Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9112

Search results for: environmental sample

9112 Preliminary Investigation into the Potentials of Mixed Blend of Acha (Digitaria exiles), Aya (Cyperus esculenta) and Defatted Water Melon Seed (Citrullis lanatus) Flour as a Weaning Formula

Authors: O. G. Onuoha, O. G. Akagu


The potentials of acha (Digitaria exiles), aya (Cyperus esculentus) and defatted water melon seed (Citrullis lanatus) as a weaning formula was investigated using the following blends for acha, aya and defatted water melon seed respectively in percentage proportion to obtain the weaning formulae; WS1(20:50:30); WS2(30:40:30); WS3(40:30:30); WS4(50:20:30). The result of the chemical analysis showed that; the sample WS1 had the highest value (15.6%) for protein while sample WS4 had the least value (14.1%). The fat content sample WS4 having the highest value (30.8%) while sample WS1 had the least value (27.3%). The ash content sample WS4 had the highest value (3.22%) while sample WS1 had the least value (2.63%). The carbohydrate content showed that sample WS1 having the highest value (50.5%) while sample WS4 had the least value (46.58%). While sample WS4 had the highest energy value (528.32 Kcal) and sample WS2 had the least value (515.06 Kcal). However, all the sample results fell within the dietary daily reference intake for infants between 0-3 years and required only local technology in its production.

Keywords: weaning formula, acha, aya, deffted water melon seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
9111 Characterization of Performance of Blocks Produced from Dredged Sample

Authors: Adebayo B., Omotehinse A. O.


The performance and characteristics of blocks produced from dredged sample was investigated. Blocks were produced using appropriate mixes of dredged sample and sharp sand. Some geotechnical properties (moisture content, grain size distribution) of the dredged sample (Igbokoda dredged sample) were determined using the British Standard. The physico-mechanical properties (water absorption, density and compressive strength) of blocks produced were evaluated. The dredged sample is classified as a silty material. Seven replacement levels of sharp sand were considered in the study (SS- Sharp Sand and DS – Dredged Sample) was done with constant amount of cement. 1- 85 % DS and 15 % SS, 2- 70 % DS and 30 % SS, 3- 55 % DS and 45 % SS, 4- 50 % DS and 50 % SS, 5- 45 % DS and 55 % SS, 6- 30 % DS and 70 % SS, 7- 15 % DS and 85 % SS and 8 – IS 100 % with cement; 9 – SS 100 % with cement) of different ages (7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days) for the production of blocks. The compressive strength of the blocks produced ranges between 0.52 MPa to 3.0 MPa and considering the mixes, the highest compressive strength was found in mix of 15 % DS and 85 % SS.

Keywords: dredge sample, silt, sharp sand, block, cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
9110 Predicting Indonesia External Debt Crisis: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

Authors: Riznaldi Akbar


In this study, we compared the performance of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model with back-propagation algorithm in correctly predicting in-sample and out-of-sample external debt crisis in Indonesia. We found that exchange rate, foreign reserves, and exports are the major determinants to experiencing external debt crisis. The ANN in-sample performance provides relatively superior results. The ANN model is able to classify correctly crisis of 89.12 per cent with reasonably low false alarms of 7.01 per cent. In out-of-sample, the prediction performance fairly deteriorates compared to their in-sample performances. It could be explained as the ANN model tends to over-fit the data in the in-sample, but it could not fit the out-of-sample very well. The 10-fold cross-validation has been used to improve the out-of-sample prediction accuracy. The results also offer policy implications. The out-of-sample performance could be very sensitive to the size of the samples, as it could yield a higher total misclassification error and lower prediction accuracy. The ANN model could be used to identify past crisis episodes with some accuracy, but predicting crisis outside the estimation sample is much more challenging because of the presence of uncertainty.

Keywords: debt crisis, external debt, artificial neural network, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
9109 2D and 3D Unsteady Simulation of the Heat Transfer in the Sample during Heat Treatment by Moving Heat Source

Authors: Zdeněk Veselý, Milan Honner, Jiří Mach


The aim of the performed work is to establish the 2D and 3D model of direct unsteady task of sample heat treatment by moving source employing computer model on the basis of finite element method. The complex boundary condition on heat loaded sample surface is the essential feature of the task. Computer model describes heat treatment of the sample during heat source movement over the sample surface. It is started from the 2D task of sample cross section as a basic model. Possibilities of extension from 2D to 3D task are discussed. The effect of the addition of third model dimension on the temperature distribution in the sample is showed. Comparison of various model parameters on the sample temperatures is observed. Influence of heat source motion on the depth of material heat treatment is shown for several velocities of the movement. Presented computer model is prepared for the utilization in laser treatment of machine parts.

