Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4049

Search results for: reactive oxygen species

4049 DNA Methylation Changes Caused by Lawsone

Authors: Zuzana Poborilova, Anna B. Ohlsson, Torkel Berglund, Anna Vildova, Petr Babula

Abstract:

Lawsone is a pigment that occurs naturally in plants. It has been used as a skin and hair dye for a long time. Moreover, its different biological activities have been reported. The present study focused on the effect of lawsone on a plant cell model represented by tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture, which is used as a model comparable with the HeLa cells. It has been shown that lawsone inhibits the cell growth in the concentration-dependent manner. In addition, changes in DNA methylation level have been determined. We observed decreasing level of DNA methylation in the presence of increasing concentrations of lawsone. These results were accompanied with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since epigenetic modifications can be caused by different stress factors, there could be a connection between the changes in the level of DNA methylation and ROS production caused by lawsone.

Keywords: DNA methylation, lawsone, naphthoquinone, reactive oxygen species

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4048 Entropically Favoured Through Space Charge Transfer ‘Lighted’ Photosensitizing Assemblies for ‘Metal Free’ Regulated Photooxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes

Authors: Gurpreet Kaur, Manoj Kumar, Vandana Bhalla

Abstract:

Strong acceptor-weak acceptor system FN-TPy has been designed and synthesized which undergoes solvent dependent self-assembly in mixed aqueous media to generate through space intermolecular charge transfer assemblies. The as prepared entropically favoured assemblies of FN-TPy exhibit excellent photostability and photosensitizing properties in the assembled state to activate aerial oxygen for efficient generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through Type-I and Type-II pathways. The FN-TPy assemblies exhibit excellent potential for regulated oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes under mild reaction conditions (visible light irradiation, aqueous media, room temperature) using aerial oxygen as the ‘oxidant’. The present study demonstrates the potential of FN-TPy assemblies to catalyze controlled oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and to corresponding benzoic acid.

Keywords: oxidations, photosensitizer, reactive oxygen species, supramolecular assemblies, through space charge transfer.

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4047 Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoaging Pathways of Ultrafine Plastic Particles under UV Irradiation

Authors: Jiajun Duan, Yang Li, Jianan Gao, Runzi Cao, Enxiang Shang, Wen Zhang

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is considered as an important photoaging mechanism of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs). To elucidate the ROS-induced MP/NP aging processes in water under UV365 irradiation, we examined the effects of surface coatings, polymer types, and grain sizes on ROS generation and photoaging intermediates. Bare polystyrene (PS) NPs generated hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and singlet oxygen (¹O₂), while coated PS NPs (carboxyl-modified PS (PS-COOH), amino-modified PS (PS-NH₂)) and PS MPs generated fewer ROS due to coating scavenging or size effects. Polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, and polycarbonate MPs only generated •OH. For aromatic polymers, •OH addition preferentially occurred at benzene rings to form monohydroxy polymers. Excess •OH resulted in H abstraction, C-C scission, and phenyl ring opening to generate aliphatic ketones, esters, aldehydes, and aromatic ketones. For coated PS NPs, •OH preferentially attacked the surface coatings to result in decarboxylation and deamination reactions. For aliphatic polymers, •OH attack resulted in the formation of carbonyl groups from peracid, aldehyde, or ketone via H abstraction and C-C scission. Moreover, ¹O₂ might participate in phenyl ring opening for PS NPs and coating degradation for coated PS NPs. This study facilitates understanding the ROS-induced weathering process of NPs/MPs in water under UV irradiation.

Keywords: microplastics, nanoplastics, photoaging, reactive oxygen species, surface coating

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4046 The Role of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Mediator in BV2 Microglial Cells

Authors: Nootchanat Mairuae, Walaiporn Tongjaroenbuangam, Chalisa Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp Cheepsunthorn

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effect, the anti-inflammatory effects, and the molecular mechanisms of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The BV2 cells were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of okra. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 was detected by Western blot assay. Treatment of BV2 microglia cells with okra was found to significantly suppress the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator NO as well as ROS compared to untreated cells. The levels of LPS-induced NF-kB p65 phosphorylation were significantly decreased following okra treatment too. These results show that okra exerts anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the NF-κB pathway. This suggests okra might be a valuable agent for treatment of anti-neuroinflammatory diseases mediated by microglial cells.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Linn, microglia, neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen spicy

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4045 Level of Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Correlation with Disease Severity

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Mohammad Owais, Abdul Khan, Atif Zafar

Abstract:

In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), impaired oxidative metabolism and imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines are responsible for causing inflammation and the degradation of cartilage and bone. The present study was done to evaluate the level and hence the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA. The present study was performed in the blood of 80 RA patients and 55 age and sex-matched healthy controls. The level of ROS (in 5% hematocrit) and the plasma level of pro-inflammatory cytokines [TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-22] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) were monitored in healthy subjects and RA patients. For evaluating the role of rheumatoid factor (RF) in the pathogenesis of RA, patients were sub-divided on the basis of presence or absence of RF. Reactive species and inflammatory cytokines were correlated with disease activity measure-Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). The level of ROS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-22 were found to be significantly higher in RA patients as compared to the healthy controls, with the increase being more significant in patients positive for rheumatoid factor and those having high disease severity. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the level of IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in RA patients compared with healthy controls, with the decrease being more prominent in severe cases of RA. Higher ROS (indicative of impaired anti-oxidant defence system) and pro-inflammatory cytokines level in RA patients may lead to the damage of biomolecules which in turn contributes to tissue damage and hence to the development of more severe RA. The imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to the development of multi-system immune complications. ROS and inflammatory cytokines may also serve as a potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines

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4044 Histopathological Alterations in Liver of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma

Abstract:

Diclofenac sodium, a member of the acetic acid family of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is used to retard inflammation, arthritis pain and ankylosing spondylitis. The drug is known to cause severe injury in different tissues due to formation of reactive oxygen species. The present study is focused on the effect of different doses of diclofenac (4 mg/kg/body weight and 14 mg/kg/body weight on histoarchitecture of the liver from 7-28 days of the investigation. Diclofenac administration resulted in distorted hepatic degeneration and formation of wide areas in the form of sinusoidal gaps. Hepatic fibrosis noticed in different stages of investigation could be attributed to chronic inflammation and reactive oxygen species which results in deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The abrupt degenerative changes observed during later stages of the experiment showed maximum damage to the liver, and there was enlargement of sinusoidal gaps accompanied by maximum necrosis in the tissues.

Keywords: arthritis, diclofenac, histoarchitecture, sinusoidal

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4043 Role of Moderate Intensity Exercises in the Amelioration of Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Abdul Qayyum, Atif Zafar

Abstract:

Cytokines and reactive species play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was done to determine the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inflammatory cytokines and the markers of protein, DNA and lipid oxidation in the blood of RA patients, with the aim to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA. RA patients were subdivided into two groups- first group (n=30) received treatment with conventional RA drugs while the second group (n=30) received moderate exercise therapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. The levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines and markers of biomolecule oxidation were monitored before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a marked increase in the levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, lipid, protein and DNA oxidation as compared to the healthy controls. These parameters were ameliorated after treatment with drugs alone and exercise combined with drugs, with the amelioration being more significant in patients given drugs along with the moderate intensity exercise treatment. In conclusion, the role of ROS, RNS and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been confirmed by this study. These may also serve as potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity. Finally, the addition of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA may be of great value.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, moderate intensity exercises

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4042 Preparation of Gramine Nanosuspension and Protective Effect of Gramine on Human Oral Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

Authors: K. Suresh, R. Arunkumar

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of gramine nano suspension and protective effect of Gramine on the apoptosis of laryngeal cancer cells cell line (HEp-2 and KB). The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 and KB cells in vitro were measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, morphological changes and flowcytometry. Based on the results, we determined the effective doses of gramine as 127.23µm/ml for 24 hr and 119.81 µm/ml for 48hr in hep-2 cell line and 147.58 µm ml for 24 hr and 123.74µm µm/ml for 48hr in KB cell line. cytotoxicity effects of gramine were confirmed by treatment of HEp-2 cell and KB cell with IC50 concentration of gramine resulted in sequences of events marked by the enhance the apoptosis accompanied by loss of cell viability, modulation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest on HEp-2 cells. Our study suggests that the nanosuspension of gramine possesses the more cytotoxic effect of cancer cells and a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

Keywords: apoptosis, HEp-2 cell line, KB cell line mitochondria, gramine, nanosuspension

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4041 Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow a (HSYA) on UVA-Induced Damage in HaCaT Keratinocytes

Authors: Szu-Chieh Yu, Pei-Chin Chiand, Chih-Yi Lin, Yi-Wen Chien

Abstract:

UV radiation from sunlight cause numbers of acute and chronic skin damage which can result in inflammation, immune changes, physical changes and DNA damage that facilitates skin aging and the development of skin carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by excessive solar UV radiation, resulting in oxidative damage to cellar components, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Thus, antioxidation plays an important role that protects skin against ROS-induced injury. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an important Chinese medicine contained abundance flavones and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) which is main active ingredient. HSYA is part of quinochalcone and has unique structures of hydroxy groups that provided the antioxidant effect. In this study, the aim was to investigate the protective role of HYSA in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) against UVA-induced oxidative damage and the possible mechanism. The HaCaT cells were UVA-irradiated and the effects of HYSA on cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation were measured. The mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase Ι (MMP Ι), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by RT-PCR. In this study, UVA exposure lead to decrease in cell viability and increase in reactive oxygen species generation in HaCaT cells. HYSA could effectively increase the viability of HaCaT cells after UVA exposure and protect them from UVA-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, HYSA can reduce inflammation through inhibition the mRNA expression of MMP Ι and COX-2. Our results suggest that HSYA can act as a free radical scavenger while keratinocytes were photodamaged. HYSA could be a useful natural medicine for the protection of epidermal cells from UVA-induced damage and will be developed into products for skin care.

