixed Dyes: Rhodamine-B, Brilliant Green and Congo Red

Authors: D. Naresh Yadav, K. Anand Kishore, Bhaskar Bethi, Shirish H. Sonawane, D. Bhagawan


The untreated industrial wastewater discharged into the environment causes the contamination of soil, water and air. Advanced treatment methods for enhanced wastewater treatment are attracting substantial interest among the currently employed unit processes in wastewater treatment. The textile industry is one of the predominant in wastewater production at current industrialized situation. The refused dyes at textile industry need to be treated in proper manner before its discharge into water bodies. In the present investigation, hybrid treatment process has been developed for the treatment of synthetic mixed dye wastewater. Photocatalysis and ceramic nanoporous membrane are mainly used for process integration to minimize the fouling and increase the flux. Commercial semiconducting powders (TiO2 and ZnO) has used as a nano photocatalyst for the degradation of mixed dye in the hybrid system. Commercial ceramic nanoporous tubular membranes have been used for the rejection of dye and suspended catalysts. Photocatalysis with catalyst has shown the average of 34% of decolorization (RB-32%, BG-34% and CR-36%), whereas ceramic nanofiltration has shown the 56% (RB-54%, BG-56% and CR-58%) of decolorization. Integration of photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration has shown 96% (RB-94%, BG-96% and CR-98%) of dye decolorization over 90 min of operation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, ceramic nanoporous membrane, wastewater treatment, advanced oxidation process, process integration

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20 Energy Policy of India: An Assessment of Its Impacts and Way Forward

Authors: Mrinal Saurabh Bhaskar, Rahul E Ravindranathan, Priyangana Borah


Energy plays a key role and as a driving force for economic and social growth for any country. To manage the energy sources and its efficient utilization in different economic sectors, energy policy of a country is critical. The energy performance of a country is measured in Energy Intensity and India’s Energy Intensity due to several policies interventions has reduced from 0.53 toe/1000USD (2010) in the year 2000 to 0.38 toe/1000USD (2010) in the year 2014, which is about 28 per cent reduction. The Government of India has taken several initiates to manage their increasing energy demand and meet the climate change goals defined by them. The major policy milestones in India related to energy are (i) Enactment of Energy Conservation (EC) Act 2001 (ii) Establishment of Bureau of Energy Efficiency 2001 (iii) National Action Plan on Climate Change (iv) Launch of Demand Side Management schemes (v) Amendment of EC Act 2010 (vi) Launch of Perform Achieve and Trade scheme 2012. Through a critical review, this paper highlights the key energy policy interventions by India, its benefits and impact, challenges faced and efforts of the Government to overcome such challenges. Such take away would be helpful for other countries who are proposing to prepare or amend their energy policy for their different economic sectors.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, climate, policy

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19 Stochastic Modeling for Parameters of Modified Car-Following Model in Area-Based Traffic Flow

Authors: N. C. Sarkar, A. Bhaskar, Z. Zheng


The driving behavior in area-based (i.e., non-lane based) traffic is induced by the presence of other individuals in the choice space from the driver’s visual perception area. The driving behavior of a subject vehicle is constrained by the potential leaders and leaders are frequently changed over time. This paper is to determine a stochastic model for a parameter of modified intelligent driver model (MIDM) in area-based traffic (as in developing countries). The parametric and non-parametric distributions are presented to fit the parameters of MIDM. The goodness of fit for each parameter is measured in two different ways such as graphically and statistically. The quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot is used for a graphical representation of a theoretical distribution to model a parameter and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is used for a statistical measure of fitness for a parameter with a theoretical distribution. The distributions are performed on a set of estimated parameters of MIDM. The parameters are estimated on the real vehicle trajectory data from India. The fitness of each parameter with a stochastic model is well represented. The results support the applicability of the proposed modeling for parameters of MIDM in area-based traffic flow simulation.

