Search results for: continuous synthesis
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4237

Search results for: continuous synthesis

4237 Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction

Authors: Yong-Su Jo, Seung-Min Yang, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.

Keywords: nanoparticle, hydrazine reduction, continuous process, microemulsion method

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4236 Synthesis of Filtering in Stochastic Systems on Continuous-Time Memory Observations in the Presence of Anomalous Noises

Authors: S. Rozhkova, O. Rozhkova, A. Harlova, V. Lasukov


We have conducted the optimal synthesis of root-mean-squared objective filter to estimate the state vector in the case if within the observation channel with memory the anomalous noises with unknown mathematical expectation are complement in the function of the regular noises. The synthesis has been carried out for linear stochastic systems of continuous-time.

Keywords: mathematical expectation, filtration, anomalous noise, memory

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4235 Monitoring Synthesis of Biodiesel through Online Density Measurements

Authors: Arnaldo G. de Oliveira, Jr, Matthieu Tubino


The transesterification process of triglycerides with alcohols that occurs during the biodiesel synthesis causes continuous changes in several physical properties of the reaction mixture, such as refractive index, viscosity and density. Amongst them, density can be an useful parameter to monitor the reaction, in order to predict the composition of the reacting mixture and to verify the conversion of the oil into biodiesel. In this context, a system was constructed in order to continuously determine changes in the density of the reacting mixture containing soybean oil, methanol and sodium methoxide (30 % w/w solution in methanol), stirred at 620 rpm at room temperature (about 27 °C). A polyethylene pipe network connected to a peristaltic pump was used in order to collect the mixture and pump it through a coil fixed on the plate of an analytical balance. The collected mass values were used to trace a curve correlating the mass of the system to the reaction time. The density variation profile versus the time clearly shows three different steps: 1) the dispersion of methanol in oil causes a decrease in the system mass due to the lower alcohol density followed by stabilization; 2) the addition of the catalyst (sodium methoxide) causes a larger decrease in mass compared to the first step (dispersion of methanol in oil) because of the oil conversion into biodiesel; 3) the final stabilization, denoting the end of the reaction. This density variation profile provides information that was used to predict the composition of the mixture over the time and the reaction rate. The precise knowledge of the duration of the synthesis means saving time and resources on a scale production system. This kind of monitoring provides several interesting features such as continuous measurements without collecting aliquots.

Keywords: biodiesel, density measurements, online continuous monitoring, synthesis

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4234 A Multilevel-Synthesis Approach with Reduced Number of Switches for 99-Level Inverter

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, V. Ramu, K. Ramakrishna


In this paper, an efficient multilevel wave form synthesis technique is proposed and applied to a 99-level inverter. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is that the continuous output voltage levels can be synthesized by the addition or subtraction of the instantaneous voltages generated from different voltage levels. This synthesis technique can be realized by an array of switching devices composing full-bridge inverter modules and proper mixing of each bi-directional switch modules. The most different aspect, compared to the conventional approach, in the synthesis of the multilevel output waveform is the utilization of a combination of bidirectional switches and full bridge inverter modules with reduced number of components. A 99-level inverter consists of three full-bridge modules and six bi-directional switch modules. The validity of the proposed scheme is verified by the simulation.

Keywords: cascaded connection, multilevel inverter, synthesis, total harmonic distortion

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4233 Continuous Processing Approaches for Tunable Asymmetric Photochemical Synthesis

