Search results for: Jens Wesholowski
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Jens Wesholowski

34 Online Monitoring and Control of Continuous Mechanosynthesis by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

Authors: Darren A. Whitaker, Dan Palmer, Jens Wesholowski, James Flaherty, John Mack, Ahmad B. Albadarin, Gavin Walker


Traditional mechanosynthesis has been performed by either ball milling or manual grinding. However, neither of these techniques allow the easy application of process control. The temperature may change unpredictably due to friction in the process. Hence the amount of energy transferred to the reactants is intrinsically non-uniform. Recently, it has been shown that the use of Twin-Screw extrusion (TSE) can overcome these limitations. Additionally, TSE enables a platform for continuous synthesis or manufacturing as it is an open-ended process, with feedstocks at one end and product at the other. Several materials including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), co-crystals and small organic molecules have been produced mechanochemically using TSE. The described advantages of TSE are offset by drawbacks such as increased process complexity (a large number of process parameters) and variation in feedstock flow impacting on product quality. To handle the above-mentioned drawbacks, this study utilizes UV-Vis spectrophotometry (InSpectroX, ColVisTec) as an online tool to gain real-time information about the quality of the product. Additionally, this is combined with real-time process information in an Advanced Process Control system (PharmaMV, Perceptive Engineering) allowing full supervision and control of the TSE process. Further, by characterizing the dynamic behavior of the TSE, a model predictive controller (MPC) can be employed to ensure the process remains under control when perturbed by external disturbances. Two reactions were studied; a Knoevenagel condensation reaction of barbituric acid and vanillin and, the direct amidation of hydroquinone by ammonium acetate to form N-Acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP) commonly known as paracetamol. Both reactions could be carried out continuously using TSE, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the percentage conversion of starting materials to product. This information was used to construct partial least squares (PLS) calibration models within the PharmaMV development system, which relates the percent conversion to product to the acquired UV-Vis spectrum. Once this was complete, the model was deployed within the PharmaMV Real-Time System to carry out automated optimization experiments to maximize the percentage conversion based on a set of process parameters in a design of experiments (DoE) style methodology. With the optimum set of process parameters established, a series of PRBS process response tests (i.e. Pseudo-Random Binary Sequences) around the optimum were conducted. The resultant dataset was used to build a statistical model and associated MPC. The controller maximizes product quality whilst ensuring the process remains at the optimum even as disturbances such as raw material variability are introduced into the system. To summarize, a combination of online spectral monitoring and advanced process control was used to develop a robust system for optimization and control of two TSE based mechanosynthetic processes.

Keywords: continuous synthesis, pharmaceutical, spectroscopy, advanced process control

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
33 3D Estimation of Synaptic Vesicle Distributions in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy

Authors: Mahdieh Khanmohammadi, Sune Darkner, Nicoletta Nava, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Jon Sporring


We study the effect of stress on nervous system and we use two experimental groups of rats: sham rats and rats subjected to acute foot-shock stress. We investigate the synaptic vesicles density as a function of distance to the active zone in serial section transmission electron microscope images in 2 and 3 dimensions. By estimating the density in 2D and 3D we compare two groups of rats.

Keywords: stress, 3-dimensional synaptic vesicle density, image registration, bioinformatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
32 GPU-Accelerated Triangle Mesh Simplification Using Parallel Vertex Removal

Authors: Thomas Odaker, Dieter Kranzlmueller, Jens Volkert


We present an approach to triangle mesh simplification designed to be executed on the GPU. We use a quadric error metric to calculate an error value for each vertex of the mesh and order all vertices based on this value. This step is followed by the parallel removal of a number of vertices with the lowest calculated error values. To allow for the parallel removal of multiple vertices we use a set of per-vertex boundaries that prevent mesh foldovers even when simplification operations are performed on neighbouring vertices. We execute multiple iterations of the calculation of the vertex errors, ordering of the error values and removal of vertices until either a desired number of vertices remains in the mesh or a minimum error value is reached. This parallel approach is used to speed up the simplification process while maintaining mesh topology and avoiding foldovers at every step of the simplification.

Keywords: computer graphics, half edge collapse, mesh simplification, precomputed simplification, topology preserving

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
31 Mechanistic Studies of Compacted and Sintered Rock Salt

Authors: Claudia H. Swanson, Jens Günster


This research addresses the densification via compaction and sintering of naturally occurring rock salt which was motivated by the fact that in a saline environment rock salt is thermodynamically stable and does show a mechanical behavior compatible to the surrounding host material. The sintering of rock salt powder compacts was systematically investigated using temperature and pressure as variables for the sinter process. The behavior of rock salt showed segregations of anhydrite, CaSO4 - the major impurity found in rock salt, to the grain boundaries between individual sodium chloride crystals. Powder compacts treated with lower pressures lost those anhydrite segregates over time while high pressure treated compacts remained with anhydrite segregates. The density reached in this study is 2.008 g cm-3 corresponding to a density of 92.5 % of the theoretical value. This high density is making the sintering a promising technique for rock salt as applications in underground appropriate environment.

Keywords: rock salt, sinter, anhydrite, nuclear safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
30 The Linkage of Urban and Energy Planning for Sustainable Cities: The Case of Denmark and Germany

Authors: Jens-Phillip Petersen


The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies in Europe, because buildings are responsible for a major share of the final energy consumption. It is at local scale where policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures get implemented. Municipalities, as local authorities and responsible entity for land-use planning, have a direct influence on urban patterns and energy use, which makes them key actors in the transition towards sustainable cities. Hence, synchronizing urban planning with energy planning offers great potential to increase society’s energy-efficiency; this has a high significance to reach GHG-reduction targets. In this paper, the actual linkage of urban planning and energy planning in Denmark and Germany was assessed; substantive barriers preventing their integration and driving factors that lead to successful transitions towards a holistic urban energy planning procedures were identified.