Keywords: area-based traffic, car-following model, micro-simulation, stochastic modeling

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18 Signal Integrity Performance Analysis in Capacitive and Inductively Coupled Very Large Scale Integration Interconnect Models

Authors: Mudavath Raju, Bhaskar Gugulothu, B. Rajendra Naik


The rapid advances in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology has resulted in the reduction of minimum feature size to sub-quarter microns and switching time in tens of picoseconds or even less. As a result, the degradation of high-speed digital circuits due to signal integrity issues such as coupling effects, clock feedthrough, crosstalk noise and delay uncertainty noise. Crosstalk noise in VLSI interconnects is a major concern and reduction in VLSI interconnect has become more important for high-speed digital circuits. It is the most effectively considered in Deep Sub Micron (DSM) and Ultra Deep Sub Micron (UDSM) technology. Increasing spacing in-between aggressor and victim line is one of the technique to reduce the crosstalk. Guard trace or shield insertion in-between aggressor and victim is also one of the prominent options for the minimization of crosstalk. In this paper, far end crosstalk noise is estimated with mutual inductance and capacitance RLC interconnect model. Also investigated the extent of crosstalk in capacitive and inductively coupled interconnects to minimizes the same through shield insertion technique.

Keywords: VLSI, interconnects, signal integrity, crosstalk, shield insertion, guard trace, deep sub micron

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17 Effect of Sugar Mill Effluent on Growth, Yield and Soil Properties of Ratoon Cane in Cauvery Command Area

Authors: G. K. Madhu, S. Bhaskar, M. S. Dinesh, R. Manii, C. A. Srinivasamurthy


A field experiment was conducted in the premises of M/s Sri Chamundeshwari Sugars Ltd., Bharathinagar, Mandya District Pvt. Ltd., during 2014 to study the effect of sugar mill effluent (SME) on growth, yield and soil properties of ratoon cane with eight treatments replicated thrice using RCBD design. Significantly higher growth parameters like cane height (249.77 cm) and number of tillers per clump (12.22) were recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower growth attributes were recorded in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Significantly higher cane yield (104. 93 t -1) was recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower cane yield (87.40 t ha-1) was observed in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Soil properties like pH (7.84) was higher in treatment receiving Alternate irrigation with freshwater and sugar mill effluent + RDF. But EC was significantly higher in treatment which received Cycle of1 irrigation with freshwater + 2 irrigations with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments.

Keywords: sugar mill effluent, sugarcane, irrigation, cane yield

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16 Digital Planet: Readying for the Rise of the E-Consumer

Authors: Bhaskar Chakravorti, Christopher Tunnard, Ravi Shankar Chaturvedi


This report introduces the Digital Evolution Index (DEI) as a way to gauge the transformation of economies in the advanced and developing world from traditional brick-and-mortar to digitally enabled. The DEI measures the digital trajectories of 50 countries to provide actionable, data-informed insights for businesses, investors and policymakers. Created by The Fletcher School, in collaboration with MasterCard Worldwide and DataCash, the DEI analyzes the key underlying drivers and barriers that govern a country’s evolution into a digital economy: Demand, Supply, Institutional Environment and Innovation. A longitudinal analysis of these four drivers during the years 2008 to 2013 reveals both the current state of a country’s digital economy, as well as changes over time. Combining these two measures allows us to assign each country to one of four Trajectory Zones: • Stand Out countries have shown high levels of digital development in the past and continue to remain on an upward trajectory. • Stall Out countries have achieved a high level of evolution in the past but are losing momentum and risk falling behind. • Break Out countries have the potential to develop strong digital economies. Though their overall score is still low, they are moving upward and are poised to become Stand Out countries in the future. • Watch Out countries face significant opportunities and challenges, with low scores on both current level and upward motion of their DEI. Some may be able to overcome limitations with clever innovations and stopgap measures, while others seem to be stuck.

Keywords: e-commerce, digital evolution, digital commerce ecosystems, e-consumer

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15 Impact of Story-Telling through Indian Textiles: Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad

Authors: Lavina N. Bhaskar, Ashima Tiwari


In the endeavour of connecting culture to stories, textile to narratives and people to material, authors analyse the impact of narratives in two popular Indian textiles namely - Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad. These textiles narrate people’s tale or Folk tale. Each textile has a style or format in which the story is told (and it is visual). Mata Ni Pachedi, when translated into the English language literally means behind the mother goddess. Mata Ni Pachedi is an Indian textile from the province of Gujarat which constitutes an entire temple of the goddess, with the idol herself in it. On the other hand, Pabuji ki Phad is scroll painting of folk deities of Rajasthan, narrated by Bhopas (the Priest singers of Rajasthan). These textiles narrate stories of ordinary people with extraordinary courage, of social reform, and people’s belief in the divine. Authors take to task their years of craft-cluster study conducted in the past and use existing literature to map their journey in the preliminary phase of research. And then carried out an ethnographic study by visiting the origins of these textiles in Rajasthan and Gujrat (in India), met artisans and their families who are still practicing these dying art form, in order to understand the format and impact of textile story-telling. This research paper talks about the narrative in Indian textiles; the stories in them, artisans and their life as metaphorical representations of the People in Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad.

