Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Eltayeb M. Emmima

18 Determination of Lead , Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati, Eltayeb M. Emmima


Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: boiling, infusion, metals, tea

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17 Characterization of Coronary Artery Obstruction and Related Findings in Ischemic Heart Patients Using Cardiac Scintigraphy

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagi Allah Eltayeb, Mohamed E. Gar-elnabi, Mohamed Ahmed Ali


To characterize coronary artery obstruction and related findings in ischemic heart patients using cardiac scintigraphy for the identification of myocardial ischemia, 146 patients were studied at basal conditions and also asked for fasting after night till the intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. After the injection time about 15 to 20 minutes, the patient should eat a fatty meal and chocolate for the good excretion of the gall bladder, to evaluate the performance and regional wall motion of the left ventricle (LV). The results showed that the body mass index percentage in this sample was in range of 43.05 to 61.05. The number of patients who were catheter candidates were 56 with 43% and the patients that were not candidate to cathode were 74 patients with 57% of all patients. For the group of patients where type of ischemia was assessed, 29.5% of patients had reversible posterior and inferior wall, 15.1% of patients had fixed large from apex to base, 9.6% of patients had mild basal inferior wall, 4.8 % of patients had mild anterior wall, 6.2% of patients had antro-septal and 34.9% of patients had moderate ischemia.

Keywords: myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography, coronary artery obstruction

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16 Computational Models for a More Accurate Estimation of Joint Force

Authors: Ibrahim Elnour Abdelrahman Eltayeb


Computational modelling is a method used to investigate joint forces during a movement. It can get high accuracy in the joint forces via subject-specific models. However, the construction of subject-specific models remains time-consuming and expensive. The purpose of this paper was to identify what alterations we can make to generic computational models to get a better estimation of the joint forces. It appraised the impact of these alterations on the accuracy of the estimated joint forces. It found different strategies of alterations: joint model, muscle model, and an optimisation problem. All these alterations affected joint contact force accuracy, so showing the potential for improving the model predictions without involving costly and time-consuming medical images.

Keywords: Joint force, joint model, optimisation problem, validation

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15 Investigating Causes of Pavement Deterioration in Khartoum State, Sudan

Authors: Magdi Mohamed Eltayeb Zumrawi


It is quite essential to investigate the causes of pavement deterioration in order to select the proper maintenance technique. The objective of this study was to identify factors cause deterioration of recently constructed roads in Khartoum state. A comprehensive literature concerning the factors of road deterioration, common road defects and their causes were reviewed. Three major road projects with different deterioration reasons were selected for this study. The investigation involved field survey and laboratory testing on those projects to examine the existing pavement conditions. The results revealed that the roads investigated experienced severe failures in the forms of cracks, potholes and rutting in the wheel path. The causes of those failures were found mainly linked to poor drainage, traffic overloading, expansive subgrade soils and the use of low quality materials in construction. Based on the results, recommendations were provided to help highway engineers in selecting the most effective repair techniques for specific kinds of distresses.

Keywords: pavement, deterioration, causes, failures

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14 Laboratory Investigation of Expansive Soil Stabilized with Calcium Chloride

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Khalid A. Eltayeb


Chemical stabilization is a technique commonly used to improve the expansive soil properties. In this regard, an attempt has been made to evaluate the influence of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) stabilizer on the engineering properties of expansive soil. A series of laboratory experiments including consistency limits, free swell, compaction, and shear strength tests were performed to investigate the effect of CaCl2 additive with various percentages 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% for improving expansive soil. The results obtained shows that the increase in the percentage of CaCl2 decreased the liquid limit and plasticity index leading to significant reduction in the free swell index. This, in turn, increased the maximum dry density and decreased the optimum moisture content which results in greater strength. The unconfined compressive strength of soil stabilized with 5% CaCl2 increased approximately by 50% as compared to virgin soil. It can be concluded that CaCl2 had shown promising influence on the strength and swelling properties of expansive soil, thereby giving an advantage in improving problematic expansive soil.