Keywords: energy planning, urban planning, renewable energies, sustainable cities

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
29 Real-Time Scheduling and Control of Supply Chain Networks: Challenges and Graph-Based Solution Approach

Authors: Jens Ehm


Manufacturing in supply chains requires an efficient organisation of production and transport processes in order to guarantee the supply of all partners within the chain with the material that is needed for the reliable fulfilment of tasks. If one partner is not able to supply products for a certain period, these products might be missing as the working material for the customer to perform the next manufacturing step, potentially as supply for further manufacturing steps. This way, local disruptions can influence the whole supply chain. In order to avoid material shortages, an efficient scheduling of tasks is necessary. However, the occurrence of unexpected disruptions cannot be eliminated, so that a modification of the schedule should be arranged as fast as possible. This paper discusses the challenges for the implementation of real-time scheduling and control methods and presents a graph-based approach that enables the integrated scheduling of production and transport processes for multiple supply chain partners and offers the potential for quick adaptations to parts of the initial schedule.

Keywords: production, logistics, integrated scheduling, real-time scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
28 Multimodal Direct Neural Network Positron Emission Tomography Reconstruction

Authors: William Whiteley, Jens Gregor


In recent developments of direct neural network based positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction, two prominent architectures have emerged for converting measurement data into images: 1) networks that contain fully-connected layers; and 2) networks that primarily use a convolutional encoder-decoder architecture. In this paper, we present a multi-modal direct PET reconstruction method called MDPET, which is a hybrid approach that combines the advantages of both types of networks. MDPET processes raw data in the form of sinograms and histo-images in concert with attenuation maps to produce high quality multi-slice PET images (e.g., 8x440x440). MDPET is trained on a large whole-body patient data set and evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively against target images reconstructed with the standard PET reconstruction benchmark of iterative ordered subsets expectation maximization. The results show that MDPET outperforms the best previously published direct neural network methods in measures of bias, signal-to-noise ratio, mean absolute error, and structural similarity.

Keywords: deep learning, image reconstruction, machine learning, neural network, positron emission tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
27 Determining the Width and Depths of Cut in Milling on the Basis of a Multi-Dexel Model

Authors: Jens Friedrich, Matthias A. Gebele, Armin Lechler, Alexander Verl


Chatter vibrations and process instabilities are the most important factors limiting the productivity of the milling process. Chatter can leads to damage of the tool, the part or the machine tool. Therefore, the estimation and prediction of the process stability is very important. The process stability depends on the spindle speed, the depth of cut and the width of cut. In milling, the process conditions are defined in the NC-program. While the spindle speed is directly coded in the NC-program, the depth and width of cut are unknown. This paper presents a new simulation based approach for the prediction of the depth and width of cut of a milling process. The prediction is based on a material removal simulation with an analytically represented tool shape and a multi-dexel approach for the work piece. The new calculation method allows the direct estimation of the depth and width of cut, which are the influencing parameters of the process stability, instead of the removed volume as existing approaches do. The knowledge can be used to predict the stability of new, unknown parts. Moreover with an additional vibration sensor, the stability lobe diagram of a milling process can be estimated and improved based on the estimated depth and width of cut.

Keywords: dexel, process stability, material removal, milling

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
26 Improvement of Parallel Compressor Model in Dealing Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution

Authors: Kewei Xu, Jens Friedrich, Kevin Dwinger, Wei Fan, Xijin Zhang


Parallel Compressor Model (PCM) is a simplified approach to predict compressor performance with inlet distortions. In PCM calculation, it is assumed that the sub-compressors’ outlet static pressure is uniform and therefore simplifies PCM calculation procedure. However, if the compressor’s outlet duct is not long and straight, such assumption frequently induces error ranging from 10% to 15%. This paper provides a revised calculation method of PCM that can correct the error. The revised method employs energy equation, momentum equation and continuity equation to acquire needed parameters and replace the equal static pressure assumption. Based on the revised method, PCM is applied on two compression system with different blades types. The predictions of their performance in non-uniform inlet conditions are yielded through the revised calculation method and are employed to evaluate the method’s efficiency. Validating the results by experimental data, it is found that although little deviation occurs, calculated result agrees well with experiment data whose error ranges from 0.1% to 3%. Therefore, this proves the revised calculation method of PCM possesses great advantages in predicting the performance of the distorted compressor with limited exhaust duct.

Keywords: parallel compressor model (pcm), revised calculation method, inlet distortion, outlet unequal pressure distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
25 Path Planning for Orchard Robot Using Occupancy Grid Map in 2D Environment

Authors: Satyam Raikwar, Thomas Herlitzius, Jens Fehrmann


In recent years, the autonomous navigation of orchard and field robots is an emerging technology of the mobile robotics in agriculture. One of the core aspects of autonomous navigation builds upon path planning, which is still a crucial issue. Generally, for simple representation, the path planning for a mobile robot is performed in a two-dimensional space, which creates a path between the start and goal point. This paper presents the automatic path planning approach for robots used in orchards and vineyards using occupancy grid maps with field consideration. The orchards and vineyards are usually structured environment and their topology is assumed to be constant over time; therefore, in this approach, an RGB image of a field is used as a working environment. These images undergone different image processing operations and then discretized into two-dimensional grid matrices. The individual grid or cell of these grid matrices represents the occupancy of the space, whether it is free or occupied. The grid matrix represents the robot workspace for motion and path planning. After the grid matrix is described, a probabilistic roadmap (PRM) path algorithm is used to create the obstacle-free path over these occupancy grids. The path created by this method was successfully verified in the test area. Furthermore, this approach is used in the navigation of the orchard robot.

Keywords: orchard robots, automatic path planning, occupancy grid, probabilistic roadmap

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
24 Cdk1 Gates Cell Cycle-Dependent tRNA Synthesis by Regulating RNA Polymerase III Activity

Authors: Maricarmen Herrera, Pierre Chymkowitch, Joe Robertson, Jens Eriksson, Jorrit Enserink


tRNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. During recent years, it has become clear that tDNA transcription fluctuates during the cell cycle. However, the mechanism by which the cell cycle controls the amplitude of tDNA transcription remains unknown. We found that the cyclin Clb5 recruits the cyclin dependent kinase Cdk1 to tRNA genes to sharply increase tRNA synthesis during a brief interval in the cell cycle. We show that Cdk1 promotes the interaction of TFIIIB with TFIIIC, that it stimulates the recruitment of TFIIIC to tRNA genes, that it prevents the formation of an overly stable TFIIIB-tDNA complex and that it augments the dynamics of RNA polymerase III. Furthermore, we identify Bdp1 as a novel Cdk1 substrate, and phosphorylation of Bdp1 is required for the cell cycle-dependent increase in tDNA transcription. In addition, we show that phosphorylation of the Cdk1 substrate Nup60 mediates formation of a Nup60-Nup2 complex at tRNA genes, which is also required for cell cycle-dependent tDNA transcription. Together, our findings indicate that Cdk1 activity gates tRNA synthesis by regulating the dynamics of the TFIIIB-TFIIIC-RNAPIII complex, and that it may promote the formation of a nuclear pore microenvironment conducive to efficient tDNA transcription.