Keywords: computer simulation, unsteady model, heat treatment, complex boundary condition, moving heat source

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
9108 A Theorem Related to Sample Moments and Two Types of Moment-Based Density Estimates

Authors: Serge B. Provost


Numerous statistical inference and modeling methodologies are based on sample moments rather than the actual observations. A result justifying the validity of this approach is introduced. More specifically, it will be established that given the first n moments of a sample of size n, one can recover the original n sample points. This implies that a sample of size n and its first associated n moments contain precisely the same amount of information. However, it is efficient to make use of a limited number of initial moments as most of the relevant distributional information is included in them. Two types of density estimation techniques that rely on such moments will be discussed. The first one expresses a density estimate as the product of a suitable base density and a polynomial adjustment whose coefficients are determined by equating the moments of the density estimate to the sample moments. The second one assumes that the derivative of the logarithm of a density function can be represented as a rational function. This gives rise to a system of linear equations involving sample moments, the density estimate is then obtained by solving a differential equation. Unlike kernel density estimation, these methodologies are ideally suited to model ‘big data’ as they only require a limited number of moments, irrespective of the sample size. What is more, they produce simple closed form expressions that are amenable to algebraic manipulations. They also turn out to be more accurate as will be shown in several illustrative examples.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, polynomial adjustments, sample moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
9107 Financial Capacity, Governance, and Corporate Engagement in Environmental Protection

Authors: Lubica Hikkerova, Jean-Michel Sahut


Environmental protection remains a global challenge but, since 2012, there has been a progressive decline in corporate engagement in environmental protection issues. This study seeks to investigate the role of financial capacity and governance in improving the level of environmental engagement of companies. The regression technique is applied to data on 351 large European companies from the ASSET4-ESG database for the 2007-2015 period. Firstly, the results show that the companies in the sample are fairly engaged in environmental protection, with a strong dispersion representing nearly four times the average. This means that the companies in the sample do not share the same level of engagement in matters of environmental protection, some being more committed than others. Secondly, the results reveal that the financial capacity of the company, as assessed through its indicators, has a significant effect on its level of environmental protection engagement in the present sample. This effect is more positive the higher the profits the company makes, and more negative the more heavily indebted or, the higher the rates of dividends it pays per share. Lastly, the results also show that a better quality of governance plays an important role in the decision to undertake actions leading to environmental protection. More specifically, the degree of management implication in the running of the business, the respect of the rights of the shareholders, the effectiveness of the control exerted by the board of directors, and, to a lesser extent, the independence of the audit committee, are variables which have a positive and significant influence on the level of environmental engagement of companies.

Keywords: financial capacity, corporate governance, environmental engagement, stakeholder theory, theory of organizational legitimacy, theory of resources and capabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
9106 The Effect of Non-Normality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

Authors: Z. Jannoo, B. W. Yap, N. Auchoybur, M. A. Lazim


The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are non-normal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and non-normality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model with one endogenous and four exogenous variables. Each latent variable has three indicators. For normal distributions, CB-SEM estimates were found to be inaccurate for small sample size while PLS-SEM could produce the path estimates. Meanwhile, for a larger sample size, CB-SEM estimates have lower variability compared to PLS-SEM. Under non-normality, CB-SEM path estimates were inaccurate for small sample size. However, CB-SEM estimates are more accurate than those of PLS-SEM for sample size of 50 and above. The PLS-SEM estimates are not accurate unless sample size is very large.

Keywords: CB-SEM, Monte Carlo simulation, normality conditions, non-normality, PLS-SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
9105 Determination Power and Sample Size Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Dependent Death Rate of Age Model (ZINBD): Regression Analysis Mortality Acquired Immune Deficiency De ciency Syndrome (AIDS)

Authors: Mohd Asrul Affendi Bin Abdullah


Sample size calculation is especially important for zero inflated models because a large sample size is required to detect a significant effect with this model. This paper verify how to present percentage of power approximation for categorical and then extended to zero inflated models. Wald test was chosen to determine power sample size of AIDS death rate because it is frequently used due to its approachability and its natural for several major recent contribution in sample size calculation for this test. Power calculation can be conducted when covariates are used in the modeling ‘excessing zero’ data and assist categorical covariate. Analysis of AIDS death rate study is used for this paper. Aims of this study to determine the power of sample size (N = 945) categorical death rate based on parameter estimate in the simulation of the study.

Keywords: power sample size, Wald test, standardize rate, ZINBDR

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
9104 Study of the Impact of Synthesis Method and Chemical Composition on Photocatalytic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Catalysts

Authors: Katerina Zaharieva, Vicente Rives, Martin Tsvetkov, Raquel Trujillano, Boris Kunev, Ivan Mitov, Maria Milanova, Zara Cherkezova-Zheleva


The nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type materials Sample A - Co0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample B - Co0.5Fe2.5O4, and Sample C - CoFe2O4 were prepared by co-precipitation in our previous investigations. The co-precipitated Sample B and Sample C were mechanochemically activated in order to produce Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample E- CoFe2O4. The PXRD, Moessbauer and FTIR spectroscopies, specific surface area determination by the BET method, thermal analysis, element chemical analysis and temperature-programmed reduction were used to investigate the prepared nano-sized samples. The changes of the Malachite green dye concentration during reaction of the photocatalytic decolorization using nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts with different chemical composition are included. The photocatalytic results show that the increase in the degree of incorporation of cobalt ions in the magnetite host structure for co-precipitated cobalt ferrite-type samples results in an increase of the photocatalytic activity: Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1) < Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) < Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1). Mechanochemically activated photocatalysts showed a higher activity than the co-precipitated ferrite materials: Sample D (16 х10-3 min-1) > Sample E (14 х10-3 min-1) > Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1) > Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) > Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1). On decreasing the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones a higher sorption ability of the dye after the dark period for the co-precipitated cobalt ferrite materials was observed: Sample C (72 %) < Sample B (78 %) < Sample A (80 %). Mechanochemically treated ferrite catalysts and co-precipitated Sample B possess similar sorption capacities, Sample D (78 %) ~ Sample E (78 %) ~ Sample B (78 %). The prepared nano-sized cobalt ferrite-type materials demonstrate good photocatalytic and sorption properties. Mechanochemically activated Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 (16х10-3 min-1) and Sample E-CoFe2O4 (14х10-3 min-1) possess higher photocatalytic activity than that of the most common used UV-light catalyst Degussa P25 (12х10-3 min-1). The dependence of the photo-catalytic activity and sorption properties on the preparation method and different degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ions in synthesized cobalt ferrite samples is established. The mechanochemical activation leads to formation of nano-structured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts (Sample D and Sample E) with higher rate constants than those of the ferrite materials (Sample A, Sample B, and Sample C) prepared by the co-precipitation procedure. The increase in the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones leads to improved photocatalytic properties and lower sorption capacities of the co-precipitated ferrite samples. The good sorption properties between 72 and 80% of the prepared ferrite-type materials show that they could be used as potential cheap absorbents for purification of polluted waters.

Keywords: nanodimensional cobalt ferrites, photocatalyst, synthesis, mechanochemical activation

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9103 Effect of Welding Current on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of Type-304 Austenite Stainless Steel

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho


The aim of this paper is to study the effect of welding current on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. Material characterizations were conducted on a 6 mm thick plates of type-304 austenite stainless steel, welded by TIG welding process at two different welding currents of 150 A (Sample F3) and 170 A (Sample F4). The tensile strength and the elongation obtained from sample F4 weld were approximately 584 MPa and 19.3 %; which were higher than sample F3 weld. The average microhardness value of sample F4 weld was found to be 235.7 HV, while that of sample F3 weld was 233.4 HV respectively. Homogenous distribution of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were observed at the welded joint of the two samples. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that Fe, Cr, and Ni made up the composition formed in the weld zone. The optimum welding current of 170 A for TIG welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for high-tech industrial applications.

Keywords: microhardness, microstructure, tensile, MIG welding, process, tensile, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
9102 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level

Authors: Mefleh Hamideen


In this investigation, the activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K, of some ceramic tile materials used in the local market of Jordan for interior decoration were determined by making use of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Twenty samples of the different countries of origin and sizes used in Jordan were analyzed. The concentration values of the last-mentioned radionuclides ranged from 30⁻¹ (Sample from Jordan) to 98⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²²⁶Ra, 31⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) to 98⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²³²Th, and 129⁻¹ (Sample from Spain) to 679⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) for ⁴⁰K. Based on the calculated activity concentrations, some radiological parameters have been calculated to test the radiation hazards in the ceramic tiles. In this work, the following parameters: Total absorbed dose rate (DR), Annual effective dose rate (HR), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Radon emanation coefficient F (%) and Radon mass exhalation rate (Em) were calculated for all ceramic tiles and listed in the body of the work. Fortunately, the average calculated values of all parameters are less than the recommended values for each parameter. Consequently, almost all the examined ceramic materials appear to have low radon emanation coefficients. As a result of that investigation, no problems on people can appear by using those ceramic tiles in Jordan.

Keywords: radon emanation coefficient, radon mass exhalation rate, total annual effective dose, radon level

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9101 Corporate Societal Disclosure and Corporate Governance: A By-Contextual Analysis

Authors: Zineb Meniaoui, Fatma Zehri, Kamoussi Halioui


The amplified awareness of companies towards the social and environmental concerns has nowadays become a challenge for firms around the globe. Our study investigates the effects of corporate governance mechanisms on voluntarily social and environmental information disclosure in Canada and France. The study use the content analysis approach, applied on a total of 245 year-observation for the Canadian sample and 245 year-observation for the French sample from 2005 to 2011. Our results show a significant correlation between the board's independence, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) committee and expertise as well as the audit quality along with the extent of the social and environmental disclosure. The French firms are found disclosing more societal information than Canadian firms, which might be due to the stakeholders' pressure put on French companies to disclose such societal information.