Keywords: calcium chloride, chemical stabilization, expansive soil, improving

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13 Improvement of Bone Scintography Image Using Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagallah


Image enhancement allows the observer to see details in images that may not be immediately observable in the original image. Image enhancement is the transformation or mapping of one image to another. The enhancement of certain features in images is accompanied by undesirable effects. To achieve maximum image quality after denoising, a new, low order, local adaptive Gaussian scale mixture model and median filter were presented, which accomplishes nonlinearities from scattering a new nonlinear approach for contrast enhancement of bones in bone scan images using both gamma correction and negative transform methods. The usual assumption of a distribution of gamma and Poisson statistics only lead to overestimation of the noise variance in regions of low intensity but to underestimation in regions of high intensity and therefore to non-optional results. The contrast enhancement results were obtained and evaluated using MatLab program in nuclear medicine images of the bones. The optimal number of bins, in particular the number of gray-levels, is chosen automatically using entropy and average distance between the histogram of the original gray-level distribution and the contrast enhancement function’s curve.

Keywords: bone scan, nuclear medicine, Matlab, image processing technique

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12 A Study on the Annual Doses Received by the Workers of Some Medical Practices

Authors: Eltayeb Hamad Elneel Yousif


This paper describes occupational radiation doses of workers in non-destructive testing (NDT) and some medical practices during the year 2007. The annual doses received by the workers of a public hospital are presented in this report. The Department is facilitated with HARSHAW Reader model 6600 and assigned the rule of personal monitoring to contribute in controlling and reducing the doses received by radiation workers. TLD cards with two TLD chips type LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) were calibrated to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Around 150 medical radiation workers were monitored throughout the year. Each worker received a single TLD card worn on the chest above lead apron and returned for laboratory reading every two months. The average annual doses received by the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology were evaluated. The annual doses for individual radiation workers ranged between 0.55-4.42 mSv, 0.48-1.86 mSv, and 0.48-0.91 mSv for the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology, respectively. The mean dose per worker was 1.29±1, 1.03±0.4, and 0.69±0.2 mSv, respectively. The results showed compliance with international dose limits. Our results reconfirm the importance of personal dosimetry service in assuring the radiation protection of medical staff in developing countries.

Keywords: radiation medicine, non-destructive testing, TLD, public hospital

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11 In vitro Susceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis to the Extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus Leaves

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Abdel Khalig Muddather, Hiba Abdel Rahman Ali, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub


Anogeissusleiocarpus (Combretaceae) is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, for treating many human diseases mainly skin diseases and infections.Mycetoma disease is a fungal and/ or bacterial skin infection, mainly cause by Madurella mycetomatis fungus.This study was carried out in vitro to investigate the antifungal activity of Anogeissusleiocarpus leaf extracts against the isolated pathogenicMadurellamycetomatis, by using the NCCLS modified method compared to Ketoconazole standard drug and MTT assay. The bioactive fraction was subjected to chemical analysis implementing different chromatographic analytical methods (TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS/MS). The results showed significance antifungal activity of A. leiocarpus leaf extractsagainst the isolated pathogenicM. mycetomatis, compared to negative and positive controls. The chloroform fraction showed the highest antifungal activity.The chromatographic analysis of the chloroform fraction with the highest activity showed the presence of important bioactive compounds such as ellagic and flavellagic acids derivatives, flavonoids and stilbenoid, which are well known for their antifungal activity.

Keywords: Anogeissus leiocarpus, crude extracts and fractions of Anogeissus leiocarpus, in vitrosusceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis, Madurella mycetomatis

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10 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotection Assessment of Extracts of Coriandrum sativm L. on Wistar Rats

Authors: Hiba T. Allah ALtieb Gusm ALsied, Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Ikram Mohamed ELtayeb, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub


This study was carried out to determine the hepatoactivity and the antioxidant activity of Coiradrum sativum L. aerial part and fruit extracts against CCL4 induced acute liver damages in Wistar rats. The aerial parts and fruits part of the plant were extracted 96% ethanol with soxhlet apparatus. Hepatic injury was achieved by subcutaneous injection of 3 ml/kg of CCL4 diluted with olive oil with ratio 1:1. The extracts were mixed together 1:1 ratio and given in different doses 100,200,400 mg/kg/day for 5 days under CCL4 induction at 3rd day. The significance of differences between means by using T-test was compared among the groups. The mixture of the two extracts didn’t show any significant result in protecting liver injury (antagonistic effects), it shows high level of liver enzyme like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). Serological studies further confirmed the results. The results obtained were compared with silymarin (70 mg/kg/day) orally, the standard drug for hepatoprotection which show recovery close to normalization almost like that of silymarin; therefore, further studies on this plant with different ratios especially in isolated tissue to spot more light on antagonistic effects of the two extracts. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH method. The results obtained show high anti-oxidant activity for fruits extract while slight or moderate antioxidant activity to aerial extracts.

Keywords: antioxidant, aerial part, Coriadrum sativum L., fruity, hepatoprotection, Silymarin, phytochemical screening

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9 Enhancing Learners' Metacognitive, Cultural and Linguistic Proficiency through Egyptian Series

Authors: Hanan Eltayeb, Reem Al Refaie


To be able to connect and relate to shows spoken in a foreign language, advanced learners must understand not only linguistics inferences but also cultural, metacognitive, and pragmatic connotations in colloquial Egyptian TV series. These connotations are needed to both understand the different facets of the dramas put before them, and they’re also consistently grown and formulated through watching these shows. The inferences have become a staple in the Egyptian colloquial culture over the years, making their way into day-to-day conversations as Egyptians use them to speak, relate, joke, and connect with each other, without having known one another from previous times. As for advanced learners, they need to understand these inferences not only to watch these shows, but also to be able to converse with Egyptians on a level that surpasses the formal, or standard. When faced with some of the somewhat recent shows on the Egyptian screens, learners faced challenges in understanding pragmatics, cultural, and religious background of the target language and consequently not able to interact effectively with a native speaker in real-life situations. This study aims to enhance the linguistic and cultural proficiency of learners through studying two genres of TV Colloquial Egyptian series. Study samples derived from two recent comedian and social Egyptian series ('The Seventh Neighbor' سابع جار, and 'Nelly and Sherihan' نيللي و شريهان). When learners watch such series, they are usually faced with a problem understanding inferences that have to do with social, religious, and political events that are addressed in the series. Using discourse analysis of the sematic, semantic, pragmatic, cultural, and linguistic characteristics of the target language, some major deductions were highlighted and repeated, showing a pattern in both. The research paper concludes that there are many sets of lingual and para-lingual phrases, idioms, and proverbs to be acquired and used effectively by teaching these series. The strategies adopted in the study can be applied to different types of media, like movies, TV shows, and even cartoons, to enhance student proficiency.

Keywords: Egyptian series, culture, linguistic competence, pragmatics, semantics, social

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8 A Comparative Study of Anti-Diabetic Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Artemisia absinthium and Combination with Difference Ratio

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb, Ustina Saeed Barsoumbolice


Cinnamomum zeylanicum belong to the family Lauraceae and Artemisia absinthium belong to the family Asteraceae. Both were traditionally used as antiemetic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. In Sudan, the mixtures of the two plants were traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia. It is mainly classified into two major groups, type-1 and type-2. Type-2 is a combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response. The treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with synthetic drugs have many side effects so many researches were conducted to overcome or reduce this side effects by using alternative medicine. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the anti-diabetic activity of C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium and their combination with difference ratio. C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium were extracted by 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. Thirty-two rats were divided into eight groups; each group contains four rats. 1st group was administered with distilled water at dose of 10ml/kg, 2nd group had received glucose only at dose of 2g/kg intraperitoneal, the standard group (3rd group) had received Glibenclamide orally at dose of 0.45mg/kg, 4th group received 100 mg C. zeylanicum + 300 mg A. absinthium with a ratio of (25:75), 5th group received 300 mg C. zeylanicum + 100 mg A. absinthium with a ratio of (75:25), 6th group received 200 mg C. zeylanicum + 200 mg A. absinthiumwith a ratio of (50:50), 7th group received 400 mg of A. absinthium, 8th group received 400 mg of C. zeylanicum. Then the blood samples were taken Retro-orbitally at 0, 1, 2 and 4 hours and the glucose level was measured. Each plant alone and their combination with different ratios shows antidiabetic effect. The significant activity was shown by A. absinthium extract (400 mg/kg), combination of ratio of (75:25) A. absinthium: C. zeylanicum(400mg/kg) and then C. zeylanicum(400mg/kg) with p-value 0.001, 0.022, 0.030 respectively, the activity was found to be increased with time. The other combinations showed less activity with p-value > 0.05. The result concludes that the good antidiabetic activity was performed by A. absinthium alone and its activity decreased by increase combination ratio with C. zeylanicum. Which maybe explains by the antagonistic effect between the compounds of C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium.