Keywords: Cdk1, cell cycle, RNAPIII machinery, tRNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
23 Experimental Investigation of Plane Jets Exiting Five Parallel Channels with Large Aspect Ratio

Authors: Laurentiu Moruz, Jens Kitzhofer, Mircea Dinulescu


The paper aims to extend the knowledge about jet behavior and jet interaction between five plane unventilated jets with large aspect ratio (AR). The distance between the single plane jets is two times the channel height. The experimental investigation applies 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and static pressure measurements. Our study focuses on the influence of two different outlet nozzle geometries (triangular shape with 2 x 7.5° and blunt geometry) with respect to variation of Reynolds number from 5500 - 12000. It is shown that the outlet geometry has a major influence on the jet formation in terms of uniformity of velocity profiles downstream of the sudden expansion. Furthermore, we describe characteristic regions like converging region, merging region and combined region. The triangular outlet geometry generates most uniform velocity distributions in comparison to a blunt outlet nozzle geometry. The blunt outlet geometry shows an unstable behavior where the jets tend to attach to one side of the walls (ceiling) generating a large recirculation region on the opposite side. Static pressure measurements confirm the observation and indicate that the recirculation region is connected to larger pressure drop.

Keywords: 2D particle image velocimetry, parallel jet interaction, pressure drop, sudden expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
22 Transforming Art: A Cross-Cultural Study of Visual Art and Literature in Rainer Maria Rilke

Authors: Rosy Saikia, Krishna Barua


The evolution of visual art can be traced back from “pre-historic” humans, from the age of Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Metal Age. Mesopotamians and the Egyptians were the pioneers of art, in the first period of history. But the field of art first flourished in the west during the Renaissance. Since then, art represents a continuous yet varied tradition till present day. Until the early 19th century art focused chiefly on representational, religious and classical motifs, but gradually art became more abstract and conceptual approaches gained popularity. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926) was one of the leading poets cum art critic of European modernism. This paper addresses the relationship between Rilke's poetry and visual art, which involves an intimate transference of aesthetic means and definitions of form in the creative process of writing. Rilke’s connection with Auguste Rodin made him learn that a person who can “see” things could realize the beauty of a “thing” and could subsequently write. To “see” the “thing” or “object” rather than representing emotion was considered as more important by Rodin and that was the way he cracked the old aesthetic mould. Rilke himself agreed that his correspondence with the artists made him acquainted nothing but a new way of seeing. Rilke admitted to the constant reference to the Bible, the books of the Danish poet Jens Peter Jacobsen and Auguste Rodin, who all had given him the experience of the essence of creativity, its depths and eternity. Rilke’s association with philosophers such as Nietzhche and artists, starting from Worpweders and Rodin to Cezanne’s paintings, made him almost an apprentice in visual art.

Keywords: seeing, gaze, aesthetic, beauty, visual art, Rilke

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
21 Simulation of Glass Breakage Using Voronoi Random Field Tessellations

Authors: Michael A. Kraus, Navid Pourmoghaddam, Martin Botz, Jens Schneider, Geralt Siebert


Fragmentation analysis of tempered glass gives insight into the quality of the tempering process and defines a certain degree of safety as well. Different standard such as the European EN 12150-1 or the American ASTM C 1048/CPSC 16 CFR 1201 define a minimum number of fragments required for soda-lime safety glass on the basis of fragmentation test results for classification. This work presents an approach for the glass breakage pattern prediction using a Voronoi Tesselation over Random Fields. The random Voronoi tessellation is trained with and validated against data from several breakage patterns. The fragments in observation areas of 50 mm x 50 mm were used for training and validation. All glass specimen used in this study were commercially available soda-lime glasses at three different thicknesses levels of 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm. The results of this work form a Bayesian framework for the training and prediction of breakage patterns of tempered soda-lime glass using a Voronoi Random Field Tesselation. Uncertainties occurring in this process can be well quantified, and several statistical measures of the pattern can be preservation with this method. Within this work it was found, that different Random Fields as basis for the Voronoi Tesselation lead to differently well fitted statistical properties of the glass breakage patterns. As the methodology is derived and kept general, the framework could be also applied to other random tesselations and crack pattern modelling purposes.

Keywords: glass breakage predicition, Voronoi Random Field Tessellation, fragmentation analysis, Bayesian parameter identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
20 Hyaluronan and Hyaluronan-Associated Genes in Human CD8 T Cells

Authors: Emily Schlebes, Christian Hundhausen, Jens W. Fischer


The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix, typically produced by fibroblasts of the connective tissue but also by immune cells. Here, we investigated the capacity of human peripheral blood CD8 T cells from healthy donors to produce HA and to express HA receptors as well as HA degrading enzymes. Further, we evaluated the effect of pharmacological HA inhibition on CD8 T cell function. Using immunocytochemistry together with quantitative PCR analysis, we found that HA synthesis is rapidly induced upon antibody-induced T cell receptor (TCR) activation and almost exclusively mediated by HA synthase 3 (HAS3). TCR activation also resulted in the upregulation of HA receptors CD44, hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR), and layilin (LAYN), although kinetics and strength of expression varied greatly between subjects. The HA-degrading enzymes HYAL1 and HYAL2 were detected at low levels and induced by cell activation in some individuals. Interestingly, expression of HAS3, HA receptors, and hyaluronidases were modulated by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1bβ in most subjects. To assess the functional role of HA in CD8 T cells, we performed carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) based proliferation assays and cytokine analysis in the presence of the HA inhibitor 4- Methylumbelliferone (4-MU). Despite significant inter-individual variation with regard to the effective dose, 4-MU resulted in the inhibition of CD8 T cell proliferation and reduced release of TNF-α and IFN-γ. Collectively, these data demonstrate that human CD8 T cells respond to TCR stimulation with a synthesis of HA and expression of HA-related genes. They further suggest that HA inhibition may be helpful in interfering with pathogenic T cell activation in human disease.