Keywords: HaCaT keratinocytes, hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), MMP Ι, oxidative stress

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4040 Beneficial Effect of Lupeol in Diabetes Induced Oxidative Damage

Authors: Rajnish Gupta, R. S. Gupta

Abstract:

Present research was aimed to investigate antidiabetic and antioxidant status of Lupeol in streptozotocin induced diabetes. Rats were divided into following groups mainly: control, diabetic, normal group as well as diabetic treated with Lupeol at 25 and 35 mg/kg b.wt./day for 21 days, diabetic group treated with glibenclamide. Tissue (pancreas, kidney and liver) as well as serum biochemical parameters were analysed for any abnormal behavior. Lupeol administration reduced diabetes onset with significant improvement in serum insulin level also strengthened by increase in β-Cell counts. A significant decrease was observed in serum glucose level. Furthermore, Lupeol treatment increased the antioxidant enzymes, glycolytic enzymes and also protein levels with a decrease in the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive oxygen species and gluconeogenic enzymes. Present study proves that Lupeol administration significantly reinstated serum and tissue biochemical parameters and thus strengthening its antidiabetic potential.

Keywords: oxidative stress, pterostilbene, thiobarbituric acid, reactive oxygen species

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4039 Differential Antibrucella Activity of Bovine and Murine Macrophages

Authors: Raheela Akhtar, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Yongqun Oliver He, Muhammad Younus, Aftab Ahmad Anjum

Abstract:

Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen affecting macrophages. Macrophages release some components such as lysozymes (LZ), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrite intermediates (RNI) which are important tools against intracellular survival of Brucella. The antibrucella activity of bovine and murine macrophages was compared following stimulation with Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides. Our results revealed that murine macrophages were ten times more potent to produce antibrucella components than bovine macrophages. The differential production of these components explained the differential Brucella killing ability of these species that was measured in terms of intramacrophagic survival of Brucella in murine and bovine macrophages.

Keywords: bovine macrophages, Brucella abortus, cell stimulation, cytokines, Murine macrophages

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4038 In vitro Effects of Viscum album on the Functionality of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Simona Baldovská, Ľubomír Ondruška, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

This study aimed to assess the in vitro effects of different concentrations of the Viscum album extract on the motility, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by rabbit spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, and 8h). Spermatozoa motility was assessed by using the CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis) system. Cell viability was evaluated by using the metabolic activity MTT assay, and the luminol-based luminometry was applied to quantify the ROS formation. The CASA analysis revealed that low Viscum concentrations were able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 µg/mL (P<0.05 with respect to time 8h). At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 100 µg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P<0.05 in case of 5, 50 and 100 µg/mL; P<0.01 with respect to 1 and 10 µg/mL, time 8h). 1 and 5 µg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the ROS production, particularly notable at time 8h (P<0.01). The results indicate that the Viscum extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the spermatozoon by the in vitro environment.

Keywords: CASA, mistletoe, mitochondrial activity, motility, reactive oxygen species, rabbits, spermatozoa, Viscum album

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4037 Phyllantus nuriri Protect against Fe2+ and SNP Induced Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Rich Fractions of Rats Brain

Authors: Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Joao Batista Teixeira Rocha

Abstract:

We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of rats brain. Cellular viability was assessed by MTT reduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Glutathione content was measured using dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB). Fe2+ (10µM) and SNP (5µM) significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, this occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, ROS production and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). The co-incubation with methanolic extract of Phyllantus nuriri (10-100 µg/ml) reduced the disruption of mitochondrial activity, gluthathione oxidation, ROS production as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by both Fe2+ and SNP in a dose dependent manner. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of gallic acid (20.54±0.01), caffeic acid (7.93±0.02), rutin (25.31±0.05), quercetin (31.28±0.03) and kaemferol (14.36±0.01). This result suggests that these phytochemicals account for the protective actions of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP -induced oxidative stress. Our results show that Phyllantus nuriri consist important bioactive molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of Fe2+, an intrinsic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that leads to neuronal oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Phyllantus niruri, neuroprotection, oxidative stress, mitochondria, synaptosome

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4036 Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Heterocyclic Indole Derivatives

Authors: Tunca Gul Altuntas, Aziz Baydar, Cemre Acar, Sezen Yılmaz, Tulay Coban

Abstract:

Free radicals, which are generated in many bioorganic redox processes, play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer, arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and age-related degenerative brain diseases. Exposures of normal cell to free radical damages several structures, oxidizes nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, or DNA. Compounds interfere with the action of reactive oxygen species might be useful in prevention and treatment of these pathologies. A series of indole compounds containing piperazine ring were synthesized. Coupling of indole-2-carboxylic acid with monosubstituted piperazines was accomplished with 1,1’-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in a good yield. The structures of prepared compounds were verified in good agreement with their 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), MS (mass spectrophotometry), and IR (infrared spectrophotometry) characteristics. In this work, all synthetized indole derivatives were screened in vitro for their antioxidative potential against vitamin E (α-tocopherol) using different antioxidant assays such as superoxide anion formation, lipid peroxidation levels in rat liver, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable radical scavenging activity. The synthesized compounds showed various levels of inhibition compared to vitamin E. This may give promising results for the development of new antioxidant agents.