Authors: Amanda C. Evans


Enabling technologies such as continuous processing (CP) approaches can provide the tools needed to control and manipulate reactivities and transform chemical reactions into micro-controlled in-flow processes. Traditional synthetic approaches can be radically transformed by the application of CP, facilitating the pairing of chemical methodologies with technologies from other disciplines. CP supports sustainable processes that controllably generate reaction specificity utilizing supramolecular interactions. Continuous photochemical processing is an emerging field of investigation. The use of light to drive chemical reactivity is not novel, but the controlled use of specific and tunable wavelengths of light to selectively generate molecular structure under continuous processing conditions is an innovative approach towards chemical synthesis. This investigation focuses on the use of circularly polarized (cp) light as a sustainable catalyst for the CP generation of asymmetric molecules. Chiral photolysis has already been achieved under batch, solid-phase conditions: using synchrotron-sourced cp light, asymmetric photolytic selectivities of up to 4.2% enantiomeric excess (e.e.) have been reported. In order to determine the optimal wavelengths to use for irradiation with cp light for any given molecular building block, CD and anisotropy spectra for each building block of interest have been generated in two different solvents (water, hexafluoroisopropanol) across a range of wavelengths (130-400 nm). These spectra are being used to support a series of CP experiments using cp light to generate enantioselectivity.

Keywords: anisotropy, asymmetry, flow chemistry, active pharmaceutical ingredients

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4232 Characterization of Fe Doped ZnO Synthesised by Sol-Gel and Combustion Routes

Authors: M. Ravindiran, P. Shankar


This paper deals with the comparison of two synthesis methods, namely, sol-gel, and combustion to prepare Fe doped ZnO nano material. Characterization results for structural, optical and magnetic properties were analyzed for the sol gel and combustion synthesis derived materials. Magnetic studies of the prepared compounds reveal that the combustion synthesis derived material has good magnetization of 50 emu/gm with a better hysteresis loop curve.

Keywords: DMS, combustion, ferromagnetic, synthesis methods

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4231 High Temperature Volume Combustion Synthesis of Ti3Al with Low Porosities

Authors: Nese Ozturk Korpe, Muhammed H. Karas


Reaction synthesis, or combustion synthesis, is a processing technique in which the thermal activation energy of formation of a compound is sustained by its exothermic heat of reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high initial pressing pressures (420 MPa, 630 MPa, and 850 MPa) on porosity of Ti3Al which produced by volume combustion synthesis. Microstructure examinations were performed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Phase analyses were performed with X-ray diffraction device (XRD). A significant decrease in porosity was obtained due to an increase in the initial pressing pressure.

Keywords: Titanium Aluminide, Volume Combustion Synthesis, Intermetallic, Porosity

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4230 Continuous Catalytic Hydrogenation and Purification for Synthesis Non-Phthalate

Authors: Chia-Ling Li


The scope of this article includes the production of 10,000 metric tons of non-phthalate per annum. The production process will include hydrogenation, separation, purification, and recycling of unprocessed feedstock. Based on experimental data, conversion and selectivity were chosen as reaction model parameters. The synthesis and separation processes of non-phthalate and phthalate were established by using Aspen Plus software. The article will be divided into six parts: estimation of physical properties, integration of production processes, purification case study, utility consumption, economic feasibility study and identification of bottlenecks. The purities of products was higher than 99.9 wt. %. Process parameters have important guiding significance to the commercialization of hydrogenation of phthalate.

Keywords: economic analysis, hydrogenation, non-phthalate, process simulation

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4229 Release Management with Continuous Delivery: A Case Study

Authors: A. Maruf Aytekin


We present our approach on using continuous delivery pattern for release management. One of the key practices of agile and lean teams is the continuous delivery of new features to stakeholders. The main benefits of this approach lie in the ability to release new applications rapidly which has real strategic impact on the competitive advantage of an organization. Organizations that successfully implement Continuous Delivery have the ability to evolve rapidly to support innovation, provide stable and reliable software in more efficient ways, decrease the amount of resources need for maintenance, and lower the software delivery time and costs. One of the objectives of this paper is to elaborate a case study where IT division of Central Securities Depository Institution (MKK) of Turkey apply Continuous Delivery pattern to improve release management process.