Keywords: CD8 T cells, extracellular matrix, hyaluronan, hyaluronan synthase 3

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
19 A Bayesian Parameter Identification Method for Thermorheological Complex Materials

Authors: Michael Anton Kraus, Miriam Schuster, Geralt Siebert, Jens Schneider


Polymers increasingly gained interest in construction materials over the last years in civil engineering applications. As polymeric materials typically show time- and temperature dependent material behavior, which is accounted for in the context of the theory of linear viscoelasticity. Within the context of this paper, the authors show, that some polymeric interlayers for laminated glass can not be considered as thermorheologically simple as they do not follow a simple TTSP, thus a methodology of identifying the thermorheologically complex constitutive bahavioir is needed. ‘Dynamical-Mechanical-Thermal-Analysis’ (DMTA) in tensile and shear mode as well as ‘Differential Scanning Caliometry’ (DSC) tests are carried out on the interlayer material ‘Ethylene-vinyl acetate’ (EVA). A navoel Bayesian framework for the Master Curving Process as well as the detection and parameter identification of the TTSPs along with their associated Prony-series is derived and applied to the EVA material data. To our best knowledge, this is the first time, an uncertainty quantification of the Prony-series in a Bayesian context is shown. Within this paper, we could successfully apply the derived Bayesian methodology to the EVA material data to gather meaningful Master Curves and TTSPs. Uncertainties occurring in this process can be well quantified. We found, that EVA needs two TTSPs with two associated Generalized Maxwell Models. As the methodology is kept general, the derived framework could be also applied to other thermorheologically complex polymers for parameter identification purposes.

Keywords: bayesian parameter identification, generalized Maxwell model, linear viscoelasticity, thermorheological complex

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
18 Low-Cost Monitoring System for Hydroponic Urban Vertical Farms

Authors: Francesco Ruscio, Paolo Paoletti, Jens Thomas, Paul Myers, Sebastiano Fichera


This paper presents the development of a low-cost monitoring system for a hydroponic urban vertical farm, enabling its automation and a quantitative assessment of the farm performance. Urban farming has seen increasing interest in the last decade thanks to the development of energy efficient and affordable LED lights; however, the optimal configuration of such systems (i.e. amount of nutrients, light-on time, ambient temperature etc.) is mostly based on the farmers’ experience and empirical guidelines. Moreover, even if simple, the maintenance of such systems is labor intensive as it requires water to be topped-up periodically, mixing of the nutrients etc. To unlock the full potential of urban farming, a quantitative understanding of the role that each variable plays in the growth of the plants is needed, together with a higher degree of automation. The low-cost monitoring system proposed in this paper is a step toward filling this knowledge and technological gap, as it enables collection of sensor data related to water and air temperature, water level, humidity, pressure, light intensity, pH and electric conductivity without requiring any human intervention. More sensors and actuators can also easily be added thanks to the modular design of the proposed platform. Data can be accessed remotely via a simple web interface. The proposed platform can be used both for quantitatively optimizing the setup of the farms and for automating some of the most labor-intensive maintenance activities. Moreover, such monitoring system can also potentially be used for high-level decision making, once enough data are collected.

Keywords: automation, hydroponics, internet of things, monitoring system, urban farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
17 Shear Stress and Oxygen Concentration Manipulation in a Micropillars Microfluidic Bioreactor

Authors: Deybith Venegas-Rojas, Jens Budde, Dominik Nörz, Manfred Jücker, Hoc Khiem Trieu


Microfluidics is a promising approach for biomedicine cell culture experiments with microfluidic bioreactors (MBR), which can provide high precision in volume and time control over mass transport and microenvironments in small-scale studies. Nevertheless, shear stress and oxygen concentration are important factors that affect the microenvironment and then the cell culture. It is presented a novel MBR design in which differences in geometry, shear stress, and oxygen concentration were studied and optimized for cell culture. The aim is to mimic the in vivo condition with biocompatible materials and continuous perfusion of nutrients, a healthy shear stress, and oxygen concentration. The design consists of a capture system of PDMS micropillars which keep cells in place, so it is not necessary any hydrogel or complicated scaffolds for cells immobilization. Besides, the design allows continuous supply with nutrients or even any other chemical for cell experimentation. Finite element method simulations were used to study and optimize the effect of parameters such as flow rate, shear stress, oxygen concentration, micropillars shape, and dimensions. The micropillars device was fabricated with microsystem technology such as soft-lithography, deep reactive ion etching, self-assembled monolayer, replica molding, and oxygen plasma bonding. Eight different geometries were fabricated and tested, with different flow rates according to the simulations. During the experiments, it was observed the effect of micropillars size, shape, and configuration for stability and shear stress control when increasing flow rate. The device was tested with several successful HepG2 3D cell cultures. With this MBR, the aforementioned parameters can be controlled in order to keep a healthy microenvironment according to specific necessities of different cell types, with no need of hydrogels and can be used for a wide range of experiments with cells.

Keywords: cell culture, micro-bioreactor, microfluidics, micropillars, oxygen concentration, shear stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
16 Dido: An Automatic Code Generation and Optimization Framework for Stencil Computations on Distributed Memory Architectures

Authors: Mariem Saied, Jens Gustedt, Gilles Muller


We present Dido, a source-to-source auto-generation and optimization framework for multi-dimensional stencil computations. It enables a large programmer community to easily and safely implement stencil codes on distributed-memory parallel architectures with Ordered Read-Write Locks (ORWL) as an execution and communication back-end. ORWL provides inter-task synchronization for data-oriented parallel and distributed computations. It has been proven to guarantee equity, liveness, and efficiency for a wide range of applications, particularly for iterative computations. Dido consists mainly of an implicitly parallel domain-specific language (DSL) implemented as a source-level transformer. It captures domain semantics at a high level of abstraction and generates parallel stencil code that leverages all ORWL features. The generated code is well-structured and lends itself to different possible optimizations. In this paper, we enhance Dido to handle both Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel grid traversals. We integrate temporal blocking to the Dido code generator in order to reduce the communication overhead and minimize data transfers. To increase data locality and improve intra-node data reuse, we coupled the code generation technique with the polyhedral parallelizer Pluto. The accuracy and portability of the generated code are guaranteed thanks to a parametrized solution. The combination of ORWL features, the code generation pattern and the suggested optimizations, make of Dido a powerful code generation framework for stencil computations in general, and for distributed-memory architectures in particular. We present a wide range of experiments over a number of stencil benchmarks.

