Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: photodegradation

53 Semiconductor Supported Gold Nanoparticles for Photodegradation of Rhodamine B

Authors: Ahmad Alshammari, Abdulaziz Bagabas, Muhamad Assulami


Rhodamine B (RB) is a toxic dye used extensively in textile industry, which must be remediated before its drainage to the environment. In the present study, supported gold nanoparticles on commercially available titania and zincite were successfully prepared and then their activity on the photodegradation of RB under UV-A light irradiation were evaluated. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by ICP, BET, XRD, and TEM. Kinetic results showed that Au/TiO2 was an inferior photocatalyst to Au/ZnO. This observation could be attributed to the strong reflection of UV irradiation by gold nanoparticles over TiO2 support.

Keywords: supported AuNPs, semiconductor photocatalyst, photodegradation, rhodamine B

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52 TiO2 Nanowires as Efficient Heterogeneous Photocatalysts for Waste-Water Treatment

Authors: Gul Afreen, Sreedevi Upadhyayula, Mahendra K. Sunkara


One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures like nanowires, nanotubes, and nanorods find variety of practical application owing to their unique physico-chemical properties. In this work, TiO2 nanowires were synthesized by direct oxidation of titanium particles in a unique microwave plasma jet reactor. The prepared TiO2 nanowires manifested the flexible features, and were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, UV-Visible and FTIR spectrophotometers, Scanning electron microscope, and Transmission electron microscope. Further, the photodegradation efficiency of these nanowires were tested against toxic organic dye like methylene blue (MB) and the results were compared with the commercial TiO2. It was found that TiO2 nanowires exhibited superior photocatalytic performance (89%) as compared to commercial TiO2 (75%) after 60 min of reaction. This is attributed to the lower recombination rate and increased interfacial charge transfer in TiO2 nanowire. Pseudo-first order kinetic modelling performed with the experimental results revealed that the rate constant of photodegradation in case of TiO2 nanowire was 1.3 times higher than that of commercial TiO2. Superoxide radical (O2˙) was found to be the major contributor in the photodegradation mechanism. Based on the trapping experiments, a plausible mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction is discussed.

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, photodegradation, reactive oxygen species, TiO₂ nanowires

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
51 Effective Photodegradation of Tetracycline by a Heteropoly Acid/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Based on Uio-66

Authors: Anasheh Maridiroosi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Hanieh Fakhri


Heteropoly acid nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide based on UiO-66 were synthesized via in-situ growth hydrothermal method and tested for photodegradation of a tetracycline as critical pollutant. Results showed that presence of graphene oxide and UiO-66 with high specific surface area, great electron mobility and various functional groups make an excellent support for heteropoly acid and improve photocatalytic efficiency up to 95% for tetracycline. Furthermore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis verified 79% mineralization of this pollutant under optimum condition.

Keywords: heteropoly acid, graphene oxide, MOF, tetracycline

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
50 Studying the Photodegradation Behavior of Microplastics Released from Agricultural Plastic Products to the Farmland

Authors: Maryam Salehi, Gholamreza Bonyadinejad


The application of agricultural plastic products like mulch, greenhouse covers, and silage films is increasing due to their economic benefits in providing an early and better-quality harvest. In 2015, the 4 million tons (valued a 10.6 million USD) global market for agricultural plastic films was estimated to grow by 5.6% per year through 2030. Despite the short-term benefits provided by plastic products, their long-term sustainability issues and negative impacts on soil health are not well understood. After their removal from the field, some plastic residuals remain in the soil. Plastic residuals in farmlands may fragment to small particles called microplastics (d<5mm). The microplastics' exposure to solar radiation could alter their surface chemistry and make them susceptible to fragmentation. Thus, this study examined the photodegradation of low density polyethylene as the model microplastics that are released to the agriculture farmland. The variation of plastic’s surface chemistry, morphology, and bulk characteristics were studied after accelerated UV-A radiation experiments and sampling from an agricultural field. The Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated the formation of oxidized surface functional groups onto the microplastics surface due to the photodegradation. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed an increased crystallinity for the photodegraded microplastics compared to the new samples. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) demonstrated the reduced molecular weight for the polymer due to the photodegradation. This study provides an important opportunity to advance understanding of soil pollution. Understanding the plastic residuals’ variations as they are left in the soil is providing a critical piece of information to better estimate the microplastics' impacts on environmental biodiversity, ecosystem sustainability, and food safety.

