Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: resettlement

43 Missing Narratives and Their Potential Impact on Resettlement Strategies

Authors: Natina Roberts, Hanhee Lee

Abstract:

The existing and emerging refugee research reports unfavorable resettlement outcomes in multiple domains. The proposed paper highlights trends in refugee research in which empirical studies investigate resettlement of former refugees from individual and culturally homogeneous perspectives. The proposed paper then aims to examine the reality of the lived experience of resettlement from family and cross-cultural viewpoints. Proponents for this focus include the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The UNHCR is responsible for leading resettlement efforts for refugees through the durable solutions of repatriation, local integration and resettlement. Life experiences with refugee families, and a report of literary findings on former refugee resettlement from various cultural backgrounds – that highlight similarities and differences among various ethnic groups, will be discussed. The proposed paper is expected to frame underrepresented refugee perspectives, and review policy implications in healthcare, education, and public support systems.

Keywords: refugee, cross-cultural, families, resettlement policy

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42 The Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility to Contribute the Isolated District and the Drop behind District to Overcome the Poverty, Study Cases: PT. Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC) Sanggata, East Borneo, Indonesia

Authors: Sri Suryaningsum

Abstract:

The achievement ‘Best Practice Model’ holds by the government on behalf of the success implementation corporate social responsibility program that held on PT. Kaltim Prima Coal which had operation located in the isolated district in Sanggata, it could be the reference for the other companies to improve the social welfare in surrounding area, especially for the companies that have operated in the isolated area in Indonesia. The rule of Kaltim Prima Coal as the catalyst in the development progress to push up the independence of district especially for the district which has located in surrounding mining operation from village level to the regency level, those programs had written in the 7 field program in Corporate Social Responsibility, it was doing by stakeholders. The stakeholders are village government, sub-district government, Regency and citizen. One of the best programs that implement at PT. Kaltim Prima Coal is Regarding Resettlement that was completed based on Asian Development Bank Resettlement Best Practice and International Financial Corporation Resettlement Action Plan. This program contributed on the resettlement residences to develop the isolated and the neglected district.

Keywords: CSR, isolated, neglected, poverty, mining industry

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41 Alternative Approaches to Community Involvement in Resettlement Schemes to Prevent Potential Conflicts: Case Study in Chibuto District, Mozambique

Authors: Constâncio Augusto Machanguana

Abstract:

The world over, resettling communities, for whatever purpose (mining, dams, forestry and wildlife management, roads, or facilitating services delivery), often leads to tensions between those resettled, the investors, and the local and national governments involved in the process. Causes include unclear government legislation and regulations, confusing Corporate Social Responsibility policies and guidelines, and other social-economic policies leading to unrealistic expectations among those being resettled, causing frustrations within the community, shifting them to any imminent conflict against the investors (company). The exploitation of heavy mineral sands along Mozambique’s long coastline and hinterland has not been providing a benefit for the affected communities. A case in point is the exploration, since 2018, of heavy sands in Chibuto District in the Southern Province of Gaza. A likely contributing factor is the standard type of socio-economic surveys and community involvement processes that could smooth the relationship among the parties. This research aims to investigate alternative processes to plan, initiate and guide resettlement processes in such a way that tensions and conflicts are avoided. Based on the process already finished, compared to similar cases along with the country, mixed methods to collect primary data were adopted: three focus groups of 125 people, representing 324 resettled householders; five semi-structured interviews with relevant stakeholders such as the local government, NGO’s and local leaders to understand their role in all stages of the process. The preliminary results show that the community has limited or no understanding of the potential impacts of these large-scale explorations, and the apparent harmony between the parties (community and company) may hide the dissatisfaction of those resettled. So, rather than focusing on negative mining impacts, the research contributes to science by identifying the best resettlement approach that can be replicated in other contexts along with the country in the actual context of the new discovery of mineral resources.