Keywords: Canada, corporate governance, disclosure determinants , France, social and environmental disclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
9100 Proximate, Functional and Sensory Evaluation of Some Brands of Instant Noodles in Nigeria

Authors: Olakunle Moses Makanjuola, Adebola Ajayi


Noodles are made from unleavened dough, rolled flat and cut into shapes. The instant noodle market is growing fast in Asian countries and is gaining popularity in the western market. This project reports on the proximate functional and sensory evaluation of different brands of instant noodles in Nigeria. The comparisons were based on proximate functional and sensory evaluation of the product. The result obtained from the proximate analysis showed that sample QHR has the highest moisture content, sample BMG has the highest protein content, sample CPO has the highest fat content, sample. The obtained result from the functional properties showed that sample BMG (Dangote noodles) had the highest volume increase after cooking due to its high swelling capacity, high water absorption capacity and high hydration capacity. Sample sensory analysis of the noodles showed that all the samples are of significant difference (at P < 0.05) in terms of colour, texture, and aroma but there is no significant difference in terms of taste and overall acceptability. Sample QHR (Indomie noodles) is the most preferred by the panelists.

Keywords: proximate, functional, sensory evaluation, noodles

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
9099 Determinants of Self-Reported Hunger: An Ordered Probit Model with Sample Selection Approach

Authors: Brian W. Mandikiana


Homestead food production has the potential to alleviate hunger, improve health and nutrition for children and adults. This article examines the relationship between self-reported hunger and homestead food production using the ordered probit model. A sample of households participating in homestead food production was drawn from the first wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Survey, a nationally representative cross-section. The sample selection problem was corrected using an ordered probit model with sample selection approach. The findings show that homestead food production exerts a positive and significant impact on children and adults’ ability to cope with hunger and malnutrition. Yet, on the contrary, potential gains of homestead food production are threatened by shocks such as crop failure.

Keywords: agriculture, hunger, nutrition, sample selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
9098 Analysis of Gas Disturbance Characteristics in Lunar Sample Storage

Authors: Lv Shizeng, Han Xiao, Zhang Yi, Ding Wenjing


The lunar sample storage device is mainly used for the preparation of the lunar samples, observation, physical analysis and other work. The lunar samples and operating equipment are placed directly inside the storage device. The inside of the storage device is a high purity nitrogen environment to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by the Earth's environment. In order to ensure that the water and oxygen indicators in the storage device meet the sample requirements, a dynamic gas cycle is required between the storage device and the external purification equipment. However, the internal gas disturbance in the storage device can affect the operation of the sample. In this paper, the storage device model is established, and the tetrahedral mesh is established by Tetra/Mixed method. The influence of different inlet position and gas flow on the internal flow field disturbance is calculated, and the disturbed flow area should be avoided during the sampling operation.

Keywords: lunar samples, gas disturbance, storage device, characteristic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
9097 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method in Camels Milk

Authors: Fahad Aljasass, Hamza Abu-Tarboush, Salah Aleid, Siddig Hamad


The effects of different high hydrostatic pressure treatments on the shelf life of camel’s milk were studied. Treatments at 300 to 350 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination to levels that prolonged the shelf life of refrigerated (3° C) milk up to 28 days. The treatment resulted in a decrease in the proteolytic activity of the milk. The content of proteolytic enzymes in the untreated milk sample was 4.23 µM/ml. This content decreased significantly to 3.61 µM/ml when the sample was treated at 250 MPa. Treatment at 300 MPa decreased the content to 3.90 which was not significantly different from the content of the untreated sample. The content of the sample treated at 350 MPa dropped to 2.98 µM/ml which was significantly lower than the contents of all other treated and untreated samples. High pressure treatment caused a slight but statistically significant increase in the pH of camel’s milk. The pH of the untreated sample was 6.63, which increased significantly to 6.70, in the samples treated at 250 and 350 MPa, but insignificantly in the sample treated at 300 MPa. High pressure treatment resulted in some degree of milk fat oxidation. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of the untreated sample was 0.86 mg malonaldehyde/kg milk. This value remained unchanged in the sample treated at 250 MPa, but then it increased significantly to 1.25 and 1.33 mg/kg in the samples treated at 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. High pressure treatment caused a small increase in the greenness (a* value) of camel’s milk. The value of a* was reduced from -1.17 for the untreated sample to -1.26, -1.21 and -1.30 for the samples treated at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. Δa* at the 250 MPa treatment was -0.09, which then decreased to -0.04 at the 300 MPa treatment to increase again to -0.13 at the 350 MPa treatment. The yellowness (b* value) of camel’s milk increased significantly as a result of high pressure treatment. The b* value of the untreated sample was 1.40, this value increased to 2.73, 2.31 and 2.18 after treatments at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. The Δb* value was +1.33 at the treatment 250 MPa, decreased to +0.91 at 300 MPa and further to +0.78 at 350 MPa. The pressure treatment caused slight effect on color, slight decrease in protease activity and a slight increase in the oxidation products of lipids.