Keywords: automation, continuous delivery, deployment, release management

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4228 Synthesis and Characterization of Cyclic PNC-28 Peptide, Residues 17–26 (ETFSDLWKLL), A Binding Domain of p53

Authors: Deepshikha Verma, V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai


The present study reports the synthesis of cyclic PNC-28 peptides with solid-phase peptide synthesis method. In the first step, we synthesize the linear PNC-28 Peptide and in the second step, we cyclize (N-to-C or head-to-tail cyclization) the linear PNC-28 peptide. The molecular formula of cyclic PNC-28 peptide is C64H88N12O16 and its m/z mass is ≈1233.64. Elemental analysis of cyclic PNC-28 is C, 59.99; H, 6.92; N, 13.12; O, 19.98. The characterization of LC-MS, CD, FT-IR, and 1HNMR has been done to confirm the successful synthesis and cyclization of linear PNC-28 peptides.

Keywords: CD, FTIR, 1HNMR, cyclic peptide

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4227 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul


Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis

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4226 The Effect of Solution Density on the Synthesis of Magnesium Borate from Boron-Gypsum

Authors: N. Tugrul, E. Sariburun, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin


Boron-gypsum is a waste which occurs in the boric acid production process. In this study, the boron content of this waste is evaluated for the use in synthesis of magnesium borates and such evaluation of this kind of waste is useful more than storage or disposal. Magnesium borates, which are a sub-class of boron minerals, are useful additive materials for the industries due to their remarkable thermal and mechanical properties. Magnesium borates were obtained hydrothermally at different temperatures. Novelty of this study is the search of the solution density effects to magnesium borate synthesis process for the increasing the possibility of boron-gypsum usage as a raw material. After the synthesis process, products are subjected to XRD and FT-IR to identify and characterize their crystal structure, respectively.

Keywords: boron-gypsum, hydrothermal synthesis, magnesium borate, solution density

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4225 Continuous Improvement in Emerging Economies: Insights from a Multi-Case Analysis

Authors: Luis A. Paipa-Galeano, Yavar Jarrah-Nezhad, César A. Bernal-Torres


This paper presents a case study of four companies in an emerging economy to identify the key success factors and barriers to sustaining continuous improvement practices. The study analyzes the empirical evidence and compares it to the literature review to provide insights for companies looking to increase their maturity level in this area. The five success factors identified are the availability of resources, commitment and support from management, participation of employees in identifying tasks to improve, clear and realistic objectives for continuous improvement, and the existence of a leader or responsible for continuous improvement. The major barriers to success are a lack of alignment between the organization’s strategic objectives and continuous improvement objectives, a lack of motivation in the team, and resistance to change. The paper concludes with recommendations for companies to reduce the risk of improvement failure and increase their maturity level in continuous improvement.

Keywords: emerging economies, Kaizen, continuous improvement sustainability, maturity model

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4224 Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cu(II) Complex of a Pyridine-Naphthoimidazole-Based Ligand

Authors: Shuang Zhao, Shintaro Ito, Yoshihiro Ohba, Hiroshi Katagiri


We present the synthesis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of a Cu(II) complex(bmn-bpy) of a pyridine-naphthoimidazole-based ligand containing two naphthoimidazoles as the chromophores and a vacant coordination site on Cu(II).

Keywords: synthesis, Cu(II) complex, single-crystal X-ray crystallography

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4223 Comparative Study Between Continuous Versus Pulsed Ultrasound in Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Karim Mohamed Fawzy Ghuiba, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa, Shams Elbaz


Objectives: To compare between the effects continuous and pulsed ultrasound on pain and function in patient with knee osteoarthritis. Design: Randomized-Single blinded Study. Participants: 6 patients with knee osteoarthritis with mean age 53.66±3.61years, Altman Grade II or III. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; Group A received continuous ultrasound and Group B received pulsed ultrasound. Outcome measures: Effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound were evaluated by pain threshold assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and function assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores. Results: There was no significant decrease in VAS and WOMAC scores in patients treated with pulsed or continuous ultrasound; and there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: there is no difference between the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound in pain relief or functional outcome in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, pulsed ultrasound, ultrasound therapy, continuous ultrasound