Keywords: cultural derivatives, folk-tale, Indo-Narratives, Indology

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14 Fungicidal Action of the Mycogenic Silver Nanoparticles Against Aspergillus niger Inciting Collar Rot Disease in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Authors: R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi B. Bhaskar, S. Khayum Ahammed, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad


Use of bioagents and biofungicides is safe to manage the plant diseases and to avoid human health hazards which improves food security. Myconanotechnology is the study of nanoparticles synthesis using fungi and their applications. The present work reports on preparation, characterization and antifungal activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Trichoderma sp. which was collected from groundnut rhizosphere. The culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. was used for the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) in AgNO3 solution to the silver (Ag0) nanoparticles. The different ages (4 days, 6 days, 8 days, 12 days, and 15 days) of culture filtrates were screened for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among all the treatments the silver nitrate solution treated with six days aged culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. showed the UV absorption peak at 440 nm with maximum intensity (0.59) after 24 hrs incubation. The TEM micrographs showed the spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 30 nm. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot disease in groundnut and aspergillosis in humans showed the highest per cent inhibition at 100 ppm concentration (74.8%). The results points to the usage of these mycogenic AgNPs in agriculture to control plant diseases.

Keywords: groundnut rhizosphere, Trichoderma sp., silver nanoparticles synthesis, antifungal activity

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13 Irrigation Potential Assessment for Eastern Ganga Canal, India Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Deepak Khare, Radha Krishan, Bhaskar Nikam


The present study deals with the results of the Ortho-rectified Cartosat-1 PAN (2.5 m resolution) satellite data analysis for the extraction of canal networks under the Eastern Ganga Canal (EGC) command. Based on the information derived through the remote sensing data, in terms of the number of canals, their physical status and hydraulic connectivity from the source, irrigation potential (IP) created in the command was assessed by comparing with planned/design canal-wise irrigation potentials. All the geospatial information generated in the study is organized in a geodatabase. The EGC project irrigates the command through one main canal, five branch canals, 36 distributaries and 186 minors. The study was conducted with the main objectives of inventory and mapping of irrigation infrastructure using geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing and field data. Likewise, the assessment of irrigation potential created using the mapped infrastructure was performed as on March 2017. Results revealed that the canals were not only pending but were also having gap/s, and hydraulically disconnected in each branch canal and also in minors of EGC. A total of 16622.3 ha of commands were left untouched with canal water just due to the presence of gaps in the EGC project. The sum of all the gaps present in minor canals was 11.92 km, while in distributary, it was 2.63 km. This is a very good scenario that balances IP can be achieved by working on the gaps present in minor canals. Filling the gaps in minor canals can bring most of the area under irrigation, especially the tail reaches command.

Keywords: canal command, GIS, hydraulic connectivity, irrigation potential

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12 Impact of Climate Shift on Rainfall and Temperature Trend in Eastern Ganga Canal Command

Authors: Radha Krishan, Deepak Khare, Bhaskar R. Nikam, Ayush Chandrakar


Every irrigation project is planned considering long-term historical climatic conditions; however, the prompt climatic shift and change has come out with such circumstances which were inconceivable in the past. Considering this fact, scrutiny of rainfall and temperature trend has been carried out over the command area of Eastern Ganga Canal project for pre-climate shift period and post-climate shift periods in the present study. Non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen’s methods have been applied to study the trends in annual rainfall, seasonal rainfall, annual rainy day, monsoonal rainy days, average annual temperature and seasonal temperature. The results showed decreasing trend of 48.11 to 42.17 mm/decade in annual rainfall and 79.78 tSo 49.67 mm/decade in monsoon rainfall in pre-climate to post-climate shift periods, respectively. The decreasing trend of 1 to 4 days/decade has been observed in annual rainy days from pre-climate to post-climate shift period. Trends in temperature revealed that there were significant decreasing trends in annual (-0.03 ºC/yr), Kharif (-0.02 ºC/yr), Rabi (-0.04 ºC/yr) and summer (-0.02 ºC/yr) season temperature during pre-climate shift period, whereas the significant increasing trend (0.02 ºC/yr) has been observed in all the four parameters during post climate shift period. These results will help project managers in understanding the climate shift and lead them to develop alternative water management strategies.