Keywords: high hydrostatic pressure, camel’s milk, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, clotting, protease

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
9096 Evaluation of Different Waste Management Planning Strategies in an Industrial City

Authors: Leila H. Khiabani, Mohammadreza Vafaee, Farshad Hashemzadeh


Industrial waste management regulates different stages of production, storage, transfer, recycling and waste disposal. There are several common practices for industrial waste management. However, due to various local health, economic, social, environmental and aesthetic considerations, the most optimal principles and measures often vary at each specific industrial zone. In addition, waste management strategies are heavily impacted by local administrative, legal, and financial regulations. In this study, a hybrid qualitative and quantitative research methodology has been designed for waste management planning in an industrial city. Firstly, following a qualitative research methodology, the most relevant waste management strategies for the specific industrial city were identified through interviews with environmental planning and waste management experts. Forty experts participated in this study. Alborz industrial city in Iran, which hosts more than one thousand industrial units in nine hundred acres, was chosen as the sample industrial city in this study. The findings from the expert interviews at the first phase were then used to design a quantitative questionnaire for the second phase of the study. The aim of the questionnaire was to quantify the relative impact of different waste management strategies in the sample industrial city. Eight waste management strategies and three implementation policies were included in the questionnaire. The experts were asked to rank the relative effectiveness of each strategy for environmental planning of the sample industrial city. They were also asked to rank the relative effectiveness of each planning policy on each of the waste management strategies. In the end, the weighted average of all the responses was calculated to identify the most effective waste management strategy and planning policies for the sample industrial city. The results suggested that among the eight suggested waste management strategies, industrial composting is the most effective (31%) strategy based on the collective evaluation of the local expert. Additionally, the results suggested that the most effective policy (58%) in the city’s environmental planning is to reduce waste generation by prolonging the effective life of industrial products using higher quality and recyclable materials. These findings can provide useful expert guidelines for prioritization between different waste management strategies in the city’s overall environmental planning roadmap. The findings may also be applicable to similar industrial cities. In addition, a similar methodology can be utilized in the environmental planning of other industrial cities.

Keywords: environmental planning, industrial city, quantitative research, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
9095 Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in Orange Juices Product

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat


This research describes a voltammetric approach to determine amounts of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) in orange juice sample, using three screen printed electrode. The anodic currents of vitamin C were proportional to vitamin C concentration in the range of 0 – 10.0 mM with the limit of detection of 1.36 mM. The method was successfully employed with 2 µL of the working solution dropped on the electrode surface. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of vitamin C in packed orange juice without sample purification or complexion of sample preparation step.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, vitamin C, juice, voltammetry

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9094 Mott Transition in the VO2/LSCO Heterojunction

Authors: Yi Hu, Chun-Chi Lin, Shau-En Yeh, Shin Lee


In this study, p–n heterojunctions with La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) and W-doped VO2 thin films were fabricated by the radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering technique and sol-gel process, respectively. The thickness of VO2 and LSCO thin films are about 40 nm and 400 nm, respectively. Good crystalline match between LSCO and VO2 films was observed from the SEM. The built-in voltages for the junction are about 1.1 V and 2.3 V for the sample in the metallic and insulating state, respectively. The sample can undergo the current induced MIT during applying field when the sample was heated at 40 and 50ºC. This is in agreement with the value obtained from the difference in the work functions of LSCO and VO2. The band structure of the heterojunction was proposed based on the results of analysis.

Keywords: hetrojection, Mott transition, switching , VO2

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9093 Investigation of the Variables Affecting the Use of Charcoal to Delay Fermentation in Wet Beans Slurry Using Chemical and Physical Analysis

Authors: Anuoluwapo O. Adewole


Fermentation is the conversion of monomeric sugars into ethanol and carbondioxide in the presence of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. In line with the aim and objective of this research project, which is to investigate into the variables affecting the use of charcoal to delay fermentation in wet beans slurry, some physical and chemical analysis were carried out on the wet beans slurry using a PH meter in which a thermometer is incorporated in it, and a measuring cylinder was used for the foam level test. About 250 grams of the ground beans slurry was divided into two portions for testing. The sample with charcoal was labeled sample 'A' while the second sample without charcoal was labeled sample 'B' subsequently. The experiment lasted for a period of 41.15 hours (i.e., forty-one hours and nine minutes). During the fourth process, both samples could not be tested as the laboratory had been saturated with foul odor and both samples were packed and sealed in polythene bag for disposal in the trash can. It was generally observed that the sample with the charcoal lasted for a longer time before that without charcoal before total spoilage occurred.