Keywords: antidiabetic, Artemisia absinthium , cinnamomum zeylanicum, combination

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7 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity, Lipid Profile Effect of Citrus reticulata Fruit Peel, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, and Sesamum indicum Seed Extracts

Authors: Samar Saadeldin Abdelmotalab Omer, Ikram Mohammed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Saad Mohammed Hussein Ayoub


Many herbal medicinal products are considered as potential hypocholesterolemic agents with encouraging safety profiles, however, only a limited amount of clinical research exists to support their efficacy. The present study was designed to compare the antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of Citrus reticulata peel, Zingiber officinale rhizome, and Sesamum indicum seeds. Forty-five rats were used throughout the experiment, which were divided into nine groups, five rats in each as follows; normal control group (normal rats fed with standard normal diet), rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet consisting of 1% cholesterol and 10% saturated animal fat, which were further divided into eight groups; hypercholesterolemic control group (rats only fed hypercholesterolemic diet), groups 3,4,5,6,7, and 8 were given Citrus reticulata, Zingiber officinale, and Sesamum indicum ethanolic extracts at doses of (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg, respectively) orally; and group 9 rats were given atorvastatin (0.18mg/kg) orally as a reference antihypercholesterolaemic drug. Blood samples were obtained four weeks following treatment from the retro-orbital venous plexus after fasting overnight from all groups and the lipid profile (serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides levels) was measured and the risk ratio (TC/HDL-C) was assessed. The antioxidant activity of the three plant extracts was determined using DPPH free-radical assay. Results of in vivo and in vitro antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant assay, respectively, revealed that the three extracts possess comparable antioxidant and anti-hypercholesterolaemic activities.

Keywords: anti hypercholesterolemic effects, antioxidant activity, HDL, LDL, TC, TGs, citrus reticulata, sesamum indicum, zingiber officinale

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6 Study of the Design and Simulation Work for an Artificial Heart

Authors: Mohammed Eltayeb Salih Elamin


This study discusses the concept of the artificial heart using engineering concepts, of the fluid mechanics and the characteristics of the non-Newtonian fluid. For the purpose to serve heart patients and improve aspects of their lives and since the Statistics review according to world health organization (WHO) says that heart disease and blood vessels are the first cause of death in the world. Statistics shows that 30% of the death cases in the world by the heart disease, so simply we can consider it as the number one leading cause of death in the entire world is heart failure. And since the heart implantation become a very difficult and not always available, the idea of the artificial heart become very essential. So it’s important that we participate in the developing this idea by searching and finding the weakness point in the earlier designs and hoping for improving it for the best of humanity. In this study a pump was designed in order to pump blood to the human body and taking into account all the factors that allows it to replace the human heart, in order to work at the same characteristics and the efficiency of the human heart. The pump was designed on the idea of the diaphragm pump. Three models of blood obtained from the blood real characteristics and all of these models were simulated in order to study the effect of the pumping work on the fluid. After that, we study the properties of this pump by using Ansys15 software to simulate blood flow inside the pump and the amount of stress that it will go under. The 3D geometries modeling was done using SOLID WORKS and the geometries then imported to Ansys design modeler which is used during the pre-processing procedure. The solver used throughout the study is Ansys FLUENT. This is a tool used to analysis the fluid flow troubles and the general well-known term used for this branch of science is known as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Basically, Design Modeler used during the pre-processing procedure which is a crucial step before the start of the fluid flow problem. Some of the key operations are the geometry creations which specify the domain of the fluid flow problem. Next is mesh generation which means discretization of the domain to solve governing equations at each cell and later, specify the boundary zones to apply boundary conditions for the problem. Finally, the pre–processed work will be saved at the Ansys workbench for future work continuation.