Keywords: stencil computations, ordered read-write locks, domain-specific language, polyhedral model, experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
15 Off-Body Sub-GHz Wireless Channel Characterization for Dairy Cows in Barns

Authors: Said Benaissa, David Plets, Emmeric Tanghe, Jens Trogh, Luc Martens, Leen Vandaele, Annelies Van Nuffel, Frank A. M. Tuyttens, Bart Sonck, Wout Joseph


The herd monitoring and managing - in particular the detection of ‘attention animals’ that require care, treatment or assistance is crucial for effective reproduction status, health, and overall well-being of dairy cows. In large sized farms, traditional methods based on direct observation or analysis of video recordings become labour-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, automatic monitoring systems using sensors have become increasingly important to continuously and accurately track the health status of dairy cows. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and internet-of-things (IoT) can be effectively used in health tracking of dairy cows to facilitate herd management and enhance the cow welfare. Since on-cow measuring devices are energy-constrained, a proper characterization of the off-body wireless channel between the on-cow sensor nodes and the back-end base station is required for a power-optimized deployment of these networks in barns. The aim of this study was to characterize the off-body wireless channel in indoor (barns) environment at 868 MHz using LoRa nodes. LoRa is an emerging wireless technology mainly targeted at WSNs and IoT networks. Both large scale fading (i.e., path loss) and temporal fading were investigated. The obtained path loss values as a function of the transmitter-receiver separation were well fitted by a lognormal path loss model. The path loss showed an additional increase of 4 dB when the wireless node was actually worn by the cow. The temporal fading due to movement of other cows was well described by Rician distributions with a K-factor of 8.5 dB. Based on this characterization, network planning and energy consumption optimization of the on-body wireless nodes could be performed, which enables the deployment of reliable dairy cow monitoring systems.

Keywords: channel, channel modelling, cow monitoring, dairy cows, health monitoring, IoT, LoRa, off-body propagation, PLF, propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
14 Constraint-Based Computational Modelling of Bioenergetic Pathway Switching in Synaptic Mitochondria from Parkinson's Disease Patients

Authors: Diana C. El Assal, Fatima Monteiro, Caroline May, Peter Barbuti, Silvia Bolognin, Averina Nicolae, Hulda Haraldsdottir, Lemmer R. P. El Assal, Swagatika Sahoo, Longfei Mao, Jens Schwamborn, Rejko Kruger, Ines Thiele, Kathrin Marcus, Ronan M. T. Fleming


Degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons is one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. These neurons have a highly complex axonal arborisation and a high energy demand, so any reduction in ATP synthesis could lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, thereby impeding normal neuronal bioenergetic requirements. Synaptic mitochondria exhibit increased vulnerability to dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. After biogenesis in and transport from the cell body, synaptic mitochondria become highly dependent upon oxidative phosphorylation. We applied a systems biochemistry approach to identify the metabolic pathways used by neuronal mitochondria for energy generation. The mitochondrial component of an existing manual reconstruction of human metabolism was extended with manual curation of the biochemical literature and specialised using omics data from Parkinson's disease patients and controls, to generate reconstructions of synaptic and somal mitochondrial metabolism. These reconstructions were converted into stoichiometrically- and fluxconsistent constraint-based computational models. These models predict that Parkinson's disease is accompanied by an increase in the rate of glycolysis and a decrease in the rate of oxidative phosphorylation within synaptic mitochondria. This is consistent with independent experimental reports of a compensatory switching of bioenergetic pathways in the putamen of post-mortem Parkinson's disease patients. Ongoing work, in the context of the SysMedPD project is aimed at computational prediction of mitochondrial drug targets to slow the progression of neurodegeneration in the subset of Parkinson's disease patients with overt mitochondrial dysfunction.

Keywords: bioenergetics, mitochondria, Parkinson's disease, systems biochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
13 The Role of Car Dealerships in Promoting Electric Vehicles: Covert Participatory Observations of Car Dealerships in Sweden

Authors: Anne Y. Faxer, Ellen Olausson, Jens Hagman, Ana Magazinius, Jenny J. Stier, Tommy Fransson, Oscar Enerback


While electric vehicles (both battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids) have been on the market for around 6 years, they are still far from mainstream and the knowledge of them is still low among the public. This is likely one of the reasons that Sweden, having one of the highest penetrations of electric vehicles in Europe, still has a long way to go in reaching a fossil free vehicle fleet. Car dealerships are an important medium that connects consumers to vehicles, but somehow, their role in introducing electric vehicles has not yet been thoroughly studied. Research from other domains shows that salespeople can affect customer decisions in their choice of products. The aim of this study is to explore the role of car dealerships when it comes to promoting electric vehicles. The long-term goal is to understand how they could be a key in the effort of achieving a mass introduction of electric vehicles in Sweden. By emulating the customer’s experience, this study investigates the interaction between car salespeople and customers, particularly examining whether they present electric vehicles as viable options. Covert participatory observations were conducted for data collection from four different brands at in total twelve car dealers. The observers worked in pairs and played the role of a customer with needs that could be matched by an electric vehicle. The data was summarized in observation protocols and analyzed using thematic coding. The result shows that only one of twelve salespeople offered an electric vehicle as the first option. When environmental factors were brought up by the observers, the salespeople followed up with lower fuel consumption internal combustion engine vehicles rather than suggesting an electric vehicle. All salespeople possessed at least basic knowledge about electric vehicles but their interest of selling them were low in most cases. One of the reasons could be that the price of electric vehicles is usually higher. This could be inferred from the finding that salespeople tend to have a strong focus on price and economy in their dialogues with customers, regardless which type of car they were selling. In conclusion, the study suggests that car salespeople have the potential to help the market to achieve mass introduction of electric vehicles; however, their potential needs to be exploited further. To encourage salespeople to prioritize electric vehicles in the sales process, right incentives need to be in place.