Keywords: fermentation, monomeric sugars, beans slurry, charcoal, anaerobic conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
9092 To Study the Effect of Drying Temperature Towards Extraction of Aquilaria subintegra Dry Leaves Using Vacuum Far Infrared

Authors: Tengku Muhammad Rafi Nazmi Bin Tengku Razali, Habsah Alwi


This article based on effect of temperature towards extraction of Aquilaria Subintegra. Aquilaria Subintegra which its main habitat is in Asia-tropical and particularly often found in its native which is Thailand. There is claim which is Aquilaria Subintegra contains antipyretic properties that helps fight fever. Research nowadays also shown that paracetamol consumed bring bad effect towards consumers. This sample will first dry using Vacuum Far Infrared which provides better drying than conventional oven. Soxhlet extractor used to extract oil from sample. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer used to analyze sample to determine its compound. Objective from this research was to determine the active ingredients that exist in the Aquilaria Subintegra leaves and to determine whether compound of Acetaminophen exist or not inside the leaves. Moisture content from 400C was 80%, 500C was 620% and 600C was 36%. The greater temperature resulting lower moisture content inside sample leaves. 7 components were identified in sample T=400C while only 5 components were identified in sample at T=50C and T=60C. Four components were commonly identified in three sample which is 1n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (z,z,z), Vitamin E and Squalene. Further studies are needed with new series of temperature to refine the best results.

Keywords: aquilaria subintegra, vacuum far infrared, SOXHLET extractor, gas chromatography mass spectrometer, paracetamol

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
9091 Theoretical Approach to Kinetic of Heat Transfer under Irradiation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev


A theoretical approach to describe kinetic of heat transfer between an irradiated sample and environment is developed via formalism of the Complex systems and kinetic equations. The irradiated material is a metastable system with non-linear feedbacks, which can give rise to different regimes of buildup and annealing of radiation-induced defects, heating and heat transfer with environment. Irradiation with energetic particles heats the sample and produces defects of the crystal lattice of the sample. The crystal with defects accumulates extra (non-thermal) energy, which is transformed into heat during the defect annealing. Any increase of temperature leads to acceleration of defect annealing, to additional transformation of non-thermal energy into heat and to further growth of the temperature. Thus a non-linear feedback is formed. It is shown that at certain conditions of irradiation this non-linear feedback leads to self-oscillations of the defect density, the temperature of the irradiated sample and the heat transfer between the sample and environment. Simulation and analysis of these phenomena is performed. The frequency of the self-oscillations is obtained. It is determined that the period of the self-oscillations is varied from minutes to several hours depending on conditions of irradiation and properties of the sample. Obtaining results are compared with experimental ones.

Keywords: irradiation, heat transfer, non-linear feed-back, self-oscillations

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
9090 Determination of Some Chemical Properties of Uncommon Flours

Authors: Sónia C. Andrade, Solange F. Oliveira, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia


Flours of wheat, chestnut, acorn and lupin were evaluated in relation to phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and oxalate content. At the chemical level the results show some variability between samples by type of flour, and the sample of chestnut flour presented the higher value of oxalate (0.00348 mg/100g) when compared to the other samples in the study. Considering the content of phenolic compounds, the sample that stood out was the acorn flour, having a high value of 0.812 g AGE/100 g. All the samples presented intermediate content of antioxidant activity and the sample that showed a slightly higher value was the wheat flour with a value of 0.746 mM TRE/g sample.

Keywords: Wheat, Acorn, Lupin, Chestnut, Flour, Antioxidant properties, Oxalate

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
9089 Characterization of Martensitic Stainless Steel Japanese Grade AISI 420A

Authors: T. Z. Butt, T. A. Tabish, K. Anjum, H. Hafeez


A study of martensitic stainless steel surgical grade AISI 420A produced in Japan was carried out in this research work. The sample was already annealed at about 898˚C. The sample were subjected to chemical analysis, hardness, tensile and metallographic tests. These tests were performed on as received annealed and heat treated samples. In the annealed condition the sample showed 0HRC. However, on tensile testing, in annealed condition the sample showed maximum elongation. The heat treatment is carried out in vacuum furnace within temperature range 980-1035°C. The quenching of samples was carried out using liquid nitrogen. After hardening, the samples were subjected to tempering, which was carried out in vacuum tempering furnace at a temperature of 220˚C. The hardened samples were subjected to hardness and tensile testing. In hardness testing, the samples showed maximum hardness values. In tensile testing the sample showed minimum elongation. The sample in annealed state showed coarse plates of martensite structure. Therefore, the studied steels can be used as biomaterials.