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4222 Synthesis of the Robust Regulators on the Basis of the Criterion of the Maximum Stability Degree

Authors: S. A. Gayvoronsky, T. A. Ezangina


The robust control system objects with interval-undermined parameters is considers in this paper. Initial information about the system is its characteristic polynomial with interval coefficients. On the basis of coefficient estimations of quality indices and criterion of the maximum stability degree, the methods of synthesis of a robust regulator parametric is developed. The example of the robust stabilization system synthesis of the rope tension is given in this article.

Keywords: interval polynomial, controller synthesis, analysis of quality factors, maximum degree of stability, robust degree of stability, robust oscillation, system accuracy

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4221 Preparation and Characterization of Supported Metal Nanocrystal Using Simple Heating Method for Renewable Diesel Synthesis from Nyamplung Oil (Calophyllum inophyllum Oil)

Authors: Aida Safiera, Andika Dwi Rubyantoro, Muhammad Bagus Prakasa


Indonesia’s needs of diesel oil each year are increasing and getting urge. However, that problems are not supported by the amount of oil production that still low and also influenced by the fact of oil reserve is reduced. Because of that, the government prefers to import from other countries than fulfill the needs of diesel. To anticipate that problem, development of fuel based on renewable diesel is started. Renewable diesel is renewable alternative fuel that is hydrocarbon derivative from decarbonylation of non-edible oil. Indonesia is rich with natural resources, including nyamplung oil (Calophyllum inophyllum oil) and zeolite. Nyamplung oil (Calophyllum inophyllum oil) has many stearic acids which are useful on renewable diesel synthesis meanwhile zeolite is cheap. Zeolite is many used on high temperature reaction and cracking process on oil industry. Zeolite also has advantages which are a high crystallization, surface area and pores. In this research, the main focus that becomes our attention is on preparation and characterization of metal nanocrystal. Active site that used in this research is Nickel Molybdenum (NiMo). The advantage of nanocrystal with nano scale is having larger surface area. The synthesis of metal nanocrystal will be done with conventional preparation modification method that is called simple heating. Simple heating method is a metal nanocrystal synthesis method using continuous media which is polymer liquid. This method is a simple method and produces a small particles size in a short time. Influence of metal nanocrystal growth on this method is the heating profile. On the synthesis of nanocrystal, the manipulated variables are temperature and calcination time. Results to achieve from this research are diameter size on nano scale (< 100 nm) and uniform size without any agglomeration. Besides that, the conversion of synthesis of renewable diesel is high and has an equal specification with petroleum diesel. Catalyst activities are tested by FT-IR and GC-TCD on decarbonylation process with a pressure 15 bar and temperature 375 °C. The highest conversion from this reaction is 35% with selectivity around 43%.

Keywords: renewable diesel, simple heating, metal nanocrystal, NiMo, zeolite

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4220 Towards the Rapid Synthesis of High-Quality Monolayer Continuous Film of Graphene on High Surface Free Energy Existing Plasma Modified Cu Foil