Keywords: car dealerships, covert participatory observation, customer perspective , electric vehicle, market penetration

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
12 The ReliVR Project: Feasibility of a Virtual Reality Intervention in the Psychotherapy of Depression

Authors: Kyra Kannen, Sonja D. Roelen, Sebastian Schnieder, Jarek Krajewski, Steffen Holsteg, André Karger, Johanna Askeridis, Celina Slawik, Philip Mildner, Jens Piesk, Ruslan David, Holger Kürten, Benjamin Oster, Robert Malzan, Mike Ludemann


Virtual Reality (VR) is increasingly recognized for its potential in transforming mental disorder treatment, offering advantages such as cost-effectiveness, time efficiency, accessibility, reduced stigma, and scalability. While the application of VR in the context of anxiety disorders has been extensively evaluated and demonstrated to be effective, the utilization of VR as a therapeutic treatment for depression remains under-investigated. Our goal is to pioneer immersive VR therapy modules for treating major depression, alongside a web-based system for home use. We develop a modular digital therapy platform grounded in psychodynamic therapy interventions which addresses stress reduction, exploration of social situations and relationship support, social skill training, avoidance behavior analysis, and psychoeducation. In addition, an automated depression monitoring system, based on acoustic voice analysis, is implemented in the form of a speech-based diary to track the affective state of the user and depression severity. The use of immersive VR facilitates patient immersion into complex and realistic interpersonal interactions with high emotional engagement, which may contribute to positive treatment acceptance and satisfaction. In a proof-of-concept study, 45 depressed patients were assigned to VR or web-platform modules, evaluating user experience, usability and additional metrics including depression severity, mindfulness, interpersonal problems, and treatment satisfaction. The findings provide valuable insights into the effectiveness and user-friendliness of VR and web modules for depression therapy and contribute to the refinement of more tailored digital interventions to improve mental health.

Keywords: virtual reality therapy, digital health, depression, psychotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
11 The First Transcriptome Assembly of Marama Bean: An African Orphan Crop

Authors: Ethel E. Phiri, Lionel Hartzenberg, Percy Chimwamuromba, Emmanuel Nepolo, Jens Kossmann, James R. Lloyd


Orphan crops are underresearched and underutilized food plant species that have not been categorized as major food crops, but have the potential to be economically and agronomically significant. They have been documented to have the ability to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. However, limited research has been conducted to uncover their potential as food crop species. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) has classified Marama bean, Tylosema esculentum, as an orphan crop. The plant is one of the 101 African orphan crops that must have their genomes sequenced, assembled, and annotated in the foreseeable future. Marama bean is a perennial leguminous plant that primarily grows in poor, arid soils in southern Africa. The plants produce large tubers that can weigh as much as 200kg. While the foliage provides fodder, the tuber is carbohydrate rich and is a staple food source for rural communities in Namibia. Also, the edible seeds are protein- and oil-rich. Marama Bean plants respond rapidly to increased temperatures and severe water scarcity without extreme consequences. Advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have made it possible to effectively transfer technologies between model- and major crops to orphan crops. In this research, the aim was to assemble the first transcriptomic analysis of Marama Bean RNA-sequence data. Many model plant species have had their genomes sequenced and their transcriptomes assembled. Therefore the availability of transcriptome data for a non-model crop plant species will allow for gene identification and comparisons between various species. The data has been sequenced using the Ilumina Hiseq 2500 sequencing platform. Data analysis is underway. In essence, this research will eventually evaluate the potential use of Marama Bean as a crop species to improve its value in agronomy. data for a non-model crop plant species will allow for gene identification and comparisons between various species. The data has been sequenced using the Ilumina Hiseq 2500 sequencing platform. Data analysis is underway. In essence, this researc will eventually evaluate the potential use of Marama bean as a crop species to improve its value in agronomy.

Keywords: 101 African orphan crops, RNA-Seq, Tylosema esculentum, underutilised crop plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
10 Building on Previous Microvalving Approaches for Highly Reliable Actuation in Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

Authors: Ivan Maguire, Ciprian Briciu, Alan Barrett, Dara Kervick, Jens Ducrèe, Fiona Regan


With the ever-increasing myriad of applications of which microfluidic devices are capable, reliable fluidic actuation development has remained fundamental to the success of these microfluidic platforms. There are a number of approaches which can be taken in order to integrate liquid actuation on microfluidic platforms, which can usually be split into two primary categories; active microvalves and passive microvalves. Active microvalves are microfluidic valves which require a physical parameter change by external, or separate interaction, for actuation to occur. Passive microvalves are microfluidic valves which don’t require external interaction for actuation due to the valve’s natural physical parameters, which can be overcome through sample interaction. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how further improvements to past microvalve solutions can largely enhance systematic reliability and performance, with both novel active and passive microvalves demonstrated. Covered within this scope will be two alternative and novel microvalve solutions for centrifugal microfluidic platforms; a revamped pneumatic-dissolvable film active microvalve (PAM) strategy and a spray-on Sol-Gel based hydrophobic passive microvalve (HPM) approach. Both the PAM and the HPM mechanisms were demonstrated on a centrifugal microfluidic platform consisting of alternating layers of 1.5 mm poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (for reagent storage) sheets and ~150 μm pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) (for microchannel fabrication) sheets. The PAM approach differs from previous SOLUBON™ dissolvable film methods by introducing a more reliable and predictable liquid delivery mechanism to microvalve site, thus significantly reducing premature activation. This approach has also shown excellent synchronicity when performed in a multiplexed form. The HPM method utilises a new spray-on and low curing temperature (70°C) sol-gel material. The resultant double layer coating comprises a PMMA adherent sol-gel as the bottom layer and an ultra hydrophobic silica nano-particles (SNPs) film as the top layer. The optimal coating was integrated to microfluidic channels with varying cross-sectional area for assessing microvalve burst frequencies consistency. It is hoped that these microvalving solutions, which can be easily added to centrifugal microfluidic platforms, will significantly improve automation reliability.