Keywords: climate shift, rainfall trend, temperature trend, Mann-Kendall test, sen slope estimator, eastern Ganga canal command

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11 Free Vibration Analysis of Timoshenko Beams at Higher Modes with Central Concentrated Mass Using Coupled Displacement Field Method

Authors: K. Meera Saheb, K. Krishna Bhaskar


Complex structures used in many fields of engineering are made up of simple structural elements like beams, plates etc. These structural elements, sometimes carry concentrated masses at discrete points, and when subjected to severe dynamic environment tend to vibrate with large amplitudes. The frequency amplitude relationship is very much essential in determining the response of these structural elements subjected to the dynamic loads. For Timoshenko beams, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are to be considered to evaluate the fundamental linear and nonlinear frequencies. A commonly used method for solving vibration problem is energy method, or a finite element analogue of the same. In the present Coupled Displacement Field method the number of undetermined coefficients is reduced to half when compared to the famous Rayleigh Ritz method, which significantly simplifies the procedure to solve the vibration problem. This is accomplished by using a coupling equation derived from the static equilibrium of the shear flexible structural element. The prime objective of the present paper here is to study, in detail, the effect of a central concentrated mass on the large amplitude free vibrations of uniform shear flexible beams. Accurate closed form expressions for linear frequency parameter for uniform shear flexible beams with a central concentrated mass was developed and the results are presented in digital form.

Keywords: coupled displacement field, coupling equation, large amplitude vibrations, moderately thick plates

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10 Use of RAPD and ISSR Markers in Detection of Genetic Variation among Colletotrichum falcatum Went Isolates from South Gujarat India

Authors: Prittesh Patel, Rushabh Shah, Krishnamurthy Ramar, Vakulbhushan Bhaskar


The present research work aims at finding genetic differences in the genomes of sugarcane red rot isolates Colletotrichum falcatum Went using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and interspersed simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Ten isolates of C. falcatum isolated from different red rot infected sugarcane cultivars stalk were used in present study. The amplified bands were scored across the lanes obtained in 15 RAPD primes and 21 ISSR primes successfully. The data were analysed using NTSYSpc 2.2 software. The results showed 80.6% and 68.07% polymorphism in RPAD and ISSR analysis respectively. Based on the RAPD analysis, ten genotypes were grouped into two major clusters at a cut-off value of 0.75. Geographically distant C. falcatum isolate cfGAN from south Gujarat had a level of similarity with Coimbatore isolate cf8436 presented on separate clade of bootstrapped dendrograms. First and second cluster consisted of five and three isolates respectively, indicating the close relation among them. The 21 ISSR primers produced 119 distinct and scorable loci in that 38 were monomorphic. The number of scorable loci for each primer varied from 2 (ISSR822) to 8 (ISSR807, ISSR823 and ISSR15) with an average of 5.66 loci per primer. Primer ISSR835 amplified the highest number of bands (57), while only 16 bands were obtained by primers ISSR822. Four primers namely ISSR830, ISSR845, ISSR4 and ISSR15 showed the highest value of percentage of polymorphism (100%). The results indicated that both of the marker systems RAPD and ISSR, individually can be effectively used in determination of genetic relationship among C falcatum accessions collected from different parts of south Gujarat.

Keywords: Colletotrichum falcatum, ISSR, RAPD, Red Rot

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9 Sol-Gel Coated Fabric for Controlled Release of Mosquito Repellent

Authors: Bhaskar M. Murai, Neeraj Banchor, Ishveen Chabbra, Madhusudhan Nadgir, S. Vidhya