Authors: Maddumage Don Sandeepa Lakshad Wimalananda, Jae-Kwan Kim, Ji-Myon Lee


Graphene is an extraordinary 2D material that shows superior electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for the applications such as transparent contacts. Further, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique facilitates to synthesizing of large-area graphene, including transferability. The abstract is describing the use of high surface free energy (SFE) and nano-scale high-density surface kinks (rough) existing Cu foil for CVD graphene growth, which is an opposite approach to modern use of catalytic surfaces for high-quality graphene growth, but the controllable rough morphological nature opens new era to fast synthesis (less than the 50s with a short annealing process) of graphene as a continuous film over conventional longer process (30 min growth). The experiments were shown that high SFE condition and surface kinks on Cu(100) crystal plane existing Cu catalytic surface facilitated to synthesize graphene with high monolayer and continuous nature because it can influence the adsorption of C species with high concentration and which can be facilitated by faster nucleation and growth of graphene. The fast nucleation and growth are lowering the diffusion of C atoms to Cu-graphene interface, which is resulting in no or negligible formation of bilayer patches. High energy (500W) Ar plasma treatment (inductively Coupled plasma) was facilitated to form rough and high SFE existing (54.92 mJm-2) Cu foil. This surface was used to grow the graphene by using CVD technique at 1000C for 50s. The introduced kink-like high SFE existing point on Cu(100) crystal plane facilitated to faster nucleation of graphene with a high monolayer ratio (I2D/IG is 2.42) compared to another different kind of smooth morphological and low SFE existing Cu surfaces such as Smoother surface, which is prepared by the redeposit of Cu evaporating atoms during the annealing (RRMS is 13.3nm). Even high SFE condition was favorable to synthesize graphene with monolayer and continuous nature; It fails to maintain clean (surface contains amorphous C clusters) and defect-free condition (ID/IG is 0.46) because of high SFE of Cu foil at the graphene growth stage. A post annealing process was used to heal and overcome previously mentioned problems. Different CVD atmospheres such as CH4 and H2 were used, and it was observed that there is a negligible change in graphene nature (number of layers and continuous condition) but it was observed that there is a significant difference in graphene quality because the ID/IG ratio of the graphene was reduced to 0.21 after the post-annealing with H2 gas. Addition to the change of graphene defectiveness the FE-SEM images show there was a reduction of C cluster contamination of the surface. High SFE conditions are favorable to form graphene as a monolayer and continuous film, but it fails to provide defect-free graphene. Further, plasma modified high SFE existing surface can be used to synthesize graphene within 50s, and a post annealing process can be used to reduce the defectiveness.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, graphene, morphology, plasma, surface free energy

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4219 Brazilian Sign Language: A Synthesis of the Research in the Period from 2000 to 2017

Authors: Maria da Gloria Guara-Tavares


This article reports a synthesis of the research in Brazilian Sign Language conducted from 2000 to 2017. The objective of the synthesis was to identify the most researched areas and the most used methodologies. Articles published in three Brazilian journals of Translation Studies, unpublished dissertations and theses were included in the analysis. Abstracts and the method sections of the papers were scrutinized. Sixty studies were analyzed, and overall results indicate that the research in Brazilian Sign Language has been fragmented in several areas such as linguistic aspects, facial expressions, subtitling, identity issues, bilingualism, and interpretation strategies. Concerning research methods, the synthesis reveals that most research is qualitative in nature. Moreover, results show that the cognitive aspects of Brazilian Sign Language seem to be poorly explored. Implications for a future research agenda are also discussed.

Keywords: Brazilian sign language, qualitative methods, research agenda, synthesis

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4218 A Continuous Boundary Value Method of Order 8 for Solving the General Second Order Multipoint Boundary Value Problems

Authors: T. A. Biala


This paper deals with the numerical integration of the general second order multipoint boundary value problems. This has been achieved by the development of a continuous linear multistep method (LMM). The continuous LMM is used to construct a main discrete method to be used with some initial and final methods (also obtained from the continuous LMM) so that they form a discrete analogue of the continuous second order boundary value problems. These methods are used as boundary value methods and adapted to cope with the integration of the general second order multipoint boundary value problems. The convergence, the use and the region of absolute stability of the methods are discussed. Several numerical examples are implemented to elucidate our solution process.

Keywords: linear multistep methods, boundary value methods, second order multipoint boundary value problems, convergence

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4217 Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Benzylamino Coumarin Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani


A green and efficient one-pot synthesis of benzylamino coumarin derivatives by a three-component condensation of 4-hydroxycoumarin, cyclic secondary amine, and aromatic aldehyde in the presence of ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a heterogeneous catalyst in water at room temperature has been reported.