Keywords: centrifugal microfluidics, hydrophobic microvalves, lab-on-a-disc, pneumatic microvalves

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
9 Effect of Carbide Precipitates in Tool Steel on Material Transfer: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Ahmed Tamer AlMotasem, Jens Bergström, Anders Gåård, Pavel Krakhmalev, Thijs Jan Holleboom


In sheet metal forming processes, accumulation and transfer of sheet material to tool surfaces, often referred to as galling, is the major cause of tool failure. Initiation of galling is assumed to occur due to local adhesive wear between two surfaces. Therefore, reducing adhesion between the tool and the work sheet has a great potential to improve the tool materials galling resistance. Experimental observations and theoretical studies show that the presence of primary micro-sized carbides and/or nitrides in alloyed steels may significantly improve galling resistance. Generally, decreased adhesion between the ceramic precipitates and the sheet material counter-surface are attributed as main reason to the latter observations. On the other hand, adhesion processes occur at an atomic scale and, hence, fundamental understanding of galling can be obtained via atomic scale simulations. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations are used, with utilizing second nearest neighbor embedded atom method potential to investigate the influence of nano-sized cementite precipitates embedded in tool atoms. The main aim of the simulations is to gain new fundamental knowledge on galling initiation mechanisms. Two tool/work piece configurations, iron/iron and iron-cementite/iron, are studied under dry sliding conditions. We find that the average frictional force decreases whereas the normal force increases for the iron-cementite/iron system, in comparison to the iron/iron configuration. Moreover, the average friction coefficient between the tool/work-piece decreases by about 10 % for the iron-cementite/iron case. The increase of the normal force in the case of iron-cementite/iron system may be attributed to the high stiffness of cementite compared to bcc iron. In order to qualitatively explain the effect of cementite on adhesion, the adhesion force between self-mated iron/iron and cementite/iron surfaces has been determined and we found that iron/cementite surface exhibits lower adhesive force than that of iron-iron surface. The variation of adhesion force with temperature was investigated up to 600 K and we found that the adhesive force, generally, decreases with increasing temperature. Structural analyses show that plastic deformation is the main deformation mechanism of the work-piece, accompanied with dislocations generation.

Keywords: adhesion, cementite, galling, molecular dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
8 Revealing the Nitrogen Reaction Pathway for the Catalytic Oxidative Denitrification of Fuels

Authors: Michael Huber, Maximilian J. Poller, Jens Tochtermann, Wolfgang Korth, Andreas Jess, Jakob Albert


Aside from the desulfurisation, the denitrogenation of fuels is of great importance to minimize the environmental impact of transport emissions. The oxidative reaction pathway of organic nitrogen in the catalytic oxidative denitrogenation could be successfully elucidated. This is the first time such a pathway could be traced in detail in non-microbial systems. It was found that the organic nitrogen is first oxidized to nitrate, which is subsequently reduced to molecular nitrogen via nitrous oxide. Hereby, the organic substrate serves as a reducing agent. The discovery of this pathway is an important milestone for the further development of fuel denitrogenation technologies. The United Nations aims to counteract global warming with Net Zero Emissions (NZE) commitments; however, it is not yet foreseeable when crude oil-based fuels will become obsolete. In 2021, more than 50 million barrels per day (mb/d) were consumed for the transport sector alone. Above all, heteroatoms such as sulfur or nitrogen produce SO₂ and NOx during combustion in the engines, which is not only harmful to the climate but also to health. Therefore, in refineries, these heteroatoms are removed by hy-drotreating to produce clean fuels. However, this catalytic reaction is inhibited by the basic, nitrogenous reactants (e.g., quinoline) as well as by NH3. The ion pair of the nitrogen atom forms strong pi-bonds to the active sites of the hydrotreating catalyst, which dimin-ishes its activity. To maximize the desulfurization and denitrogenation effectiveness in comparison to just extraction and adsorption, selective oxidation is typically combined with either extraction or selective adsorption. The selective oxidation produces more polar compounds that can be removed from the non-polar oil in a separate step. The extraction step can also be carried out in parallel to the oxidation reaction, as a result of in situ separation of the oxidation products (ECODS; extractive catalytic oxidative desulfurization). In this process, H8PV5Mo7O40 (HPA-5) is employed as a homogeneous polyoxometalate (POM) catalyst in an aqueous phase, whereas the sulfur containing fuel components are oxidized after diffusion from the organic fuel phase into the aqueous catalyst phase, to form highly polar products such as H₂SO₄ and carboxylic acids, which are thereby extracted from the organic fuel phase and accumulate in the aqueous phase. In contrast to the inhibiting properties of the basic nitrogen compounds in hydrotreating, the oxidative desulfurization improves with simultaneous denitrification in this system (ECODN; extractive catalytic oxidative denitrogenation). The reaction pathway of ECODS has already been well studied. In contrast, the oxidation of nitrogen compounds in ECODN is not yet well understood and requires more detailed investigations.

Keywords: oxidative reaction pathway, denitrogenation of fuels, molecular catalysis, polyoxometalate

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
7 Cross-Sectoral Energy Demand Prediction for Germany with a 100% Renewable Energy Production in 2050