Keywords: antioxidant, indoles, piperazines, reactive oxygen species

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4035 The Effect of Curcumin on Cryopreserved Bovine Semen

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Marek Halenár, Hana Greifová, Alica Mackovich, Faridullah Hashim, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

Oxidative stress associated with semen cryopreservation may result in lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm motility and fertilization ability. Curcumin (CUR), a natural phenol isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. has been presented as a possible supplement for a more effective semen cryopreservation because of its antioxidant properties. This study focused to evaluate the effects of CUR on selected oxidative stress parameters in cryopreserved bovine semen. 20 bovine ejaculates were split into two aliquots and diluted with a commercial semen extender containing CUR (50 μmol/L) or no supplement (control), cooled to 4 °C, frozen and kept in liquid nitrogen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for subsequent experiments. Computer assisted semen analysis was used to evaluate spermatozoa motility, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by using luminometry. Superoxide generation was evaluated with the NBT test, and LPO was assessed via the TBARS assay. CUR supplementation significantly (P<0.001) increased the spermatozoa motility and provided a significantly higher protection against ROS (P<0.001) or superoxide (P<0.01) overgeneration caused by semen freezing and thawing. Furthermore, CUR administration resulted in a significantly (P<0.01) lower LPO of the experimental semen samples. In conclusion, CUR exhibits significant ROS-scavenging activities which may prevent oxidative insults to cryopreserved spermatozoa and thus may enhance the post-thaw functional activity of male gametes.

Keywords: bulls, cryopreservation, curcumin, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species, spermatozoa

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4034 Effect of Clerodendrum Species on Oxidative Stress with Possible Implication in Alleviating Carcinogenesis

Authors: Somit Dutta, Pallab Kar, Arnab Kumar Chakraborty, Arnab Sen, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri

Abstract:

In the present study three species of Clerodendrum; Clerodendrum indicum, Volkameria inermis and Clerodendrum colebrookianum were used to investigate the possible activity against oxidative stress. A detailed in-vivo and in-vitro antioxidant profiling, directly associated with inflammation-related carcinogenesis, has been executed with a motive to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of Clerodendrum extract. Measurement of cell viability and ROS generation in HEK-293 (Human Embryonic Kidney Cell Line) cells was also estimated. The immune cell proliferative properties (MTT) and in-vitro assay for evaluation of their antioxidant activities including hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen, peroxinitrate and hydrogen peroxide, etc. were investigated. GC-MS and FTIR analyses have been performed to identify the active biological compounds. These active biological compounds were further studied to assess their potential medicinal properties, aided by molecular docking and interaction analysis between the active compounds and different proteins related to oxidative stress leading to progression of carcinogenesis. The research article clearly demonstrates the role of ROS in various phases of carcinogenesis. Therefore, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of all the Clerodendrum species might prove beneficial for the immune system. It might be concluded that this plant species offers great promise for cancer prevention and therapy due to the presence of several bioactive compounds and potent antioxidant capacity of C. colebrookianum.

Keywords: antioxidant, cancer, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS)

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4033 In vitro Inhibitory Action of an Aqueous Extract of Carob on the Release of Myeloperoxidase by Human Neutrophils

Authors: Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Jamel El-Benna, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai

Abstract:

Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a hemic enzyme found in high concentrations in the primary neutrophils granules. In addition to its peroxidase activity, it has a chlorination activity, using hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions to form hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidant, capable of chlorinating molecules. Bioactive compounds contained in medicinal plants could limit the action of this enzyme to reduce the reactive oxygen species production and its chlorination activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the carob aqueous extract (CAE) on the release of MPO by human neutrophils in vitro and its activity following stimulation of these cells by PMA. Methods: Neutrophils were isolated by simple sedimentation using the Dextran/Ficoll method. After stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), neutrophils release the MPO by degranulation. The effect of CAE on the release of MPO was analyzed by the Western blot technique, while, its activity was determined by biochemical method using the method of 3,3', 5,5'- Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide. The data were expressed as mean ± SEM. Results: The carob aqueous extract causes a decrease in MPO quantity and activity in a concentration-dependent manner which leads to a reduction of the production of the ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the protection of the molecules against oxidation and chlorination mechanisms. Conclusion: Thanks to its richness in bioactive compounds, the aqueous extract of carob could limit the development of damages related to the uncontrolled activity of MPO.