Keywords: 3-benzyl substituted coumarin derivative, ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs), green synthesis, multicomponent reaction

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4216 Versatile Variation of Fischer Indolization in Green Synthesis of Nitro Substituted Tetrahydrocarbazole

Authors: Zubi Sadiq, Ghazala Yaqub, Almas Hamid


We wish to report herein a very stimulating variation in Fischer indole reaction by adopting solvent and catalyst free conditions. A concise synthesis of dinitro tetrahydrocarbazole derivative 3 was introduced without the use of any accelerating agent at ambient temperature with fairly good yield. Product was fully corroborated by UV, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, and CHN analysis.

Keywords: fischer indole reaction, neutral medium, solvent free synthesis, tetrahydrocarbazole

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4215 Hybrid Inventory Model Optimization under Uncertainties: A Case Study in a Manufacturing Plant

Authors: E. Benga, T. Tengen, A. Alugongo


Periodic and continuous inventory models are the two classical management tools used to handle inventories. These models have advantages and disadvantages. The implementation of both continuous (r,Q) inventory and periodic (R, S) inventory models in most manufacturing plants comes with higher cost. Such high inventory costs are due to the fact that most manufacturing plants are not flexible enough. Since demand and lead-time are two important variables of every inventory models, their effect on the flexibility of the manufacturing plant matter most. Unfortunately, these effects are not clearly understood by managers. The reason is that the decision parameters of the continuous (r, Q) inventory and periodic (R, S) inventory models are not designed to effectively deal with the issues of uncertainties such as poor manufacturing performances, delivery performance supplies performances. There is, therefore, a need to come up with a predictive and hybrid inventory model that can combine in some sense the feature of the aforementioned inventory models. A linear combination technique is used to hybridize both continuous (r, Q) inventory and periodic (R, S) inventory models. The behavior of such hybrid inventory model is described by a differential equation and then optimized. From the results obtained after simulation, the continuous (r, Q) inventory model is more effective than the periodic (R, S) inventory models in the short run, but this difference changes as time goes by. Because the hybrid inventory model is more cost effective than the continuous (r,Q) inventory and periodic (R, S) inventory models in long run, it should be implemented for strategic decisions.

Keywords: periodic inventory, continuous inventory, hybrid inventory, optimization, manufacturing plant

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4214 The Optimum Operating Conditions for the Synthesis of Zeolite from Waste Incineration Fly Ash by Alkali Fusion and Hydrothermal Methods

Authors: Yi-Jie Lin, Jyh-Cherng Chen


The fly ash of waste incineration processes is usually hazardous and the disposal or reuse of waste incineration fly ash is difficult. In this study, the waste incineration fly ash was converted to useful zeolites by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method. The influence of different operating conditions (the ratio of Si/Al, the ratio of hydrolysis liquid to solid, and hydrothermal time) was investigated to seek the optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash. The results showed that concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were all lower than the regulatory limits except lead. The optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method were Si/Al=40, NaOH/ash=1.5, alkali fusion at 400 oC for 40 min, hydrolysis with Liquid to Solid ratio (L/S)= 200 at 105 oC for 24 h, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105 oC for 24 h. The specific surface area of fly ash could be significantly increased from 8.59 m2/g to 651.51 m2/g (synthesized zeolite). The influence of different operating conditions on the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al ratio > hydrothermal time > hydrolysis L/S ratio. The synthesized zeolites can be reused as good adsorbents to control the air or wastewater pollutants. The purpose of fly ash detoxification, reduction and waste recycling/reuse is achieved successfully.