Keywords: Artificial heart, computational fluid dynamic heart chamber, design, pump

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5 In vitro Susceptibility of Isolated Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae to the Ethanolic Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi and Peganum harmala

Authors: Ibrahim Siddig Hamid, Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb


Trachyspermum ammi belongs to the family Apiaceae, is used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments, lack of appetite and bronchial problems as well used as antiseptic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, febrifugal and in the treatment of typhoid fever. Peganum harmala belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae it has been reported to have an antibacterial activity and used to treat depression and recurring fevers. It also used to kill algae, bacteria, intestinal parasites and molds. In Sudan, the combination of two plants are traditionally used for the treatment of bacillary dysentery. Bacillary dysentery is caused by one or more types of Shigella species bacteria mainly Shigella dysenteri and shigella flexneri. Bacillary dysentery is mainly found in hot countries like Sudan with poor hygiene and sanitation. Bacillary dysentery causes sudden onset of high fever and chills, abdominal pain, cramps and bloating, urgency to pass stool, weight loss, and dehydration and if left untreated it can lead to serious complications including delirium, convulsions and coma. A serious infection like this can be fatal within 24 hours. The objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Sh. flexneri and Sh. dysenteriae to the T. ammi and P. harmala. T. ammi and P. harmala were extracted by 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated according to the disc diffusion method. The discs were prepared by soaking sterilized filter paper discs in 20 microliter of serially diluted solutions of each plant extract with the concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25mg/dl) then placing them on Muller Hinton Agar plates that were inoculated with bacterial suspension separately, the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37c and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract which was the least concentration of the extract to inhibit fungal growth was determined. The results showed the high antimicrobial activity of T. ammi extract with an average diameter zone ranging from 18-20 mm and its minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be 25 mg/ml against the two shigella species. P. harmala extract was found to have slight antibacterial effect against the two bacteria. This result justified the Sudanese traditional use of Trachyspermum ammi plant for the treatment of bacillary dysentery.

Keywords: harmala, peganum, shigella, trachyspermum

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4 Phytochemical Screening and Assessment of Hepatoprotective Activity of Geigeria alata Leaves Ethanolic Extract on Wistar Rats

Authors: Girgis Younan, Ikram Eltayeb


Geigeria alata belongs to the family Asteraceae, is an effective plant traditionally used in Sudan as a therapy for hepatic disease and as an antiepileptic, antispasmodic and to treat cough and intestinal complaints.The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and any liver disease or injury will result in the loss of those functions leading to significant damage in the body. Liver diseases cause increase in liver enzymes (AST, ALP ALT) and total bilirubin and a decrease in total blood protein level. The objective of this study is to investigate the hepato-protective activity of Geigeria alata leaves ethanolic extract. The plant leaves were extracted using 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The hepatoprotective effect was determined using 25 wistar rats, the rats was divided to 5 groups, each group contain 5 rats: [Normal control group] receiving purified water, liver damage was induced in wistar rats by administering a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 (1.25 ml/kg) and olive oil once at day four of the experiment [negative control group]. Two doses of extract [400mg/kg and 200mg/kg] was applied daily for 7 days, and standard drug Silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered daily for 7 days to CCl4-treated rats. The degree of hepato-protective activity was evaluated by determining the hepatic marker enzymes AST, ALP, ALT, total Bilirubin and total proteins (TP). Results have shown that, the extract of G.alata leaves reduced the level of liver enzymes ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin and increased the level of total proteins. Since the levels of liver enzymes; bilirubin and total protein are considered as markers of liver function, the extract has proven to reduce the detrimental effects of liver toxicity induced using CCl4. The hepato-protective effect of extract on liver was found to be dose dependent, where the 400mg/kg dose of the extract exhibited higher activity than 200mg/kg dose. In addition, the effect of the higher dose (400mg/kg) of the extract was found to be higher than Silymarin standard drug. The result concludes that, G.alata leaves extract was found to exhibit profound hepato-protective activity, which justifies the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of hepatic diseases.