Sol-gel technology combined with electronics and biochemistry helps to overcome the problems caused by mosquitoes by developing a portable, low-cost device which enables controlled release of trapped compound inside it. It is a wet-chemical technique which is used primarily for fabrication of silicate gel which is usually allowed to dry as per requirement. The outcome is solid rock hard material which is porous and has lots of applications in different fields. Taking porosity as a key factor, allethrin a naturally occurring synthetic compound with molecular mass 302.40 was entrapped inside the sol-gel matrix as a dopant. Allethrin is commonly used as an insecticide and is a key ingredient in commercially available mosquitoes repellent in Asian and subtropical countries. It has low toxicity for humans and birds, and are used in many household insecticides such as RAID as well as mosquito coils. They are however highly toxic to fish and bees. Insects subject to its exposure become paralyzed (nervous system effect) before dying. They are also used as an ultra-low volume spray for outdoor mosquito control. Therefore, there is a need for controlled release of allethrin in the environment. For controlled release of allethrin from sol-gel matrix, its (allethrin) we utilized temperature based controlled evaporation through porous sol-gel. Different types of fabric like cotton, Terri-cotton, polyester, surgical cap, knee-cap etc are studied and the best with maximum absorption capacity is selected to hold the sol-gel matrix with maximum quantity. For sol-gel coating 2 x 2cm cloth pieces are dipped in sol-gel solution for 10 minutes and by calculating the weight difference we concluded that Terri cotton is best suitable for our project. An electronic circuit with heating plate is developed in to test the controlled release of compound. An oscillatory circuit is used to produce the required heat.

Keywords: sol-gel, allethrin, TEOS, biochemistry

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8 Management of Distillery Spentwash to Enhance Productivity of Dryland Crops and Reduce Environmental Pollution: A Case Study in Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Authors: A. Sathish, N. N. Lingaraju, K. N. Geetha, C. A. Srinivasamurthy, S. Bhaskar


Under dryland conditions, it is observed that the soil organic matter is low due to low organic carbon content due to poor management with less use of inputs. On the other hand, disposal of sugar industry waste, i.e., spentwash is a major concern with limited space for land based treatment and disposal which causes environmental pollution. Spentwash is also a resource that can be applied for productive uses since it contains nutrients that have the potential for use in agriculture. The disposal of spent wash may lead to environmental pollution. Hence as an alternative mechanism, it was applied once to dry lands, and the experiments were conducted from 2012-13 to 2016-17 in kharif season in Maddur Taluk, Mandya District, Karnataka State, India. The study conducted was in 93 different farmers field (maize-11, finger millet-80 & horsegram-14). Spentwash was applied at the rate of 100 m³ ha⁻¹ before sowing of the crops. The results showed that yield of dryland crops like finger millet, horse gram and maize was recorded 14.75 q ha⁻¹, 6 q ha⁻¹ and 31.00 q ha⁻¹, respectively and the yield increase to an extent of 10-25 per cent with one time application of spentwash to dry lands compared to farmers practice, i.e., chemical fertilizer application. The higher yield may be attributed to slow and steady release of nutrients by spentwash throughout the crop growth period. In addition, the growth promoting and other beneficial substances present in spentwash might have also helped in better plant growth and yield. The soil sample analysis after harvest of the crops indicate acidic to neutral pH, EC of 0.11 dSm⁻¹ and Na of 0.20 C mol (P⁺) kg⁻¹ in the normal range which are not harmful. Hence, it can be applied to drylands at least once in 3 years which enhances yield as well as reduces environmental pollution.

Keywords: dryland crops, pollution, sugar industry waste, spentwash

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7 A Policy Strategy for Building Energy Data Management in India

Authors: Shravani Itkelwar, Deepak Tewari, Bhaskar Natarajan


The energy consumption data plays a vital role in energy efficiency policy design, implementation, and impact assessment. Any demand-side energy management intervention's success relies on the availability of accurate, comprehensive, granular, and up-to-date data on energy consumption. The Building sector, including residential and commercial, is one of the largest consumers of energy in India after the Industrial sector. With economic growth and increasing urbanization, the building sector is projected to grow at an unprecedented rate, resulting in a 5.6 times escalation in energy consumption till 2047 compared to 2017. Therefore, energy efficiency interventions will play a vital role in decoupling the floor area growth and associated energy demand, thereby increasing the need for robust data. In India, multiple institutions are involved in the collection and dissemination of data. This paper focuses on energy consumption data management in the building sector in India for both residential and commercial segments. It evaluates the robustness of data available through administrative and survey routes to estimate the key performance indicators and identify critical data gaps for making informed decisions. The paper explores several issues in the data, such as lack of comprehensiveness, non-availability of disaggregated data, the discrepancy in different data sources, inconsistent building categorization, and others. The identified data gaps are justified with appropriate examples. Moreover, the paper prioritizes required data in order of relevance to policymaking and groups it into "available," "easy to get," and "hard to get" categories. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the data gaps by leveraging digital initiatives, strengthening institutional capacity, institutionalizing exclusive building energy surveys, and standardization of building categorization, among others, to strengthen the management of building sector energy consumption data.