Authors: Ali Hashemifarzad, Jens Zum Hingst


The structure of the world’s energy systems has changed significantly over the past years. One of the most important challenges in the 21st century in Germany (and also worldwide) is the energy transition. This transition aims to comply with the recent international climate agreements from the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) to ensure sustainable energy supply with minimal use of fossil fuels. Germany aims for complete decarbonization of the energy sector by 2050 according to the federal climate protection plan. One of the stipulations of the Renewable Energy Sources Act 2017 for the expansion of energy production from renewable sources in Germany is that they cover at least 80% of the electricity requirement in 2050; The Gross end energy consumption is targeted for at least 60%. This means that by 2050, the energy supply system would have to be almost completely converted to renewable energy. An essential basis for the development of such a sustainable energy supply from 100% renewable energies is to predict the energy requirement by 2050. This study presents two scenarios for the final energy demand in Germany in 2050. In the first scenario, the targets for energy efficiency increase and demand reduction are set very ambitiously. To build a comparison basis, the second scenario provides results with less ambitious assumptions. For this purpose, first, the relevant framework conditions (following CUTEC 2016) were examined, such as the predicted population development and economic growth, which were in the past a significant driver for the increase in energy demand. Also, the potential for energy demand reduction and efficiency increase (on the demand side) was investigated. In particular, current and future technological developments in energy consumption sectors and possible options for energy substitution (namely the electrification rate in the transport sector and the building renovation rate) were included. Here, in addition to the traditional electricity sector, the areas of heat, and fuel-based consumptions in different sectors such as households, commercial, industrial and transport are taken into account, supporting the idea that for a 100% supply from renewable energies, the areas currently based on (fossil) fuels must be almost completely be electricity-based by 2050. The results show that in the very ambitious scenario a final energy demand of 1,362 TWh/a is required, which is composed of 818 TWh/a electricity, 229 TWh/a ambient heat for electric heat pumps and approx. 315 TWh/a non-electric energy (raw materials for non-electrifiable processes). In the less ambitious scenario, in which the targets are not fully achieved by 2050, the final energy demand will need a higher electricity part of almost 1,138 TWh/a (from the total: 1,682 TWh/a). It has also been estimated that 50% of the electricity revenue must be saved to compensate for fluctuations in the daily and annual flows. Due to conversion and storage losses (about 50%), this would mean that the electricity requirement for the very ambitious scenario would increase to 1,227 TWh / a.

Keywords: energy demand, energy transition, German Energiewende, 100% renewable energy production

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
6 Cycle-Oriented Building Components and Constructions Made from Paper Materials

Authors: Rebecca Bach, Evgenia Kanli, Nihat Kiziltoprak, Linda Hildebrand, Ulrich Knaack, Jens Schneider


The building industry has a high demand for resources and at the same time is responsible for a significant amount of waste created worldwide. Today's building components need to contribute to the protection of natural resources without creating waste. This is defined in the product development phase and impacts the product’s degree of being cycle-oriented. Paper-based materials show advantage due to their renewable origin and their ability to incorporate different functions. Besides the ecological aspects like renewable origin and recyclability the main advantages of paper materials are its light-weight but stiff structure, the optimized production processes and good insulation values. The main deficits from building technology’s perspective are the material's vulnerability to humidity and water as well as inflammability. On material level, those problems can be solved by coatings or through material modification. On construction level intelligent setup and layering of a building component can improve and also solve these issues. The target of the present work is to provide an overview of developed building components and construction typologies mainly made from paper materials. The research is structured in four parts: (1) functions and requirements, (2) preselection of paper-based materials, (3) development of building components and (4) evaluation. As part of the research methodology at first the needs of the building sector are analyzed with the aim to define the main areas of application and consequently the requirements. Various paper materials are tested in order to identify to what extent the requirements are satisfied and determine potential optimizations or modifications, also in combination with other construction materials. By making use of the material’s potentials and solving the deficits on material and on construction level, building components and construction typologies are developed. The evaluation and the calculation of the structural mechanics and structural principals will show that different construction typologies can be derived. Profiles like paper tubes can be used at best for skeleton constructions. Massive structures on the other hand can be formed by plate-shaped elements like solid board or honeycomb. For insulation purposes corrugated cardboard or cellulose flakes have the best properties, while layered solid board can be applied to prevent inner condensation. Enhancing these properties by material combinations for instance with mineral coatings functional constructions mainly out of paper materials were developed. In summary paper materials offer a huge variety of possible applications in the building sector. By these studies a general base of knowledge about how to build with paper was developed and is to be reinforced by further research.

Keywords: construction typologies, cycle-oriented construction, innovative building material, paper materials, renewable resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
5 Examination of Porcine Gastric Biomechanics in the Antrum Region

Authors: Sif J. Friis, Mette Poulsen, Torben Strom Hansen, Peter Herskind, Jens V. Nygaard


Gastric biomechanics governs a large range of scientific and engineering fields, from gastric health issues to interaction mechanisms between external devices and the tissue. Determination of mechanical properties of the stomach is, thus, crucial, both for understanding gastric pathologies as well as for the development of medical concepts and device designs. Although the field of gastric biomechanics is emerging, advances within medical devices interacting with the gastric tissue could greatly benefit from an increased understanding of tissue anisotropy and heterogeneity. Thus, in this study, uniaxial tensile tests of gastric tissue were executed in order to study biomechanical properties within the same individual as well as across individuals. With biomechanical tests in the strain domain, tissue from the antrum region of six porcine stomachs was tested using eight samples from each stomach (n = 48). The samples were cut so that they followed dominant fiber orientations. Accordingly, from each stomach, four samples were longitudinally oriented, and four samples were circumferentially oriented. A step-wise stress relaxation test with five incremental steps up to 25 % strain with 200 s rest periods for each step was performed, followed by a 25 % strain ramp test with three different strain rates. Theoretical analysis of the data provided stress-strain/time curves as well as 20 material parameters (e.g., stiffness coefficients, dissipative energy densities, and relaxation time coefficients) used for statistical comparisons between samples from the same stomach as well as in between stomachs. Results showed that, for the 20 material parameters, heterogeneity across individuals, when extracting samples from the same area, was in the same order of variation as the samples within the same stomach. For samples from the same stomach, the mean deviation percentage for all 20 parameters was 21 % and 18 % for longitudinal and circumferential orientations, compared to 25 % and 19 %, respectively, for samples across individuals. This observation was also supported by a nonparametric one-way ANOVA analysis, where results showed that the 20 material parameters from each of the six stomachs came from the same distribution with a level of statistical significance of P > 0.05. Direction-dependency was also examined, and it was found that the maximum stress for longitudinal samples was significantly higher than for circumferential samples. However, there were no significant differences in the 20 material parameters, with the exception of the equilibrium stiffness coefficient (P = 0.0039) and two other stiffness coefficients found from the relaxation tests (P = 0.0065, 0.0374). Nor did the stomach tissue show any significant differences between the three strain-rates used in the ramp test. Heterogeneity within the same region has not been examined earlier, yet, the importance of the sampling area has been demonstrated in this study. All material parameters found are essential to understand the passive mechanics of the stomach and may be used for mathematical and computational modeling. Additionally, an extension of the protocol used may be relevant for compiling a comparative study between the human stomach and the pig stomach.

Keywords: antrum region, gastric biomechanics, loading-unloading, stress relaxation, uniaxial tensile testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 403