Keywords: carob, MPO, myeloperoxidase, neutrophils, PMA, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

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4032 Antioxidant Effects of C-Phycocyanin on Oxidized Astrocyte in Brain Injury Using 2D and 3D Neural Nanofiber Tissue Model

Authors: Seung Ju Yeon, Seul Ki Min, Jun Sang Park, Yeo Seon Kwon, Hoo Cheol Lee, Hyun Jung Shim, Il-Doo Kim, Ja Kyeong Lee, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

In brain injury, depleting oxidative stress is the most effective way to reduce the brain infarct size. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is a well-known antioxidant protein that has neuroprotective effects obtained from green microalgae. Astrocyte is glial cell that supports the nerve cell such as neuron, which account for a large portion of the brain. In brain injury, such as ischemia and reperfusion, astrocyte has an important rule that overcomes the oxidative stress and protect from brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury. However little is known about how C-Pc regulates the anti-oxidants effects of astrocyte. In this study, when the C-Pc was treated in oxidized astrocyte, we confirmed that inflammatory factors Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-3 were increased and antioxidants enzyme, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was upregulated, and neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) was alleviated. Also, it was confirmed to reduce infarct size of the brain in ischemia and reperfusion because C-Pc has anti-oxidant effects in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model. These results show that C-Pc can help astrocytes lead neuroprotective activities in the oxidative stressed environment of the brain. In summary, the C-PC protects astrocytes from oxidative stress and has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic effects under ischemic situations.

Keywords: c-phycocyanin, astrocyte, reactive oxygen species, ischemia and reperfusion, neuroprotective effect

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4031 Biological Activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract

Authors: Chanasit Chaocharoenphat

Abstract:

Hibiscus sabdariffa is a herbal plant that is commonly used for home remedies in Thailand. This study aims to determine the antioxidant activity of polyphenols, as oxidative stress plays a vital role in the development of cancer, and H. sabdariffa was used in this study. The total flavonoids content was determined using the aluminium chloride colourimetric method and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g and the antioxidant capacity of the flavonoids using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The IC50 values of H. sabdariffa extract were 167.14 μg/mL ± 0.843 and 77.59 μg/mL ± 0.798, respectively. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. To summarise, H. sabdariffa extract contains a high concentration of total flavonoids and exhibits potent antioxidant activity. However, additional antioxidant activity assays such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging assays and in vitro antioxidant experiments should be carried out to investigate the molecular mechanism of the compound.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Gracilaria fisheri, DPPH assays, total flavonoid content

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4030 Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Reproductive System of Male Rat

Authors: Rohit Gautam, Kumari Vandana Singh, Jayprakash Nirala, Nina Nancy Murmu, Ramovatar Meena, Paulraj Rajamani

Abstract:

Mobile phones have become a vital part of everyone’s life. Mobile phone and mobile phone towers emit RF-EMR (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation), which becomes a cause of concern to the general public. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 3G (RF-EMR) on the reproductive system of male Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were used for the study. Animals were divided into two groups, RF-exposed, and sham-exposed (control). RF-exposed rats were exposed to radio frequency radiation (2100 MHz) for 2 hours/day for 45 days. Emitted power density and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were measured during exposure. At the end of the exposure, testis and epididymis were excised out, and their weights were recorded. Sperm cell count, morphology, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were checked. Lipid peroxidation and sperm mitochondrial activity were measured. Histopathology of testis and ultrastructure analysis of sperm were also checked. Result showed a decrease in organ weight and sperm count with alteration in the sperm morphology in exposed group rats. A significant decrease in sperm viability, membrane integrity, and mitochondrial activity was found. Also, an increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS level were found in exposed group animals as compared to control. It may be concluded that exposure to radiofrequency radiation emits from mobile phones leads to oxidative stress-mediated changes in reproductive parameters.

Keywords: electromagnetic radiation, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, sperm

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4029 Night Shift Work as an Oxidative Stressor: A Systematic Review

Authors: Madeline Gibson

Abstract:

Night shift workers make up an essential part of the modern workforce. However, night shift workers have higher incidences of late in life diseases and earlier mortality. Night shift workers are exposed to constant light and experience circadian rhythm disruption. Sleep disruption is thought to increase oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance of excess pro-oxidative factors and reactive oxygen species over anti-oxidative activity. Oxidative stress can damage cells, proteins and DNA and can eventually lead to varied chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s and dementia. This review aimed to understand whether night shift workers were at greater risk of oxidative stress and to contribute to a consensus on this relationship. Twelve studies published in 2001-2019 examining 2,081 workers were included in the review. Studies compared both the impact of working a single shift and in comparisons between those who regularly work night shifts and only day shifts. All studies had evidence to support this relationship across a range of oxidative stress indicators, including increased DNA damage, reduced DNA repair capacity, increased lipid peroxidation, higher levels of reactive oxygen species, and to a lesser extent, a reduction in antioxidant defense. This research supports the theory that melatonin and the sleep-wake cycle mediate the relationship between shift work and oxidative stress. It is concluded that night shift work increases the risk for oxidative stress and, therefore, future disease. Recommendations are made to promote the long-term health of shift workers considering these findings.