Keywords: energy data, energy policy, energy efficiency, buildings

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6 Appropriate Technology: Revisiting the Movement in Developing Countries for Sustainability

Authors: Jayshree Patnaik, Bhaskar Bhowmick


The economic growth of any nation is steered and dependent on innovation in technology. It can be preferably argued that technology has enhanced the quality of life. Technology is linked both with an economic and a social structure. But there are some parts of the world or communities which are yet to reap the benefits of technological innovation. Business and organizations are now well equipped with cutting-edge innovations that improve the firm performance and provide them with a competitive edge, but rarely does it have a positive impact on any community which is weak and marginalized. In recent times, it is observed that communities are actively handling social or ecological issues with the help of indigenous technologies. Thus, "Appropriate Technology" comes into the discussion, which is quite prevalent in the rural third world. Appropriate technology grew as a movement in the mid-1970s during the energy crisis, but it lost its stance in the following years when people started it to describe it as an inferior technology or dead technology. Basically, there is no such technology which is inferior or sophisticated for a particular region. The relevance of appropriate technology lies in penetrating technology into a larger and weaker section of community where the “Bottom of the pyramid” can pay for technology if they find the price is affordable. This is a theoretical paper which primarily revolves around how appropriate technology has faded and again evolved in both developed and developing countries. The paper will try to focus on the various concepts, history and challenges faced by the appropriate technology over the years. Appropriate technology follows a documented approach but lags in overall design and diffusion. Diffusion of technology into the poorer sections of community remains unanswered until the present time. Appropriate technology is multi-disciplinary in nature; therefore, this openness allows having a varied working model for different problems. Appropriate technology is a friendly technology that seeks to improve the lives of people in a constraint environment by providing an affordable and sustainable solution. Appropriate technology needs to be defined in the era of modern technological advancement for sustainability.

Keywords: appropriate technology, community, developing country, sustainability

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5 Effect of Distillery Spentwash Application on Soil Properties and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)

Authors: N. N. Lingaraju, A. Sathish, K. N. Geetha, C. A. Srinivasamurthy, S. Bhaskar


Studies on spent wash utilization as a nutrient source through 'Effect of distillery spentwash application on soil properties and yield of maize (Zea may L.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)' was carried out in Malavalli Taluk, Mandya District, Karnataka State, India. The study was conducted in fourteen different locations of Malavalli (12) and Maddur taluk (2) involving maize and finger millet as a test crop. The spentwash was characterized for various parameters like pH, EC, total NPK, Na, Ca, Mg, SO₄, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Cl content. It was observed from the results that the pH was slightly alkaline (7.45), EC was excess (23.3 dS m⁻¹), total NPK was 0.12, 0.02, and 1.31 percent respectively, Na, Ca, Mg and SO₄ concentration was 664, 1305, 745 and 618 (mg L⁻¹) respectively, total solid content was quite high (6.7%), Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, values were 23.5, 5.70, 3.64, 4.0 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The crops were grown by adopting different crop management practices after application of spentwash at 100 m³ ha⁻¹ to the identified farmer fields. Soil samples were drawn at three stages i.e., before sowing of crop, during crop growth stage and after harvest of the crop at 2 depths (0-30 and 30-60 cm) and analyzed for pH, EC, available K and Na parameters by adopting standard procedures. The soil analysis showed slightly acidic reaction (5.93), normal EC (0.43 dS m⁻¹), medium available potassium (267 kg ha⁻¹) before application of spentwash. Application of spentwash has enhanced pH level of soil towards neutral (6.97), EC 0.25 dS m⁻¹, available K2O to 376 kg ha⁻¹ and sodium content of 0.73 C mol (P+) kg⁻¹ during the crop growth stage. After harvest of the crops soil analysis data indicated a decrease in pH to 6.28, EC of 0.22 dS m⁻¹, available K₂O to 316 kg ha⁻¹ and Na 0.52 C mol (P⁺) kg⁻¹ compared with crop growth stage. The study showed that, there will be enhancement of potassium levels if the spentwash is applied once to dryland. The yields of both the crops were quantified and found to be in the range of 35.65 to 65.55 q ha⁻¹ and increased yield to the extent of 13.36-22.36 percent as compared to control field (11.36-22.33 q ha⁻¹) in maize crop. Also, finger millet yield was increased with the spentwash application to the extent of 14.21-20.49 percent (9.5-17.73 q ha⁻¹) higher over farmers practice (8.15-14.15 q ha⁻¹).