Keywords: soil health, plastic pollution, sustainability, photodegradation

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49 Doped and Co-doped ZnO Based Nanoparticles and their Photocatalytic and Gas Sensing Property

Authors: Neha Verma, Manik Rakhra


Statement of the Problem: Nowadays, a tremendous increase in population and advanced industrialization augment the problems related to air and water pollutions. Growing industries promoting environmental danger, which is an alarming threat to the ecosystem. For safeguard, the environment, detection of perilous gases and release of colored wastewater is required for eutrophication pollution. Researchers around the globe are trying their best efforts to save the environment. For this remediation advanced oxidation process is used for potential applications. ZnO is an important semiconductor photocatalyst with high photocatalytic and gas sensing activities. For efficient photocatalytic and gas sensing properties, it is necessary to prepare a doped/co-doped ZnO compound to decrease the electron-hole recombination rates. However, lanthanide doped and co-doped metal oxide is seldom studied for photocatalytic and gas sensing applications. The purpose of this study is to describe the best photocatalyst for the photodegradation of dyes and gas sensing properties. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Economical framework has to be used for the synthesis of ZnO. In the depth literature survey, a simple combustion method is utilized for gas sensing and photocatalytic activities. Findings: Rare earth doped and co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were the best photocatalysts for photodegradation of organic dyes and different gas sensing applications by varying various factors such as pH, aging time, and different concentrations of doping and codoping metals in ZnO. Complete degradation of dye was observed only in min. Gas sensing nanodevice showed a better response and quick recovery time for doped/co-doped ZnO. Conclusion & Significance: In order to prevent air and water pollution, well crystalline ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by rapid and economic method, which is used as photocatalyst for photodegradation of organic dyes and gas sensing applications to sense the release of hazardous gases from the environment.

Keywords: ZnO, photocatalyst, photodegradation of dye, gas sensor

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48 Methyl Red Adsorption and Photodegradation on TiO₂ Modified Mesoporous Carbon Photocatalyst

Authors: Seyyed Ershad Moradi, Javad Khodaveisi, Atefeh Nasrollahpour


In this study, the highly ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with high surface area and pore volume have been synthesized and modified by TiO₂ doping. The titanium oxide modified mesoporous carbon (Ti-OMC) was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), BET surface area, DRS also XRD analysis (low and wide angle). Degradation experiments were conducted in batch mode with the variables such as amount of contact time, initial solution concentration, and solution pH. The optimal conditions for the degradation of methyl red (MR) were 100 mg/L dye concentration, pH of 7, and 0.12 mg/L of TiO₂ modified mesoporous carbon photocatalyst dosage.

Keywords: mesoporous carbon, photodegradation, surface modification, titanium oxide

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47 Synthesis of ZnFe₂O₄-AC/CeMOF for Improvement Photodegradation of Textile Dyes Under Visible-light: Optimization and Statistical Study

Authors: Esraa Mohamed El-Fawal


A facile solvothermal procedure was applied to fabricate zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZnFe₂O₄ NPs). Activated carbon (AC) derived from peanut shells is synthesized using a microwave through the chemical activation method. The ZnFe₂O₄-AC composite is then mixed with a cerium-based metal-organic framework (CeMOF) by solid-state adding to formulate ZnFe₂O₄-AC/CeMOF composite. The synthesized photo materials were tested by scanning/transmission electron microscope (SEM/TEM), Photoluminescence (PL), (XRD) X-Ray diffraction, (FTIR) Fourier transform infrared, (UV-Vis/DRS) ultraviolet-visible/diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The prepared ZnFe₂O₄-AC/CeMOFphotomaterial shows significantly boosted efficiency for photodegradation of methyl orange /methylene blue (MO/MB) compared with the pristine ZnFe₂O₄ and ZnFe₂O₄-AC composite under the irradiation of visible-light. The favorable ZnFe₂O₄-AC/CeMOFphotocatalyst displays the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB/MO (R: 91.5-88.6%, consecutively) compared with the other as-prepared materials after 30 min of visible-light irradiation. The apparent reaction rate K: 1.94-1.31 min-1 is also calculated. The boosted photocatalytic proficiency is ascribed to the heterojunction at the interface of prepared photo material that assists the separation of the charge carriers. To reach optimization, statistical analysis using response surface methodology was applied. The effect of independent parameters (such as A (pH), B (irradiation time), and (c) initial pollutants concentration on the response function (%)photodegradation of MB/MO dyes (as examples of azodyes) was investigated via using central composite design. At the optimum condition, the photodegradation efficiency (%) of the MB/MO is 99.8-97.8%, respectively. ZnFe2O₄-AC/CeMOF hybrid reveals good stability over four consecutive cycles.

Keywords: azo-dyes, photo-catalysis, zinc ferrite, response surface methodology

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46 Photocatalytic Degradation of Toxic Phenols Using Zinc Oxide Doped Prussian Blue Nanocomposite

Authors: Rachna, Uma Shanker


Aromatic phenols, being priority pollutants, are found in various industrial effluents and seeking the attention of environmentalists worldwide, owing to their life-threatening effects. In the present study, the coupling of zinc oxide with Prussian blue was achieved involving co-precipitation synthesis process using Azadirachta indica plant extract. The fabricated nanocatalyst was employed for the sunlight mediated photodegradation of various phenols (Phenol, 3-Aminophenol, and 2,4-Dinitrophenol). Doping of zinc oxide with Prussian blue caused an increase in the surface area to value 80.109 m²g⁻¹ and also enhanced the semiconducting tendency of the nanocomposite with band gap energy 1.101 eV. The experiment was performed at different parameters of phenols concentration, catalyst amount, pH, time, and exposure of sunlight. The obtained results showed a lower elimination of 2,4-DNP (93%) than 3-AP (97%) and phenol (95%) owing to their molecular weight and basicity differences. In comparison to the starting material (zinc oxide and Prussian blue), nanocomposite was more capable in degrading the phenols and lowered the t1/2 value of phenol (4.405 h), 3-AP (4.04 h) and 2,4-DNP (4.68 h) to a greater extent. Effect of different foreign anions was also studied to check nanocomposite’s liability under natural conditions. The extent of charge recombination being the most limiting factor in the photodegradation of pollutants was determined through the photoluminescence. Sunlight active [email protected] nanocomposite was proven to exhibit good catalytic ability up to 10 cycles.