Keywords: alkali fusion, hydrothermal, fly ash, zeolite

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4213 Synthesis of Na-LSX Zeolite and Hydrosodalite from Polish Fly Ashes

Authors: Barbara Bialecka, Zdzislaw Adamczyk, Magdalena Cempa


In the work, the results of investigations into the hydrothermal zeolitization of fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of Polish Power Station have been presented. The chemical composition of the ash was determined by the method of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), whereas the phases of both fly ash and the products after synthesis were identified using microscopic observations, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) as well as electron scanning microscopy with measurements of the chemical compositions in micro areas (SEM/EDS). The synthesis was carried out with various concentrations of NaOH solution (3M, 4M and 6M) in the following conditions: synthesis temperature – 80ᵒC, synthesis time – 16 hours, volume of NaOH solution – 350ml, fly ash mass – 14g. The main chemical components of fly ash were SiO₂ and Al₂O₃, the contents of which reached 51.62 and 28.14%mas., respectively. The input ash contained mainly such phases as mullite, quarz, magnetite, and glass. The research results indicate that the phase composition of products after zeolitization was differentiated. The material after synthesis in 3M NaOH solution was found to contain mullite, quarz, magnetite, and Na-LSX zeolite. The products of synthesis in 4M NaOH solution were very similar to those in 3M solution (mullite, quarz, magnetite, Na-LSX zeolite), but they additionally contained hydrosodalite. The material after synthesis in 6M NaOH solution contains mullite, quarz, magnetite (similarly to synthesis in 3M and 4M NaOH solition) and additionally hydrosodalite. Therefore, the products of synthesis contain relic components from the fly ash input sample in the form of mullite, quarz, and magnetite, as well as new phases, which are Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite. It should be noted that the products of synthesis in the case of 4M NaOH solution contained both new phases (Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite), while the products from the extreme concentration of NaOH solutions (3M and 6M) contained only one of them. Observations in the scanning electron microscope revealed the new phases’ morphology. It was found that Na-LSX zeolite formed cubic crystals, whereas hydrosodalite formed characteristic aggregations. The results of investigations into the chemical composition in the micro area of phase grains in the products after synthesis reveal some dependencies, among others a characteristic increase in the content of sodium, related to the increased concentration of NaOH solution.

Keywords: Na-LSX, fly ash, hydrosodalite, zeolite

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4212 Crosssampler: A Digital Convolution Cross Synthesis Instrument

Authors: Jimmy Eadie


Convolutional Cross Synthesis (CCS) has emerged as a powerful technique for blending input signals to create hybrid sounds. It has significantly expanded the horizons of digital signal processing, enabling artists to explore audio effects. However, the conventional applications of CCS primarily revolve around reverberation and room simulation rather than being utilized as a creative synthesis method. In this paper, we present the design of a digital instrument called CrossSampler that harnesses a parametric approach to convolution cross-synthesis, which involves using adjustable parameters to control the blending of audio signals through convolution. These parameters allow for customization of the resulting sound, offering greater creative control and flexibility. It enables users to shape the output by manipulating factors such as duration, intensity, and spectral characteristics. This approach facilitates experimentation and exploration in sound design and opens new sonic possibilities.

Keywords: convolution, synthesis, sampling, virtual instrument

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4211 Evaluation of Collagen Synthesis in Macrophages/Fibroblasts Co-Culture Using Polylactic Acid Particles as Stimulants

Authors: Feng Ju Chuang, Yu Wen Wang, Tai Jung Hsieh, Shyh Ming Kuo


Polylactic acid is a synthetic polymer with good biocompatibility and degradability, is widely used in clinical applications. In this study, we utilized Polylactic acid particles as stimulants for macrophages and the collagen synthesis of co-cultured fibroblasts was evaluated. The results indicated that Polylactic acid particles were nontoxic to cells from 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. No obvious inflammation effect was observed (under the PLLA concentration of 1 mg/mL) after 24-h co-culture of Raw264.7 and NIH3T3 cells (from TNF-α assay). The addition of PLLA particles to the Raw264.7 and NIH3T3 co-cultures increased the synthesis of collagen, the highest collagen synthesis from the fibroblast was the 0.2 mg/mL (approximately 60% increased as compared with without addition Polylactic acid particles). Moreover, a co-axial atomization delivery device was used to percutaneously introduce Polylactic acid particles into the dermis layer and stimulating macrophages to secrete growth factors promoting fibroblasts to produce collagen. The preliminary results demonstrated the synthesis of collagen was increased mildly after the introduction of Polylactic acid particles for 28-d post implantation. The Polylactic acid particles could be successfully introduced into the dermis layer from H&E staining examination, however, the optimum concentration of Polylactic acid particles and the time-period for collagen synthesis still need to be evaluated.