Keywords: distillery spentwash, finger millet, maize, waste water

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4 Analysis of Anti-Tuberculosis Immune Response Induced in Lungs by Intranasal Immunization with Mycobacterium indicus pranii

Authors: Ananya Gupta, Sangeeta Bhaskar


Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a saprophytic mycobacterium. It is a predecessor of M. avium complex (MAC). Whole genome analysis and growth kinetics studies have placed MIP in between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. It shares significant antigenic repertoire with M. tuberculosis and have unique immunomodulatory properties. MIP provides better protection than BCG against pulmonary tuberculosis in animal models. Immunization with MIP by aerosol route provides significantly higher protection as compared to immunization by subcutaneous (s.c.) route. However, mechanism behind differential protection has not been studied. In this study, using mice model we have evaluated and compared the M.tb specific immune response in lung compartments (airway lumen / lung interstitium) as well as spleen following MIP immunization via nasal (i.n.) and s.c. route. MIP i.n. vaccination resulted in increased seeding of memory T cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells) in the airway lumen. Frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing Th1 migratory marker (CXCR3) and activation marker (CD69) were also high in airway lumen of MIP i.n. group. Significantly high ex vivo secretion of cytokines- IFN-, IL-12, IL-17 and TNF- from cells of airway luminal spaces provides evidence of antigen-specific lung immune response, besides generating systemic immunity comparable to MIP s.c. group. Analysis of T cell response on per cell basis revealed that antigen specific T-cells of MIP i.n. group were functionally superior as higher percentage of these cells simultaneously secreted IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha cytokines as compared to MIP s.c. group. T-cells secreting more than one of the cytokines simultaneously are believed to have robust effector response and crucial for protection, compared with single cytokine secreting T-cells. Adoptive transfer of airway luminal T-cells from MIP i.n. group into trachea of naive B6 mice revealed that MIP induced CD8 T-cells play crucial role in providing long term protection. Thus the study demonstrates that MIP intranasal vaccination induces M.tb specific memory T-cells in the airway lumen that results in an early and robust recall response against M.tb infection.

Keywords: airway lumen, Mycobacterium indicus pranii, Th1 migratory markers, vaccination

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3 Analyzing the Perception of Social Networking Sites as a Learning Tool among University Students: Case Study of a Business School in India

Authors: Bhaskar Basu


Universities and higher education institutes are finding it increasingly difficult to engage students fruitfully through traditional pedagogic tools. Web 2.0 technologies comprising social networking sites (SNSs) offer a platform for students to collaborate and share information, thereby enhancing their learning experience. Despite the potential and reach of SNSs, its use has been limited in academic settings promoting higher education. The purpose of this paper is to assess the perception of social networking sites among business school students in India and analyze its role in enhancing quality of student experiences in a business school leading to the proposal of an agenda for future research. In this study, more than 300 students of a reputed business school were involved in a survey of their preferences of different social networking sites and their perceptions and attitudes towards these sites. A questionnaire with three major sections was designed, validated and distributed among  a sample of students, the research method being descriptive in nature. Crucial questions were addressed to the students concerning time commitment, reasons for usage, nature of interaction on these sites, and the propensity to share information leading to direct and indirect modes of learning. It was further supplemented with focus group discussion to analyze the findings. The paper notes the resistance in the adoption of new technology by a section of business school faculty, who are staunch supporters of the classical “face-to-face” instruction. In conclusion, social networking sites like Facebook and LinkedIn provide new avenues for students to express themselves and to interact with one another. Universities could take advantage of the new ways  in which students are communicating with one another. Although interactive educational options such as Moodle exist, social networking sites are rarely used for academic purposes. Using this medium opens new ways of academically-oriented interactions where faculty could discover more about students' interests, and students, in turn, might express and develop more intellectual facets of their lives. hitherto unknown intellectual facets.  This study also throws up the enormous potential of mobile phones as a tool for “blended learning” in business schools going forward.