Keywords: nanocomposite, phenols, photodegradation, sunlight, water

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45 Facile Synthesis of Heterostructured Bi₂S₃-WS₂ Photocatalysts for Photodegradation of Organic Dye

Authors: S. V. Prabhakar Vattikuti, Chan Byon


In this paper, we report a facile synthetic strategy of randomly disturbed Bi₂S₃ nanorods on WS₂ nanosheets, which are synthesized via a controlled hydrothermal method without surfactant under an inert atmosphere. We developed a simple hydrothermal method for the formation of heterostructured of Bi₂S₃/WS₂ with a large scale (>95%). The structural features, composition, and morphology were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, HRTEM, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, N₂ adsorption-desorption, and TG-DTA measurements. The heterostructured Bi₂S₃/WS₂ composite has significant photocatalytic efficiency toward the photodegradation of organic dye. The time-dependent UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy measurement was consistent with the enhanced photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation with the diminishing carrier recombination for the Bi₂S₃/WS₂ photocatalyst. Due to their marked synergistic effects, the supported Bi₂S₃ nanorods on WS₂ nanosheet heterostructures exhibit significant visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability for the degradation of RhB. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed for the Bi₂S₃/WS₂ composite.

Keywords: photocatalyst, heterostructures, transition metal disulfides, organic dye, nanorods

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44 Removal of Maxilon Red Dye by Adsorption and Photocatalysis: Optimum Conditions, Equilibrium, and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Aid Asma, Dahdouh Nadjib, Amokrane Samira, Ladjali Samir, Nibou Djamel


The present work has for main objective the elimination of the textile dye Maxilon Red (MR) by two processes, adsorption on activated clay followed by photocatalysis in presence of ZnO as a photocatalyst. The influence of the physical parameters like the initial pH, adsorbent dose of the activated clay, the MR concentration and temperature has been studied. The best adsorption yield occurs at neutral pH ~ 7 within 60 min with an uptake percentage of 97% for a concentration of 25 mg L⁻¹ and a dose of 0.5 g L⁻¹. The adsorption data were suitably fitted by the Langmuir model with a maximum capacity of 176 mg g⁻¹. The MR adsorption is well described by the pseudo second order kinetic. The second part of this work was dedicated to the photocatalytic degradation onto ZnO under solar irradiation of the residual MR concentration, remained after adsorption. The effect of ZnO dose and MR concentration has also been investigated. The parametric study showed that the elimination is very effective by this process, based essentially on the in situ generation of free radicals *OH which are non-selective and very reactive. The photodegradation process follows a first order kinetic model according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: maxilon red, adsorption, photodegradation, ZnO, coupling

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43 Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Undoped and Fe Doped TiO₂ (Ti₁₋ₓFeₓO₂; X=0.01, 0.02, 0.03) Nanoparticles

Authors: Sudhakar Saroj, Satya Vir Singh


Undoped and Fe doped TiO₂, Ti₁₋ₓFeₓO₂ (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09) have been synthesized by solution combustion method using Titanium (IV) oxide as a precursor, and also were characterized by XRD, DRS, FTIR, XPS, SEM, and EDX. The formation of anatase phase of undoped and Fe TiO₂ nanoparticles were confirmed by XRD, and the average crystallite size was determined by Debye-Scherer's equation. The DRS analysis indicates the shifting of light absorbance in visible region from UV region with increasing the doping concentration in TiO₂. The vibrational band of the Ti-O lattice was confirmed by the FT-IR spectrum. The XPS results confirm the presence of elements of titanium, oxygen and iron in the synthesized samples and determine the binding energy of elements. SEM image of the above-synthesized nanoparticles showed the spherical shape of nanoparticles. The purities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by EDX analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were tested by studying the degradation of dye (Direct Blue 199) in the photocatalytic reactor. The Ti₀.₉₇Fe₀.₀₃O₂ photocatalyst shows highest photodegradation activity among all the synthesized undoped and Fe doped TiO₂ photocatalyst.

Keywords: direct blue 199, nanoparticles, TiO₂, photodegradation

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42 TiO2 Adsorbed on Cement Balls for Effective Photomineralization of Organic Pollutants under UV Light Irradiation

Authors: Tarun Jain, Lovnish Gupta, Soumen Basu


Organic pollutants like phenols and organic dyes present in industrial waste water are posing a hazardous threat to aquatic ecosystem. Several measures have been adopted for the neutralization and photodecomposition of these harmful organic moieties, among these semiconductor photocatalysis has been provided a major thrust after the discovery of Honda-Fujishema effect. Present study demonstrates the adsorption of TiO2- P25 in nano size (~36 nm) on cement balls for effective photodegradation of Alizarin and penta chlorophenol (PCP) under UV light illumination. Triton-X was used as a stabilizer for effective adsorption of TiO2 on cement balls (TCB) followed by calcination at ~300oC for 4 h. The TCB’s were dispersed randomly in a self designed reactor for phototcatalytic performance as shown in scheme 1. The change in concentration of alizarin and PCP was observed under UV-Vis spectroscopy, PCP was detoxified within 40 min while alizarin photodecomposed within 15 min of UV light irradiation. Taking into consideration the go green slogan and future prospective this technique can be also utilized under visible light and on mass scale because this is an effective tool for environmental remediation and waste water treatment.