Keywords: biomaterials, martensitic steel, microsrtucture, tensile testing, hardening, tempering, bioinstrumentation

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9088 Using MALDI-TOF MS to Detect Environmental Microplastics (Polyethylene, Polyethylene Terephthalate, and Polystyrene) within a Simulated Tissue Sample

Authors: Kara J. Coffman-Rea, Karen E. Samonds


Microplastic pollution is an urgent global threat to our planet and human health. Microplastic particles have been detected within our food, water, and atmosphere, and found within the human stool, placenta, and lung tissue. However, most spectrometric microplastic detection methods require chemical digestion which can alter or destroy microplastic particles and makes it impossible to acquire information about their in-situ distribution. MALDI TOF MS (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) is an analytical method using a soft ionization technique that can be used for polymer analysis. This method provides a valuable opportunity to both acquire information regarding the in-situ distribution of microplastics and also minimizes the destructive element of chemical digestion. In addition, MALDI TOF MS allows for expanded analysis of the microplastics including detection of specific additives that may be present within them. MALDI TOF MS is particularly sensitive to sample preparation and has not yet been used to analyze environmental microplastics within their specific location (e.g., biological tissues, sediment, water). In this study, microplastics were created using polyethylene gloves, polystyrene micro-foam, and polyethylene terephthalate cable sleeving. Plastics were frozen using liquid nitrogen and ground to obtain small fragments. An artificial tissue was created using a cellulose sponge as scaffolding coated with a MaxGel Extracellular Matrix to simulate human lung tissue. Optimal preparation techniques (e.g., matrix, cationization reagent, solvent, mixing ratio, laser intensity) were first established for each specific polymer type. The artificial tissue sample was subsequently spiked with microplastics, and specific polymers were detected using MALDI-TOF-MS. This study presents a novel method for the detection of environmental polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene microplastics within a complex sample. Results of this study provide an effective method that can be used in future microplastics research and can aid in determining the potential threats to environmental and human health that they pose.

Keywords: environmental plastic pollution, MALDI-TOF MS, microplastics, polymer identification

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9087 Assessing the Correlation between Environmental Awareness and Variability of Employees’ Positions in Aviation and Aerospace Industries

Authors: Eva Maleviti, Evan Stamoulis


This paper is part of a wider research project, on environmental management in aviation and aerospace industries. The core elements of this research are the level of knowledge, awareness, applicability of environmental management systems, according to employees’ perspectives. This paper focuses at employees’ level of environmental awareness. The main scope of this research is to evaluate the level of environmental awareness and the adoption of environmental management practices. The primary scope of the research is to define a method to quantify the key indicators that would improve the implementation of environmental management. The opinion of people employed in aviation industry is considered, based on the versatility of their working positions. Up to this stage, 330 respondents have participated globally in the current research. This study uses a questionnaire survey to gain an understanding of the views and attitudes of aerospace staff toward environmental management. The results are analyzed through a quantitative approach using SPSS. The statistical significance shows that the data could follow the same distribution as the distribution of the total population that the sample belongs. As of the above, the number of respondents constitutes a representative sample of the total population. A descriptive analysis is presented. According to the responses given in the survey, the data are analyzed according to the working positions and the characteristics of each position that all the respondents hold. The results demonstrate that the level of environmental awareness is immediately linked with the employees’ positions. Managerial/post holder positions, as expected have, a higher level of environmental awareness. However, the level of applicability of environmental practices by the same group is considered low. The other working groups show variability in environmental awareness, which also depends on their operating task and the applicability or not of environmental practices. Flight operations and engineering/maintenance employees, that their tasks involve higher safety considerations, there are more reluctant in applying environmental practices in their positions. In the current paper an analysis of the data collection is presented, correlating them with the working positions and responsibilities of respondents.

Keywords: environmental awareness, environmental management, sustainability, sustainable aviation

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9086 Production and Evaluation of Physicochemical, Nutritional, Sensorial and Microbiological Properties of Mixed Fruit Juice Blend Prepared from Apple, Orange and Mosambi

Authors: Himalaya Patir, Bitupon Baruah, Sanjay Gayary, Subhajit Ray


In recent age significant importance is given for the development of nutritious and health beneficial foods. Fruit juices collected from different fruits when blended that improves not only the physicochemical and nutritional properties but also enhance the sensorial or organoleptic properties. The study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical, nutritional, microbiological analysis and sensory evaluation of mixed fruit juice blend. Juice of orange (Citrus sinensis), apple (Malus domestica), mosambi (Citrus limetta) were blended in the ratio of sample-I (30% apple:30% orange:40% mosambi), sample-II ( 40% apple :30% orange :30% mosambi), sample-III (30% apple :40% orange :30% mosambi) , sample-IV (50% apple :30% orange :20% mosambi), sample-V (30% apple:20% orange:50% mosambi), sample-VI (20% apple :50% orange :30% mosambi) to evaluate all quality characteristics. Their colour characteristics in terms of hue angle, chroma and colour difference (∆E) were evaluated. The physico-chemical parameters analysis carried out were total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, acidity (FA), volatile acidity (VA), pH, and vitamin C. There were significant differences (p˂0.05) in the TSS of the samples. However, sample-V (30% apple: 20% orange: 50% mosambi) provides the highest TSS of 9.02gm and significantly differed from other samples (p˂0.05). Sample-IV (50% apple: 30% orange: 20% mosambi) was shown the highest titratable acidity (.59%) in comparison to other samples. The highest value of pH was found as 5.01 for sample-IV (50% apple: 30% orange: 20% mosambi). Sample-VI (20% apple: 50% orange :30% mosambi) blend has the highest hue angle, chroma and colour changes of 72.14,25.29 and 54.48 and vitamin C, i.e. Ascorbic acid (.33g/l) content compared to other samples. The nutritional compositions study showed that, sample- VI (20% apple: 50% orange: 30% mosambi) has the significantly higher carbohydrate (51.67%), protein (.78%) and ash (1.24%) than other samples, while sample-V (30% apple: 20% orange: 50% mosambi) has higher dietary fibre (12.84%) and fat (2.82%) content. Microbiological analysis of all samples in terms of total plate count (TPC) ranges from 44-60 in 101 dilution and 4-5 in 107 dilutions and was found satisfactory. Moreover, other pathogenic bacterial count was found nil. The general acceptability of the mixed fruit juice blend samples were moderately liked by the panellists, and sensorial quality studies showed that sample-V (30% apple: 20% orange: 50% mosambi) contains highest overall acceptability of 8.37 over other samples and can be considered good for consumption.