Keywords: alata, extract, geigeria, hepatoprotective

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3 Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects and Chemical Analysis of Allium sativum Bulbs Growing in Sudan

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Yacouba Amina Djamila, Amna El Hassan Hamad


Hyperglycemia and diabetes have been treated with several medicinal plants for a long time, meanwhile reduce associated side effects than the synthetic ones. Therefore, the search for more effective and safer anti-diabetic agents derived from plants has become an interest area of active research. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the extracts of A. sativum bulb growing in Sudan on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rats. A. sativum bulbs were collected from local vegetable market at Khourtoum/ Sudan in a fresh form, identified and authenticated by taxonomist, then dried, and extracted with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by using Soxhlet apparatus. The effect of the extracts on glucose uptake was evaluated by using the isolated rats hemidiaphgrams after loading the fasting rats with glucose, and the anti-hyperglycemic effect was investigated on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rats. Their effects were compared to control rats administered with the vehicle and to a standard group administered with Metformin standard drug. The most active extract was analyzed chemically using GC-MS analysis compared to NIST library. The results showed significant anti-diabetic effect of extracts of A. sativum bulb growing in Sudan. Addition to the hypoglycemic activity of A. sativum extracts was found to be decreased with increase in the polarity of the extraction solvent; this may explain the less polarity of substance responsible for the activity and their concentration decreased with polarity increase. The petroleum ether extract possess anti-hyperglycemic activity more significant than the other extracts and the Metformin standard drug with p-value 0.000** of 400mg/kg at 1 hour, 2 hour and four hour; and p-value 0.019*, 0.015* and 0.010* of 200mg/kg at 1 hour, 2 hour and four hour respectively. The GC-MS analysis of petroleum ether extract, with highest anti -diabetes activity showed the presence of Methyl linolate (42.75%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (10.54%), Methyl α-linolenate (8.36%), Dotriacontane (6.83), Tetrapentacontane (6.33), Methyl 18-methylnonadecanoate (4.8), Phenol,2,2’-methylenebis[6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl] (3.25), Methyl 20-methyl-heneicosanoate (2.70), Pentatriacontane (2.13) and many other minor compounds. The most of these compounds are well known for their anti-diabetic activity. The study concluded that A. sativum bulbs extracts were found to enhanced the reuptake of glucose in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm and have antihyperglycemic effect when evaluated on glucose-loaded albino rats with petroleum ether extract activity more significant than the Metformin standard drug.

Keywords: Allium, anti-hyperglycemic, bulbs, sativum

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2 Gas Chromatographic: Mass Spectroscopic Analysis of Citrus reticulata Fruit Peel, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, and Sesamum indicum Seed Ethanolic Extracts Possessing Antioxidant Activity and Lipid Profile Effects

Authors: Samar Saadeldin Abdelmotalab Omer, Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Saad Mohammed Hussein Ayoub