Keywords: organic pollutants, TiO2 cement balls, photodegradation, UV light irradiation

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41 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Pure and Ag-Doped SnO₂ Nanoparticles as Catalyst

Authors: M. S. Abd El-Sadek, Mahmoud A. Omar, Gharib M. Taha


Photodegradation of methylene blue in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles under solar light irradiation are known to be an effective photocatalytic process. In this study, pure and silver (Ag) doped tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles were prepared at calcination temperature (800ºC) by a modified sol-gel method and studied for their photocatalytic activity with methylene blue as a test contaminant. The characterization of undoped and doped SnO₂ photocatalyst was studied by X-rays diffraction patterns (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX). The catalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous media was studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer to monitor the degradation process by measuring its absorption spectra. The main absorption peak of methylene blue is observed at λ= 664 nm. The change in the percent of silver in the catalyst affects the photoactivity of SnO₂ on the degradation of methylene blue. The photoactivity of pure SnO₂ was found to be a maximum at dose 0.2 gm of the catalyst with 100 ml of 5 ppm methylene blue in the water. Within 210 min of photodegradation (under sunlight) after leaving the reaction for 90 minutes in the dark to avoid the effect of adsorption, the pure SnO₂ at calcination temperature 800ºC exhibited the best photocatalytic degradation with removal percentage of 93.66% on methylene blue degradation under solar light.

Keywords: SnO₂ nanoparticles, methylene blue degradation, photocatalysis, silver doped-SnO₂

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40 Synthesis of Novel Nanostructure Copper(II) Metal-Organic Complex for Photocatalytic Degradation of Remdesivir Antiviral COVID-19 from Aqueous Solution: Adsorption Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

Authors: Sam Bahreini, Payam Hayati


Metal-organic coordination [Cu(L)₄(SCN)₂] was synthesized applying ultrasonic irradiation, and its photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Remdesivir (RS) under sunlight irradiation was systematically explored for the first time in this study. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized photocatalyst were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. Systematic examinations were carried out by changing irradiation time, temperature, solution pH value, contact time, RS concentration, and catalyst dosage. The photodegradation kinetic profiles were modeled in pseudo-first order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models reflected that photodegradation onto [Cu(L)₄(SCN)₂] catalyst follows pseudo-first order kinetic model. The fabricated [Cu(L)₄(SCN)₂] nanostructure bandgap was determined as 2.60 eV utilizing the Kubelka-Munk formula from the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method. Decreasing chemical oxygen demand (COD) (from 70.5 mgL-1 to 36.4 mgL-1) under optimal conditions well confirmed mineralizing of the RS drug. The values of ΔH° and ΔS° was negative, implying the process of adsorption is spontaneous and more favorable in lower temperatures.

Keywords: Photocatalytic degradation, COVID-19, density functional theory (DFT), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP)

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39 ZnO / TiO2 Nanoparticles for Degradation of Cyanide Ion

Authors: Masoumeh Tabatabaee, Zahra Shahryarzadeh, Masoud R. Shishebor


Advanced oxidation process (AOPs) is alternative method for the complete degradation many organic pollutants. When a photocatalyst absorbs radiation whose energy hν > Eg an ē from its filled valance band (VB) is promoted to its conduction band (CB) and valance band holes h+ are formed. Electron would reduce any available species, including O2, water and hydroxide ion to form hydroxyl radicals. ZnO and TiO2 are important photocatalysts with high catalytic activity that have attracted much research attention. TiO2 can only absorb a small portion of solar spectrum in the UV region and many methods such as dye sensitization, doping of other metals and using TiO2 with another semiconductor have been used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under solar irradiation. Studies have shown that the use of metal oxides or sulfide such as WO3, MoO3, SiO2, MgO, ZnO, and CdS with TiO2 can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Due to similarity of photodegradation mechanism of ZnO with TiO2, it is a suitable semiconductor using with TiO2 and recently nanosized bicomponent TiO2-ZnO photocatalysts were prepared and used for degradation of some pollutants. In this study, Nano-sized ZnO/TiO2 composite was synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of it. The effect of photocatalytic activity of prepared ZnO/TiO2 on the degradation of cyanide ion under UV was investigated. The effect of various parameters such as ZnO/TiO2 concentration, amount of photocatalyst, amount of H2O2, initial dye or cyanide ion concentration, pH and irradiation time on were investigated. Results show that more than 95% of 4 mgL-1 cyanide ion degraded after 60-min reaction time and under UV irradiation.