Keywords: business school, India, learning, social media, social networking, university

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2 Grassland Development on Evacuated Sites for Wildlife Conservation in Satpura Tiger Reserve, India

Authors: Anjana Rajput, Sandeep Chouksey, Bhaskar Bhandari, Shimpi Chourasia


Ecologically, grassland is any plant community dominated by grasses, whether they exist naturally or because of management practices. Most forest grasslands are anthropogenic and established plant communities planted for forage production, though some are established for soil and water conservation and wildlife habitat. In Satpura Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India, most of the grasslands have been established on evacuated village sites. Total of 42 villages evacuated, and study was carried out in 23 sites to evaluate habitat improvement. Grasslands were classified into three categories, i.e., evacuated sites, established sites, and controlled sites. During the present study impact of various management interventions on grassland health was assessed. Grasslands assessment was done for its composition, status of palatable and non-palatable grasses, the status of herbs and legumes, status of weeds species, and carrying capacity of particular grassland. Presence of wild herbivore species in the grasslands with their abundance, availability of water resources was also assessed. Grassland productivity is dependent mainly on the biotic and abiotic components of the area, but management interventions may also play an important role in grassland composition and productivity. Variation in the status of palatable and non-palatable grasses, legumes, and weeds was recorded and found effected by management intervention practices. Overall in all the studied grasslands, the most dominant grasses recorded are Themeda quadrivalvis, Dichanthium annulatum, Ischaemum indicum, Oplismenus burmanii, Setaria pumilla, Cynodon dactylon, Heteropogon contortus, and Eragrostis tenella. Presence of wild herbivores, i.e., Chital, Sambar, Bison, Bluebull, Chinkara, Barking deer in the grassland area has been recorded through the installation of camera traps and estimated their abundance. Assessment of developed grasslands was done in terms of habitat suitability for Chital (Axis axis) and Sambar (Rusa unicolor). The parameters considered for suitability modeling are biotic and abiotic life requisite components existing in the area, i.e., density of grasses, density of legumes, availability of water, site elevation, site distance from human habitation. Findings of the present study would be useful for further grassland management and animal translocation programmes.

Keywords: carrying capacity, dominant grasses, grassland, habitat suitability, management intervention, wild herbivore

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1 Farm-Women in Technology Transfer to Foster the Capacity Building of Agriculture: A Forecast from a Draught-Prone Rural Setting in India

Authors: Pradipta Chandra, Titas Bhattacharjee, Bhaskar Bhowmick


The foundation of economy in India is primarily based on agriculture while this is the most neglected in the rural setting. More significantly, household women take part in agriculture with higher involvement. However, because of lower education of women they have limited access towards financial decisions, land ownership and technology but they have vital role towards the individual family level. There are limited studies on the institution-wise training barriers with the focus of gender disparity. The main purpose of this paper is to find out the factors of institution-wise training (non-formal education) barriers in technology transfer with the focus of participation of rural women in agriculture. For this study primary and secondary data were collected in the line of qualitative and quantitative approach. Qualitative data were collected by several field visits in the adjacent areas of Seva-Bharati, Seva Bharati Krishi Vigyan Kendra through semi-structured questionnaires. In the next level detailed field surveys were conducted with close-ended questionnaires scored on the seven-point Likert scale. Sample size was considered as 162. During the data collection the focus was to include women although some biasness from the end of respondents and interviewer might exist due to dissimilarity in observation, views etc. In addition to that the heterogeneity of sample is not very high although female participation is more than fifty percent. Data were analyzed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) technique with the outcome of three significant factors of training barriers in technology adoption by farmers: (a) Failure of technology transfer training (TTT) comprehension interprets that the technology takers, i.e., farmers can’t understand the technology either language barrier or way of demonstration exhibited by the experts/ trainers. (b) Failure of TTT customization, articulates that the training for individual farmer, gender crop or season-wise is not tailored. (c) Failure of TTT generalization conveys that absence of common training methods for individual trainers for specific crops is more prominent at the community level. The central finding is that the technology transfer training method can’t fulfill the need of the farmers under an economically challenged area. The impact of such study is very high in the area of dry lateritic and resource crunch area of Jangalmahal under Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal and areas with similar socio-economy. Towards the policy level decision this research may help in framing digital agriculture for implementation of the appropriate information technology for the farming community, effective and timely investment by the government with the selection of beneficiary, formation of farmers club/ farm science club etc. The most important research implication of this study lies upon the contribution towards the knowledge diffusion mechanism of the agricultural sector in India. Farmers may overcome the barriers to achieve higher productivity through adoption of modern farm practices. Corporates will be interested in agro-sector through investment under corporate social responsibility (CSR). The research will help in framing public or industry policy and land use pattern. Consequently, a huge mass of rural farm-women will be empowered and farmer community will be benefitted.

Keywords: dry lateritic zone, institutional barriers, technology transfer in India, farm-women participation

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