Keywords: night shift work, coxidative stress, circadian rhythm, melatonin, disease, circadian rhythm disruption

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4028 Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Enhances the Mitochondrial Function by Increasing Beta-Oxidation and a Balanced Mitochondrial Recycling in Mice Granulosa Cells

Authors: Moustafa Elhamouly, Masayuki Shimada

Abstract:

The production of competent oocytes is essential for reproductivity in mammals. Maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency is required to supply the ATP necessary for granulosa cell proliferation during the follicular development process. Treatment with Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been reported to increase the number of ovulated oocytes and pups per delivery in mice by maintaining healthy mitochondrial function. This study aimed to elucidate how PQQ maintains mitochondrial function during ovarian follicle growth. To do this, both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed with granulosa cells from superovulated immature (3-week-old) mice that were pretreated with or without PQQ. The effects of PQQ on beta-oxidation, mitochondrial function, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis were examined. PQQ increased beta-oxidation-related genes and CPT1 protein content in granulosa cells and this was associated with a decreased phosphorylation of P38 signaling protein. Using the fatty acid oxidation assay on the flux analyzer, PQQ increased the reliance of beta-oxidation on the endogenous fatty acids and was associated with a mild UCP-dependant mitochondrial uncoupling, ATP production, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis. PQQ also increased the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Thus, PQQ induced beta-oxidation in growing granulosa cells relying on endogenous fatty acids. And reduced the Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by inducing a mild mitochondrial uncoupling with keeping high mitochondrial function. Damaged mitochondria were recycled by the induced mitophagy and replaced by the increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Collectively, PQQ may enhance reproductivity by maintaining the efficiency of mitochondria to produce enough ATP required for normal folliculogenesis.

Keywords: granulosa cells, mitochondrial uncoupling, mitophagy, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), reactive oxygen species (ROS).

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4027 Biologically Synthesised Silver Nanoparticles Induces Autophagy and JNK Signaling as a Pro-Survival Response by Abrogating Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Cancer Cells

Authors: Sudeshna Mukherjee, Leena Fageria, R. Venkataramana Dilip, Rajdeep Chowdhury, Jitendra Panwar

Abstract:

Metal nanoparticles in recent years have gained importance in cancer therapy due to their enhanced permeability retention effect. Among various nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received considerable attention due to their unique properties like conductivity, chemical stability, relative lower toxicity and outstanding therapeutic potential, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-cancerous activities. In this study, we took a greener approach to synthesize silver nanoparticle from fungus and analyze its effects on both epithelial and mesenchymal derived cancer cells. Much research has been done on nanoparticle-induced apoptosis, but little is known about its role in autophagy. In our study, the silver nanoparticles were seen to induce autophagy which was analyzed by studying the expression of several autophagy markers like, LC3B-II and ATG genes. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) assay also revealed the induction of autophagy upon treatment with AgNPs. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine resulted in increased cell death suggesting autophagy as a survival strategy adopted by the cells. In parallel to autophagy induction, silver nanoparticles induced ROS accumulation. Interestingly, autophagy inhibition by chloroquine increased ROS level, resulting in enhanced cell death. We further analyzed MAPK signaling upon AgNP treatment. It was observed that along with autophagy, activation of JNK signaling served as pro-survival while ERK signaling served as a pro-death signal. Our results provide valuable insights into the role of autophagy upon AgNP exposure and provide cues to probabilistic strategies to effectively sensitize cancer cells.

Keywords: autophagy, JNK signalling, reactive oxygen species, silver nanoparticles

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4026 Mitochondrial DNA Defect and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetic Nephropathy: The Role of Hyperglycemia-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species

Authors: Ghada Al-Kafaji, Mohamed Sabry

Abstract:

Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration and produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylation. They are the major source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also direct target to ROS attack. Oxidative stress and ROS-mediated disruptions of mitochondrial function are major components involved in the pathogenicity of diabetic complications. In this work, the changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, biogenesis, gene expression of mtDNA-encoded subunits of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, and mitochondrial function in response to hyperglycemia-induced ROS and the effect of direct inhibition of ROS on mitochondria were investigated in an in vitro model of diabetic nephropathy using human renal mesangial cells. The cells were exposed to normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions in the presence and absence of Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) or catalase for 1, 4 and 7 days. ROS production was assessed by the confocal microscope and flow cytometry. mtDNA copy number and PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as ND2, CYTB, COI, and ATPase 6 transcripts, were all analyzed by real-time PCR. PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as ND2, CYTB, COI, and ATPase 6 proteins, were analyzed by Western blotting. Mitochondrial function was determined by assessing mitochondrial membrane potential and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Hyperglycemia-induced a significant increase in the production of mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide at day 1 (P < 0.05), and this increase remained significantly elevated at days 4 and 7 (P < 0.05). The copy number of mtDNA and expression of PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM as well as ND2, CYTB, CO1 and ATPase 6 increased after one day of hyperglycemia (P < 0.05), with a significant reduction in all those parameters at 4 and 7 days (P < 0.05). The mitochondrial membrane potential decreased progressively at 1 to 7 days of hyperglycemia with the parallel progressive reduction in ATP levels over time (P < 0.05). MnTBAP and catalase treatment of cells cultured under hyperglycemic conditions attenuated ROS production reversed renal mitochondrial oxidative stress and improved mtDNA, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function. These results show that hyperglycemia-induced ROS caused an early increase in mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA-encoded gene expression of the ETC subunits in human mesangial cells as a compensatory response to the decline in mitochondrial function, which precede the mtDNA defect and mitochondrial dysfunction with a progressive oxidative response. Protection from ROS-mediated damage to renal mitochondria induced by hyperglycemia may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention/treatment of DN.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, mtDNA, mitochondrial dysfunction, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase

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4025 Apoptosis Inducing Potential of Onosma Bracteata Wall. in Mg-63 Human Osteosarcoma Cells via cdk2/Cyclin E Pathway

Authors: Ajay Kumar, Satwinderjeet Kaur

Abstract:

Onosma bracteata Wall. (Boraginaceae), is known to be a medicinal plant, useful in the treatment of body swellings, abdominal pain and urinary calculi, etc. The present study focused on the radical scavenging and cancer growth inhibitory properties of isolates from O. bracteata. Obea fraction demonstrated noticeable free radical scavenging ability along with antiproliferative activity in human osteosarcoma MG-63, human neuroblastoma IMR-32, and human lung cancer A549 cell lines using MTT assay with GI50 values of 88.56, 101.61 and 112.7 μg/ml, respectively. The scanning electron and confocal microscopy studies showed morphological alterations including nuclear condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. Obea fraction in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells augmented the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the Obea treated cells to be arrested in the G0/G1 phase in a dose dependent manner supported by the observed increase in the early apoptotic cell population. Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of p-NF-kB, COX-2, p-Akt, and Bcl-xL decreased whereas, the expression of GSK-3β, p53, caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins increased. The downregulation of Bcl-2, Cyclin E, CDK2 and mortalin gene expression and upregulation of p53 genes was unfolded in RT-qPCR studies. The presence of catechin, kaempferol, Onosmin A and epicatechin, as revealed in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) studies, contributes towards the chemopreventive potential of O. bracteata which can be tapped for chemotherapeutic use.

Keywords: apoptosis, confocal microscopy, HPLC, mitochondria membrane potential, reactive oxygen species

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4024 Nanoparticles Activated Inflammasome Lead to Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma

Authors: Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Sun-Hye Lee, An-Soo Jang

Abstract:

Background: Nanoparticles may pose adverse health effects due to particulate matter inhalation. Nanoparticle exposure induces cell and tissue damage, causing local and systemic inflammatory responses. The inflammasome is a major regulator of inflammation through its activation of pro-caspase-1, which cleaves pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form and may signal acute and chronic immune responses to nanoparticles. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify whether nanoparticles exaggerates inflammasome pathway leading to airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in an allergic mice model of asthma. Methods: Mice were treated with saline (sham), OVA-sensitized and challenged (OVA), or titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Lung interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 levels were assessed with Western Blot. Caspase-1 was checked by immunohistochemical staining. Reactive oxygen species were measured for the marker 8-isoprostane and carbonyl by ELISA. Results: Airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. TiO2 nanoparticles treatment increased IL-1β and IL-18 protein expression in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. TiO2 nanoparticles augmented the expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 leading to the formation of an active caspase-1 in the lung. Lung caspase-1 expression was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. Reactive oxygen species was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and in OVA-sensitized/challenged plus TiO2 exposed mice. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that inflammasome pathway activates in asthmatic lungs following nanoparticles exposure, suggesting that targeting the inflammasome may help control nanoparticles-induced airway inflammation and responsiveness.

Keywords: bronchial asthma, inflammation, inflammasome, nanoparticles

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4023 In vitro Effects of Salvia officinalis on Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Boris Botman, Marek Halenár, Tomáš Slanina, Norbert Lukáč

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In vitro storage and processing of animal semen represents a risk factor to spermatozoa vitality, potentially leading to reduced fertility. A variety of substances isolated from natural sources may exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus extending the lifespan of stored ejaculates. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of the Salvia officinalis extract on the motility, mitochondrial activity, viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6 and 24 h) of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay, the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the sperm viability and ROS generation was quantified using luminometry. The CASA analysis revealed that the motility in the experimental groups supplemented with 0.5-2 µg/mL Salvia extract was significantly lower in comparison with the control (P<0.05; Time 24 h). At the same time, a long-term exposure of spermatozoa to concentrations ranging between 0.05 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL had a negative impact on the mitochondrial metabolism (P<0.05; Time 24 h). The viability staining revealed that 0.001-1 µg/mL Salvia extract had no effects on bovine male gametes, however 2 µg/mL Salvia had a persisting negative effect on spermatozoa (P<0.05). Furthermore 0.05-2 µg/mL Salvia exhibited an immediate ROS-promoting effect on the sperm culture (P>0.05; Time 0 h and 2 h), which remained significant throughout the entire in vitro culture (P<0.05; Time 24 h). Our results point out to the necessity to examine specific effects the biomolecules present in Salvia officinalis may have individually or collectively on the in vitro sperm vitality and oxidative profile.