Keywords: photodegradation, ZnO/TiO2, nanoparticle, cyanide ion

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38 Nitrogen/Platinum Co-Doped TiO₂ for Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Brilliant Black

Authors: Sarre Nzaba, Bulelwa Ntsendwana, Bekkie Mamba, Alex Kuvarega


Elimination of toxic organic compounds from wastewater is currently one of the most important subjects in water pollution control. The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N,Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalyts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. SEM/ EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA, FTIR, RS, PL and UV-Vis were used to characterize the prepared nanomaterials. The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited lower band gap energies as compared to the commercial TiO₂ revealing a shift in band gap towards the visible light absorption region. Photocatalytic activity of N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of BB dye. Enhanced photodegradation efficiency of BB was achieved after 180 min reaction time with initial concentration of 50 ppm BB solution. This was attributed to the rod-like shape of the materials, larger surface area, and enhanced absorption of visible light induced by N,Pt co-doping. The co-doped N,Pt also exhibited pseudo-first order kinetic behaviour with half-life and rate constant of 0.37 min 0.1984 min⁻¹ and respectively. N doped TiO₂ and N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performances for the removal of BB from water.

Keywords: N, Pt co-doped TiO₂, dendrimer, photodegradation, visible-light

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37 Semiconductor Properties of Natural Phosphate Application to Photodegradation of Basic Dyes in Single and Binary Systems

Authors: Y. Roumila, D. Meziani, R. Bagtache, K. Abdmeziem, M. Trari


Heterogeneous photocatalysis over semiconductors has proved its effectiveness in the treatment of wastewaters since it works under soft conditions. It has emerged as a promising technique, giving rise to less toxic effluents and offering the opportunity of using sunlight as a sustainable and renewable source of energy. Many compounds have been used as photocatalysts. Though synthesized ones are intensively used, they remain expensive, and their synthesis involves special conditions. We thus thought of implementing a natural material, a phosphate ore, due to its low cost and great availability. Our work is devoted to the removal of hazardous organic pollutants, which cause several environmental problems and health risks. Among them, dye pollutants occupy a large place. This work relates to the study of the photodegradation of methyl violet (MV) and rhodamine B (RhB), in single and binary systems, under UV light and sunlight irradiation. Methyl violet is a triarylmethane dye, while RhB is a heteropolyaromatic dye belonging to the Xanthene family. In the first part of this work, the natural compound was characterized using several physicochemical and photo-electrochemical (PEC) techniques: X-Ray diffraction, chemical, and thermal analyses scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance measurements, and FTIR spectroscopy. The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical studies were performed with a Voltalab PGZ 301 potentiostat/galvanostat at room temperature. The structure of the phosphate material was well characterized. The photo-electrochemical (PEC) properties are crucial for drawing the energy band diagram, in order to suggest the formation of radicals and the reactions involved in the dyes photo-oxidation mechanism. The PEC characterization of the natural phosphate was investigated in neutral solution (Na₂SO₄, 0.5 M). The study revealed the semiconducting behavior of the phosphate rock. Indeed, the thermal evolution of the electrical conductivity was well fitted by an exponential type law, and the electrical conductivity increases with raising the temperature. The Mott–Schottky plot and current-potential J(V) curves recorded in the dark and under illumination clearly indicate n-type behavior. From the results of photocatalysis, in single solutions, the changes in MV and RhB absorbance in the function of time show that practically all of the MV was removed after 240 mn irradiation. For RhB, the complete degradation was achieved after 330 mn. This is due to its complex and resistant structure. In binary systems, it is only after 120 mn that RhB begins to be slowly removed, while about 60% of MV is already degraded. Once nearly all of the content of MV in the solution has disappeared (after about 250 mn), the remaining RhB is degraded rapidly. This behaviour is different from that observed in single solutions where both dyes are degraded since the first minutes of irradiation.

Keywords: environment, organic pollutant, phosphate ore, photodegradation

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36 ZnO Nanoparticles as Photocatalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Application

Authors: Pachari Chuenta, Suwat Nanan


ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized successfully in high yield via catalyst-free chemical precipitation technique by varying zinc source (either zinc nitrate or zinc acetate) and oxygen source (either oxalic acid or urea) without using any surfactant, organic solvent or capping agent. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The FTIR peak in the range of 450-470 cm-1 corresponded to Zn-O stretching in ZnO structure. The synthesized ZnO samples showed well crystalized hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM micrographs displayed spherical droplet of about 50-100 nm. The band gap of prepared ZnO was found to be 3.4-3.5 eV. The presence of PL peak at 468 nm was attributed to surface defect state. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO was studied by monitoring the photodegradation of reactive red (RR141) azo dye under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. Blank experiment was also separately carried out by irradiating the aqueous solution of the dye in absence of the photocatalyst. The initial concentration of the dye was fixed at 10 mgL-1. About 50 mg of ZnO photocatalyst was dispersed in 200 mL dye solution. The sample was collected at a regular time interval during the irradiation and then was analyzed after centrifugation. The concentration of the dye was determined by monitoring the absorbance at its maximum wavelength (λₘₐₓ) of 544 nm using UV-vis spectroscopic analysis technique. The sources of Zn and O played an important role on photocatalytic performance of the ZnO photocatalyst. ZnO nanoparticles which prepared by zinc acetate and oxalic acid at molar ratio of 1:1 showed high photocatalytic performance of about 97% toward photodegradation of reactive red azo dye (RR141) under UV light irradiation for only 60 min. This work demonstrates the promising potential of ZnO nanomaterials as photocatalysts for environmental remediation.