A variety of herbal medicinal plants are known to confer beneficial effects in regards to modification of cardiovascular ri’=sk factors. The anti-hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of Citrus reticulate fruit peel, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sesamum indicum seed extracts have been demonstrated. These plants are assumed to possess biologically active principles, which impart their pharmacologic activities. GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extracts was carried out to identify the active principles and their percentages of occurrence in the analytes. Analysis of the extracts was carried out using (GS-MS QP) type Schimadzu 2010 equipped with a capillary column RTX-50 (restec), (length 30mm, diameter 0.25mm, and thickness 0.25mm). Helium was used as a carrier gas, the temperature was programmed at 200°C for 5 minutes at a rate of 15ml/minute, and the extracts were injected using split injection mode. The identification of different components was achieved from their Mass Spectra and Retention time, compared with those in the NIST library. The results revealed the presence of 80 compounds in Sudanese locally grown C. reticulata fruit peel extract, most of which were monoterpenoid compounds including Limonene (3.03%), Alpha & Gamma - terpinenes (2.61%), Linalool (1.38%), Citral (1.72%) which are known to have profound antioxidant effects. The Sesquiterpenoids Humulene (0.26%) and Caryophyllene (1.97%) were also identified, the latter known to have profound anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activity in addition to the beneficiary effects in lipid regulation. The analysis of the locally grown S. indicum oily and water soluble portions of seed extract revealed the presence of a total of 64 compounds with considerably high percentage of the mono-unsaturated fatty acid ester methyl oleate (66.99%) in addition to methyl stearate (9.35%) and palmitate (15.71%) of oil portion, whereas, plant sterols including Gamma-sitosterol (13.5%), fucosterol (2.11%) and stigmasterol (1.95%) in addition to gamma-tocopherol (1.16%) were detected in extract water-soluble portion. The latter indicate various principles known to have valuable pharmacological benefits including antioxidant activities and beneficiary effects on intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulation of serum cholesterol levels. Z. officinale rhizome extract analysis revealed the presence of 93 compounds, the most abundant were alpha-zingeberine (16.5%), gingerol (9.25%), alpha-sesquiphellandrene (8.3%), zingerone (6.78%), beta-bisabolene (4.19%), alpha-farnesene (3.56%), ar-curcumene (3.29%), gamma-elemene (1.25%) and a variety of other compounds. The presence of these active principles reflected on the activity of the extract. Activity could be assigned to a single or a combination of two or more extract components. GC-MS analysis concluded the occurrence of compounds known to possess antioxidant activity and lipid profile effects.

Keywords: gas chromatography, indicum, officinale, reticulata

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1 Sustainable Urban Growth of Neighborhoods: A Case Study of Alryad-Khartoum

Authors: Zuhal Eltayeb Awad


Alryad neighborhood is located in Khartoum town– the administrative center of the Capital of Sudan. The neighborhood is one of the high-income residential areas with villa type development of low-density. It was planned and developed in 1972 with large plots (600-875m²), wide crossing roads and balanced environment. Recently the area transformed into more compact urban form of high density, mixed-use integrated development with more intensive use of land; multi-storied apartments. The most important socio-economic process in the neighborhood has been the commercialization and deinitialization of the area in connect with the displacement of the residential function. This transformation affected the quality of the neighborhood and the inter-related features of the built environment. A case study approach was chosen to gather the necessary qualitative and quantitative data. A detailed survey on existing development pattern was carried out over the whole area of Alryad. Data on the built and social environment of the neighborhoods were collected through observations, interviews and secondary data sources. The paper reflected a theoretical and empirical interest in the particular characteristics of compact neighborhood with high density, and mixed land uses and their effect on social wellbeing of the residents all in the context of the sustainable development. The research problem is focused on the challenges of transformation that associated with compact neighborhood that created multiple urban problems, e.g., stress of essential services (water supply, electricity, and drainage), congestion of streets and demand for parking. The main objective of the study is to analyze the transformation of this area from residential use to commercial and administrative use. The study analyzed the current situation of the neighborhood compared to the five principles of sustainable neighborhood prepared by UN Habitat. The study found that the neighborhood is experienced changes that occur to inner-city residential areas and the process of change of the neighborhood was originated by external forces due to the declining economic situation of the whole country. It is evident that non-residential uses have taken place uncontrolled, unregulated and haphazardly that led to damage the residential environment and deficiency in infrastructure. The quality of urban life and in particular on levels of privacy was reduced, the neighborhood changed gradually to be a central business district that provides services to the whole Khartoum town. The change of house type may be attributed to a demand-led housing market and absence of policy. The results showed that Alryad is not fully sustainable and self-contained, street network characteristics and mixed land-uses development are compatible with the principles of sustainability. The area of streets represents 27.4% of the total area of the neighborhood. Residential density is 4,620 people/ km², that is lower than the recommendations, and the limited block land-use specialization is higher than 10% of the blocks. Most inhabitants have a high income so that there is no social mix in the neighborhood. The study recommended revision of the current zoning regulations in order to control and regulate undesirable development in the neighborhood and provide new solutions which allow promoting the neighborhood sustainable development.

Keywords: compact neighborhood, land uses, mixed use, residential area, transformation

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