Keywords: microbiological, nutritional, physico-chemical, sensory properties

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9085 Monitoring Saltwater Corrosion on Steel Samples Using Coda Wave Interferometry in MHZ Frequencies

Authors: Maxime Farin, Emmanuel Moulin, Lynda Chehami, Farouk Benmeddour, Pierre Campistron


Assessing corrosion is crucial in the petrochemical and marine industry. Usual ultrasonic methods based on guided waves to detect corrosion can inspect large areas but lack precision. We propose a complementary and sensitive ultrasonic method (~ 10 MHz) based on coda wave interferometry to detect and quantify corrosion at the surface of a steel sample. The method relies on a single piezoelectric transducer, exciting the sample and measuring the scattered coda signals at different instants in time. A laboratory experiment is conducted with a steel sample immersed in salted water for 60~h with parallel coda and temperature measurements to correct coda dependence to temperature variations. Micrometric changes to the sample surface caused by corrosion are detected in the late coda signals, allowing precise corrosion detection. Moreover, a good correlation is found between a parameter quantifying the temperature-corrected stretching of the coda over time with respect to a reference without corrosion and the corrosion surface over the sample recorded with a camera.

Keywords: coda wave interferometry, nondestructive evaluation, corrosion, ultrasonics

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9084 Methods of Variance Estimation in Two-Phase Sampling

Authors: Raghunath Arnab


The two-phase sampling which is also known as double sampling was introduced in 1938. In two-phase sampling, samples are selected in phases. In the first phase, a relatively large sample of size is selected by some suitable sampling design and only information on the auxiliary variable is collected. During the second phase, a sample of size is selected either from, the sample selected in the first phase or from the entire population by using a suitable sampling design and information regarding the study and auxiliary variable is collected. Evidently, two phase sampling is useful if the auxiliary information is relatively easy and cheaper to collect than the study variable as well as if the strength of the relationship between the variables and is high. If the sample is selected in more than two phases, the resulting sampling design is called a multi-phase sampling. In this article we will consider how one can use data collected at the first phase sampling at the stages of estimation of the parameter, stratification, selection of sample and their combinations in the second phase in a unified setup applicable to any sampling design and wider classes of estimators. The problem of the estimation of variance will also be considered. The variance of estimator is essential for estimating precision of the survey estimates, calculation of confidence intervals, determination of the optimal sample sizes and for testing of hypotheses amongst others. Although, the variance is a non-negative quantity but its estimators may not be non-negative. If the estimator of variance is negative, then it cannot be used for estimation of confidence intervals, testing of hypothesis or measure of sampling error. The non-negativity properties of the variance estimators will also be studied in details.

Keywords: auxiliary information, two-phase sampling, varying probability sampling, unbiased estimators

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9083 Patients' Satisfaction about Private Sector Primary Care Nurses in Sri Lanka

Authors: N. R. N. Mendis, S. N. Silva


Introduction: Patient satisfaction of services provided by primary care health services depends on many factors. One key factor in this depends on is the nursing services received in primary care. Since majority of the primary care in Sri Lanka is provided by the private sector, it is important to assess patient satisfaction on this. Objective: To assess the satisfaction among the public on nurses working in dispensaries in Sri Lanka. Methods: A descriptive study was done on 200 individual selected using convenient sampling among dispensaries in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. Results: 59.3% of the sample had long term illnesses or disabilities and all of them preferred speaking to a nurse. 70.9% of the sample used to make appointments with nurses while 57.8% out of them were comfortable in discussing their health concerns. 98.9 % agreed that they get individual attention by the nurses. Majority of the sample that is 34.2% spends around 20 minutes with the nurse without even making any pay. Significantly, the whole sample believes that the nurses are professional and admits that the care given is of high quality. All 100% of the sample said that the nurses could understand their concerns while 93.5% admitted that it was very useful in their recovery. Conclusions: Majority of the public were very much satisfied with the nurses and their practice at the dispensaries.

Keywords: health education, nurses practices, patient satisfaction, primary care

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