Keywords: azo dye, chemical precipitation, photocatalytic, ZnO

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35 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Electrospun Zinc and/or Titanium Oxide Nanofibers for Methylene Blue Degradation

Authors: Zainab Dahrouch, Beatrix Petrovičová, Claudia Triolo, Fabiola Pantò, Angela Malara, Salvatore Patanè, Maria Allegrini, Saveria Santangelo


Synthetic dyes dispersed in water cause environmental damage and have harmful effects on human health. Methylene blue (MB) is broadly used as a dye in the textile, pharmaceutical, printing, cosmetics, leather, and food industries. The complete removal of MB is difficult due to the presence of aromatic rings in its structure. The present study is focused on electrospun nanofibers (NFs) with engineered architecture and surface to be used as catalysts for the photodegradation of MB. Ti and/or Zn oxide NFs are produced by electrospinning precursor solutions with different Ti: Zn molar ratios (from 0:1 to 1:0). Subsequent calcination and cooling steps are operated at fast rates to generate porous NFs with capture centers to reduce the recombination rate of the photogenerated charges. The comparative evaluation of the NFs as photocatalysts for the removal of MB from an aqueous solution with a dye concentration of 15 µM under UV irradiation shows that the binary (wurtzite ZnO and anatase TiO₂) oxides exhibit higher catalytic activity compared to ternary (ZnTiO₃ and Zn₂TiO₄) oxides. The higher band gap and lower crystallinity of the ternary oxides are responsible for their lower photocatalytic activity. It has been found that the optimal load for the wurtzite ZnO is 0.66 mg mL⁻¹, obtaining a degradation rate of 7.94.10⁻² min⁻¹. The optimal load for anatase TiO₂ is lower (0.33 mg mL⁻¹) and the corresponding rate constant (1.12×10⁻¹ min⁻¹) is higher. This finding (higher activity with lower load) is of crucial importance for the scaling up of the process on an industrial scale. Indeed, the anatase NFs outperform even the commonly used P25-TiO₂ benchmark. Besides, they can be reused twice without any regeneration treatment, with 5.2% and 18.7% activity decrease after second and third use, respectively. Thanks to the scalability of the electrospinning technique, this laboratory-scale study provides a perspective towards the sustainable large-scale manufacture of photocatalysts for the treatment of industry effluents.

Keywords: anatase, capture centers, methylene blue dye, nanofibers, photodegradation, zinc oxide

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34 Green and Facile Fabrication and Characterization of Fe/ZnO Hollow Spheres and Photodegradation of Azo Dyes

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Bahjat Afshari Razani


In this work, Fe/ZnO hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template glucose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using an ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM and BET. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized spherical Fe/ZnO hollow sphere were studied in the destruction of Congo Red and Methylene Blue as Azo dyes. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Fe/ZnO hollow spherical structures is improved compared with ZnO hollow sphere and other morphologys.

Keywords: azo dyes, Fe/ZnO hollow sphere, hollow sphere nanostructures, photocatalyst

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33 Desulphurization of Waste Tire Pyrolytic Oil (TPO) Using Photodegradation and Adsorption Techniques

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


The nature of tires makes them extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer and, therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and, consequently, cannot be remolded into other shapes without serious degradation. Open dumping of tires pollutes the soil, contaminates underground water and provides ideal breeding grounds for disease carrying vermins. The thermal decomposition of tires by pyrolysis produce char, gases and oil. The composition of oils derived from waste tires has common properties to commercial diesel fuel. The problem associated with the light oil derived from pyrolysis of waste tires is that it has a high sulfur content (> 1.0 wt.%) and therefore emits harmful sulfur oxide (SOx) gases to the atmosphere when combusted in diesel engines. Desulphurization of TPO is necessary due to the increasing stringent environmental regulations worldwide. Hydrodesulphurization (HDS) is the commonly practiced technique for the removal of sulfur species in liquid hydrocarbons. However, the HDS technique fails in the presence of complex sulfur species such as Dibenzothiopene (DBT) present in TPO. This study aims to investigate the viability of photodegradation (Photocatalytic oxidative desulphurization) and adsorptive desulphurization technologies for efficient removal of complex and non-complex sulfur species in TPO. This study focuses on optimizing the cleaning (removal of impurities and asphaltenes) process by varying process parameters; temperature, stirring speed, acid/oil ratio and time. The treated TPO will then be sent for vacuum distillation to attain the desired diesel like fuel. The effect of temperature, pressure and time will be determined for vacuum distillation of both raw TPO and the acid treated oil for comparison purposes. Polycyclic sulfides present in the distilled (diesel like) light oil will be oxidized dominantly to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfone via a photo-catalyzed system using TiO2 as a catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent and finally acetonitrile will be used as an extraction solvent. Adsorptive desulphurization will be used to adsorb traces of sulfurous compounds which remained during photocatalytic desulphurization step. This desulphurization convoy is expected to give high desulphurization efficiency with reasonable oil recovery.