Keywords: bulls, CASA, MTT test, reactive oxygen species, sage, Salvia officinalis, spermatozoa

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4022 Antioxidant Potency of Ethanolic Extracts from Selected Aromatic Plants by in vitro Spectrophotometric Analysis

Authors: Tatjana Kadifkova Panovska, Svetlana Kulevanova, Blagica Jovanova

Abstract:

Biological systems possess the ability to neutralize the excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to protect cells from destructive alterations. However, many pathological conditions (cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancer) are associated with inflammatory processes that generate an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that shift the balance between endogenous antioxidant systems and free oxygen radicals in favor of the latter, leading to oxidative stress. Therefore, an additional source of natural compounds with antioxidant properties that will reduce the amount of ROS in cells is much needed despite their broad utilization; many plant species remain largely unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant activity of twenty-five selected medicinal and aromatic plant species. The antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was evaluated with in vitro assays: 2,2’-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), non-site-specific- (NSSOH) and site-specific hydroxyl radical-2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation (SSOH) assays. The Folin-Ciocalteu method and AlCl3 method were performed to determine total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). All examined plant extracts manifested antioxidant activity to a different extent. Cinnamomum verum J.Presl bark and Ocimum basilicum L. Herba demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity and reducing power with the DPPH and FRAP assay, respectively. Additionally, significant hydroxyl scavenging potential and metal chelating properties were observed using the NSSOH and SSOH assays. Furthermore, significant variations were determined in the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC), with Cinnamomum verum and Ocimum basilicum showing the highest amount of total polyphenols. The considerably strong radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl scavenging potential and reducing power for the species mentioned above suggest of a presence of highly bioactive phytochemical compounds, predominantly polyphenols. Since flavonoids are the most abundant group of polyphenols that possess a large number of available reactive OH groups in their structure, it is considered that they are the main contributors to the radical scavenging properties of the examined plant extracts. This observation is supported by the positive correlation between the radical scavenging activity and the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content obtained in the current research. The observations from the current research nominate Cinnamomum verum bark and Ocimum basilicum herba as potential sources of bioactive compounds that could be utilized as antioxidative additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, the present study will help the researchers as basic data for future research in exploiting the hidden potential of these important plants that have not been explored so far.

Keywords: ethanol extracts, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total polyphenols.

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4021 Camptothecin Promotes ROS-Mediated G2/M Phase Cell Cycle Arrest, Resulting from Autophagy-Mediated Cytoprotection

Authors: Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga Jayasooriya, Matharage Gayani Dilshara, Yung Hyun Choi, Gi-Young Kim

Abstract:

Camptothecin (CPT) is a quinolone alkaloid which inhibits DNA topoisomerase I that induces cytotoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines. We previously showed that CPT effectively inhibited invasion of prostate cancer cells and also combined treatment with subtoxic doses of CPT and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) potentially enhanced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner in hepatoma cancer cells. Here, we found that treatment with CPT caused an irreversible cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. CPT-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with a decrease in protein levels of cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) and increased the level of cyclin B and p21. The CPT-induced decrease in Cdc25C was blocked in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, thus reversed the cell cycle arrest. In addition to that treatment of CPT-increased phosphorylation of Cdc25C was the resulted of activation of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), which was associated with phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated. Interestingly CPT induced G2/M phase of the cell cycle arrest is reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent where ROS inhibitors NAC and GSH reversed the CPT-induced cell cycle arrest. These results further confirm by using transient knockdown of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) since it regulates the production of ROS. Our data reveal that treatment of siNrf2 increased the ROS level as well as further increased the CPT induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Our data also indicate CPT-enhanced cell cycle arrest through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Inhibitors of ERK and JNK more decreased the Cdc25C expression and protein expression of p21 and cyclin B. These findings indicate that Chk2-mediated phosphorylation of Cdc25C plays a major role in G2/M arrest by CPT.

Keywords: camptothecin, cell cycle, checkpoint kinase 2, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2, reactive oxygen species

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4020 Computational Quantum Mechanics Study of Oxygen as Substitutional Atom in Diamond

Authors: K. M. Etmimi, A. A. Sghayer, A. M. Gsiea, A. M. Abutruma

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Relatively few chemical species can be incorporated into diamond during CVD growth, and until recently the uptake of oxygen was thought to be low perhaps as a consequence of a short surface residence time. Within the literature, there is speculation regarding spectroscopic evidence for O in diamond, but no direct evidence. For example, the N3 and OK1 EPR centres have been tentatively assigned models made up from complexes of substitutional N and substitutional oxygen. In this study, we report density-functional calculations regarding the stability, electronic structures, geometry and hyperfine interaction of substitutional oxygen in diamond and show that the C2v, S=1 configuration very slightly lower in energy than the other configurations (C3v, Td, and C2v with S=0). The electronic structure of O in diamond generally gives rise to two defect-related energy states in the band gap one a non-degenerate a1 state lying near the middle of the energy gap and the other a threefold-degenerate t2 state located close to the conduction band edges. The anti-bonding a1 and t2 states will be occupied by one to three electrons for O+, O and O− respectively.

Keywords: DFT, oxygen, diamond, hyperfine

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