Keywords: collagen synthesis, macrophage, NIH3T3 cells, polylactic acid particles

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4210 Hybrid Temporal Correlation Based on Gaussian Mixture Model Framework for View Synthesis

Authors: Deng Zengming, Wang Mingjiang


As 3D video is explored as a hot research topic in the last few decades, free-viewpoint TV (FTV) is no doubt a promising field for its better visual experience and incomparable interactivity. View synthesis is obviously a crucial technology for FTV; it enables to render images in unlimited numbers of virtual viewpoints with the information from limited numbers of reference view. In this paper, a novel hybrid synthesis framework is proposed and blending priority is explored. In contrast to the commonly used View Synthesis Reference Software (VSRS), the presented synthesis process is driven in consideration of the temporal correlation of image sequences. The temporal correlations will be exploited to produce fine synthesis results even near the foreground boundaries. As for the blending priority, this scheme proposed that one of the two reference views is selected to be the main reference view based on the distance between the reference views and virtual view, another view is chosen as the auxiliary viewpoint, just assist to fill the hole pixel with the help of background information. Significant improvement of the proposed approach over the state-of –the-art pixel-based virtual view synthesis method is presented, the results of the experiments show that subjective gains can be observed, and objective PSNR average gains range from 0.5 to 1.3 dB, while SSIM average gains range from 0.01 to 0.05.

Keywords: fusion method, Gaussian mixture model, hybrid framework, view synthesis

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4209 Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel and Sonochemical Combination

Authors: Sabriye Piskin, Sibel Kasap, Muge Sari Yilmaz


Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel and sonochemical combination using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor at lower temperature for a short time. The effect of the reaction parameters (hydrolysis media, acid media, and reaction temperatures) on the synthesis of TiO2 particles were investigated in the present study. Characterizations of synthesized samples were prepared by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was shown that the reaction parameters played a significant role in the synthesis of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: crystalline TiO2, sonochemical mechanism, sol-gel reaction, XRD

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4208 Continuous Improvement as an Organizational Capability in the Industry 4.0 Era

Authors: Lodgaard Eirin, Myklebust Odd, Eleftheriadis Ragnhild


Continuous improvement is becoming increasingly a prerequisite for manufacturing companies to remain competitive in a global market. In addition, future survival and success will depend on the ability to manage the forthcoming digitalization transformation in the industry 4.0 era. Industry 4.0 promises substantially increased operational effectiveness, were all equipment are equipped with integrated processing and communication capabilities. Subsequently, the interplay of human and technology will evolve and influence the range of worker tasks and demands. Taking into account these changes, the concept of continuous improvement must evolve accordingly. Based on a case study from manufacturing industry, the purpose of this paper is to point out what the concept of continuous improvement will meet and has to take into considering when entering the 4th industrial revolution. In the past, continuous improvement has the focus on a culture of sustained improvement targeting the elimination of waste in all systems and processes of an organization by involving everyone. Today, it has to be evolved into the forthcoming digital transformation and the increased interplay of human and digital communication system to reach its full potential. One main findings of this study, is how digital communication systems will act as an enabler to strengthen the continuous improvement process, by moving from collaboration within individual teams to interconnection of teams along the product value chain. For academics and practitioners, it will help them to identify and prioritize their steps towards an industry 4.0 implementation integrated with focus on continuous improvement.

Keywords: continuous improvement, digital communication system, human-machine-interaction, industry 4.0, team perfomance

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