Keywords: adsorption, asphaltenes, photocatalytic oxidation, pyrolysis

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32 Facile Fabrication of Nickel/Zinc Oxide Hollow Spheres Nanostructure and Photodegradation of Congo Red

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Behjat Afshari


In this work, Nickel/Zinc Oxide hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template Fructose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using a ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized hollow spherical Nickel/Zinc Oxide was studied in the destruction of Congo red as Azo dye. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Nickel/ Zinc Oxide hollow spherical nanostructures is improved compared with zinc oxide hollow sphere and other morphologies.

Keywords: azo dye, hollow spheres, photocatalyst, nickel/zinc oxide

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31 Ecotoxicological Test-Battery for Efficiency Assessment of TiO2 Assisted Photodegradation of Emerging Micropolluants

Authors: Ildiko Fekete-Kertesz, Jade Chaker, Sylvain Berthelot, Viktoria Feigl, Monika Molnar, Lidia Favier


There has been growing concern about emerging micropollutants in recent years, because of the possible environmental and health risk posed by these substances, which are released into the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Among them pharmaceuticals are currently not considered under water quality regulations; however, their potential effect on the environment have become more frequent in recent years. Due to the fact that these compounds can be detected in natural water matrices, it can be concluded, that the currently applied water treatment processes are not efficient enough for their effective elimination. To date, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are considered as highly competitive water treatment technologies for the removal of those organic micropollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. AOPs such as (photo)chemical oxidation and heterogeneous photocatalysis have proven their potential in degrading harmful organic compounds from aqueous matrices. However, some of these technologies generate reaction by-products, which can even be more toxic to aquatic organisms than the parent compounds. Thus, target compound removal does not necessarily result in the removal of toxicity. Therefore, to evaluate process efficiency the determination of the toxicity and ecotoxicity of the reaction intermediates is crucial to estimate the environmental risk of such techniques. In this context, the present study investigates the effectiveness of TiO2 assisted photodegradation for the removal of emerging water contaminants. Two drugs named losartan (used in high blood pressure medication) and levetiracetam (used to treat epilepsy) were considered in this work. The photocatalytic reactions were carried out with a commercial catalyst usually employed in photocatalysis. Moreover, the toxicity of the by-products generated during the process was assessed with various ecotoxicological methods applying aquatic test organisms from different trophic levels. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the toxicity of untreated and treated solutions applying the Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test, the Tetrahymena pyriformis proliferation inhibition test, the Daphnia magna lethality and immobilization tests and the Lemna minor growth inhibition test. The applied ecotoxicological methodology indicated sensitively the toxic effects of the treated and untreated water samples, hence the applied test battery is suitable for the ecotoxicological characterization of TiO2 based photocatalytic water treatment technologies and the indication of the formation of toxic by-products from the parent chemical compounds. Obtained results clearly showed that the TiO2 assisted photodegradation was more efficient in the elimination of losartan than levetiracetam. It was also observed that the treated levetiracetam solutions had more severe effect on the applied test organisms. A possible explanation would be the production of levetiracetam by-products, which are more toxic than the parent compound. The increased toxicity and the risk of formation of toxic metabolites represent one possible limitation to the implementation of photocatalytic treatment using TiO2 for the removal of losartan and levetiracetam. Our results proved that, the battery of ecotoxicity tests used in this work can be a promising investigation tool for the environmental risk assessment of photocatalytic processes.

Keywords: aquatic micropollutants, ecotoxicology, nano titanium dioxide, photocatalysis, water treatment

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30 Ta-doped Nb2O5: Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Mahendrasingh J. Pawar, M. D. Gaoner


Ta-doped Nb2O5 (Ta content 0.5-2% mole fraction) nanoparticles in the range of 20-40 nm were synthesized by combustion technique. The crystalline phase, morphology and size of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The specific surface area of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). The undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles were found to have the particles size in the range of 50−80 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was characterized by degrading 20 mg/L toluene under UV−Vis irradiation. The results show that the Ta-doped Nb2O5 nanoparticles exhibit a significant increase in photocatalytic performance over the undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles, and the Nb2O5 nanoparticles doped with 1.5% Ta and calcined at 450°C show the best photocatalytic performance.

Keywords: Nb2O5, Ta-doped Nb2O5, photodegradation of Toluene, combustion method

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29 AG Loaded WO3 Nanoplates for Photocatalytic Degradation of Sulfanilamide and Bacterial Removal under Visible Light

Authors: W. Y. Zhu, X. L. Yan, Y. Zhou


Sulfonamides (SAs) are extensively used antibiotics; photocatalysis is an effective, way to remove the SAs from water driven by solar energy. Here we used WO3 nanoplates and their Ag heterogeneous as photocatalysts to investigate their photodegradation efficiency against sulfanilamide (SAM) which is the precursor of SAs. Results showed that WO3/Ag composites performed much better than pure WO3 where the highest removal rate was 96.2% can be achieved under visible light irradiation. Ag as excellent antibacterial agent also endows certain antibacterial efficiency to WO3, and 100% removal efficiency could be achieved in 2 h under visible light irradiation for all WO3/Ag composites. Generally, WO3/Ag composites are very effective photocatalysts with potentials in practical applications which mainly use cheap, clean and green solar energy as energy source.

Keywords: antibacterial, photocatalysis, semiconductor, sulfanilamide

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28 Impact of Solar Radiation Effects on the Physicochemical Properties of Unformulated Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Film

Authors: A. Adelhafidhi, I. M. Babaghayou, S. F. Chabira, M. Sebaa


This study deals with the photodegradation of unformulated polyethylene films for greenhouse covering. The UV range of solar light appears as the most deleterious factor of plastic degradation in outdoor exposure. The reasons of this photosensitivity are structural defects which are light-absorbing. The use of FTIR as an investigation tool has revealed that the material reacts with surrounding oxygen via a photooxidation process. Although the photochemical process is quite complex, it appears through this study than crosslinking and chain scissions are the most important events taking place during aging These two key reactions change irremediably the average molecular weight affecting thus drastically the mechanical properties and reducing, in the same way, the service lifetime of the films.

Keywords: polyethylene, films, unformulated, FTIR, ageing

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27 Effect of Various Capping Agents on Photocatalytic, Antibacterial and Antibiofilm of ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: K. Akhil, J. Jayakumar, S. Sudheer Khan


Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are extensively used in a wide variety of commercial products including sunscreen, textile and paints. The present study evaluated the effect of surface capping agents including polyethylene glycol (EG), gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone(PVP) on photocatalytic activity of ZnO NPs. The particles were also tested for its antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1688). Preliminary characterization was done by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Electron microscopic analysis showed that the particles were hexagonal in shape. The hydrodynamic size distribution was analyzed by using dynamic light scattering method and crystalline nature was determined by X-Ray diffraction method.

Keywords: antibacterial, antibiofilm, capping agents, photodegradation, surface coating, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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26 Apparent Ageing Mechanism of Polyurethane Coating in Typical Atmospheric Environment

Authors: Jin Gao, Jin Zhang, Xiaogang Li


Outdoor exposure experiments were conducted in three extreme environments, namely the Chinese plateau mountain environment (Lhasa), the cold–temperate environment (Mohe), and the marine atmospheric environment (Wanning), to track a new long-life environment-friendly polyurethane coating. The relationship between apparent properties, namely gloss and microstructural changes, was analyzed, and the influence of typical climatic environment on the aging mechanism of polyurethane coatings was discussed. Results show that the UV radiation in the Lhasa area causes photoaging degradation, micropores are formed on the coating surface, and the powdering phenomenon is obvious. Photodegradation occurs in the Wanning area, and a hydrolysis reaction is observed. The hydrolysis reaction catalyzes the photoaging, the coating surface becomes yellow, and the powdering becomes serious. Photoaging is also present in the Mohe area, but it is mainly due to temperature changes that in turn change the internal stress of the coating. Microcracks and bumps form on the coating surface.

Keywords: aging, atmospheric environment, outdoor exposure, polyurethane coating

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25 The Effect of Calcining Temperature on Photocatalytic Activity of Porous ZnO Architecture

Authors: M. Masar, P. Janota, J. Sedlak, M. Machovsky, I. Kuritka


Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano crystals assembled porous architecture was prepared by thermal decomposition of zinc oxalate precursor at various temperatures ranging from 400-900°C. The effect of calcining temperature on structure and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry, and BET adsorption analysis. The porous nano crystalline ZnO morphology was developed due to the release of volatile precursor products, while the overall shape of ZnO micro crystals was retained as a legacy of the precursor. The average crystallite size increased with increasing temperature of calcination from approximately 21 nm to 79 nm, while the specific surface area decreased from 30 to 1.7 m2g-1. The photo catalytic performance of prepared ZnO powders was evaluated by degradation of methyl violet 2B, a model compound. The significantly highest photo catalytic activity was achieved with powder calcined at 500°C. This may be attributed to the sufficiently well-developed crystalline arrangement, while the specific surface area is still high enough.

Keywords: ZnO, porous structure, photodegradation, methyl violet

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24 Photo Catalytic Treatment of Wastewater from Processing Poultry by-Products

Authors: J. Franco Macías, E. Montes Alba, A. López Vásquez


The growing development in the poultry industry has generated a strong and adverse impact on quality and availability of water resources. Inside this industry, is finding out the treatment of by-products such as feathers, viscera and blood demanding highly water consumption, generating contaminant discharges as well. As one of current of treatment of by-products is the effluent of cooking condensate steam that has contaminant organic load; therefore, it is necessary to implement removal treatments before discharging it toward water sources. The photo catalysis appears as a promising alternative of treatment due to the different advantages it has, among others, includes low cost, easily operation, high efficiency and elimination of a wide variety of contaminants in a watery environment. This study has evaluated a heterogeneous photo catalytic treatment for removal contaminant organic load. This process was developed in oxidation and reduction conditions. It was analyzed the effect of factors such as pH, catalyst and sacrifice agent concentration. Finally, good conditions to removal contaminant organic load were achieved to determine percentage of contaminant organic load by means of response surface methodology.

Keywords: poultry industry, advanced oxidation process, photocatalysis, photodegradation, TiO2

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