Keywords: conflict mitigation, resettlement, mining, Mozambique

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
40 A Discourse Analysis of Syrian Refugee Representations in Canadian News Media

Authors: Pamela Aimee Rigor

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the representation of Syrian refugees resettled in Vancouver and the Lower Mainland in local community and major newspapers. While there is strong support for immigration in Canada, public opinion towards refugees and asylum seekers is a bit more varied. Concerns about the legitimacy of refugee claims are among the common concerns of Canadians, and hateful or negative narratives are still present in Canadian media discourse which affects how people view refugees. To counter the narratives, these Syrian refugees must publicly declare how grateful they are because they are resettled in Canada. The dominant media discourse is that these refugees should be grateful as they have been graciously accepted by Canada and Canadians, once again upholding the image of Canada being a generous and humanitarian nation. The study examined the representation of Syrian refugees and the Syrian refugee resettlement in Canadian newspapers from September 2015 to October 2017 – around the time Prime Minister Trudeau came into power up until the present. Using a combination of content and discourse analysis, it aimed to uncover how local community and major newspapers in Vancouver covered the Syrian refugee ‘crisis’ – more particularly, the arrival and resettlement of the refugees in the country. Using the qualitative data analysis software Nvivo 12, the newspapers were analyzed and sorted into themes. Based on the initial findings, the discourse of Canada being a humanitarian country and Canadians being generous, as well as the idea of Syrian refugees having to publicly announce how grateful they are, is still present in the local community newspapers. This seems to be done to counter the hateful narratives of citizens who might view them as people who are abusing help provided by the community or the services provided by the government. However, compared to the major and national newspapers in Canada, many these local community newspapers are very inclusive of Syrian refugee voices. Most of the News and Community articles interview Syrian refugees and ask them their personal stories of plight, survival, resettlement and starting a ‘new life’ in Canada. They are not seen as potential threats nor are they dismissed – the refugees were named and were allowed to share their personal experiences in these news articles. These community newspapers, even though their representations are far from perfect, actually address some aspects of the refugee resettlement issue and respond to their community’s needs. There are quite a number of news articles that announce community meetings and orientations about the Syrian refugee crisis, ways to help in the resettlement process, as well as community fundraising activities to help sponsor refugees or resettle newly arrived refugees. This study aims to promote awareness of how these individuals are socially constructed so we can, in turn, be aware of the certain biases and stereotypes present, and its implications on refugee laws and public response to the issue.

Keywords: forced migration and conflict, media representations, race and multiculturalism, refugee studies

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39 Slums in Casablanca: A Conceptive Approach for Better Implementation of VSB Program, Case Study: ER-Hamna Slum

Authors: Sakina Boufarsi, Mehmet Emre Aysu, Behiye Isik Aksulu

Abstract:

Morocco appears to be on its way to eradicating all of the country's slums by assuring the resettlement and improvement of all affected households' living circumstances through the VSB “Villes sans Bidonvilles” program established in 2004 to eradicate the slums in Morocco. Although many attempts have been made to curb their growth none have proven to be a permanent accomplishment. In Morocco, resettlement projects through satellite towns are perceived as the answer to the problem of the slums. However, the new satellite towns are the good intention of the program VSB, but they are environmentally unsustainable, socially isolated and culturally inappropriate, such conditions imposed continuous readjustments of the slum upgrading program. Although slum research is ongoing, they primarily concentrated on two constructs: exploring socio-economic and policy problems and analyzing physical characteristics. Considering that the two constructs mentioned are crucial, this study will demonstrate that a more systematic approach is needed to eradicate them efficiently. The slums issues in Casablanca are a solution that the poor devise for themselves due to government bureaucracy and failing housing policies, they reflect governments' incapacity to respond to urban development’s requiring decent housing for the vulnerable population. This issue will be addressed by exploring the previous strategies and analyzing in detail the strengths and shortcomings of the recent VSB Program. In addition to a comprehensive overview of the slums' situations by combining the social and physical characteristics through Erhamna case study in Sidi Moumen district for a deeper understanding, and therefore to direct improved and valuable recommendations to address the slum problem at all levels.

Keywords: Casablanca slums, resettlement projects, eradication of slums, satellite town, VSB program

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
38 Land Tenure and Erosion as Determinants of Guerrilla Violence in Assam, India: An Ethnographic and Remote Sensing Approach

Authors: Kevin T. Inks

Abstract:

India’s Brahmaputra River Valley has, since independence, experienced consistent low-intensity guerrilla warfare between ethnic and religious groups. These groups are often organized around perceived ethnic territoriality, and target civilians, communities, and especially migrants belonging to other ethnic and religious groups. Intense flooding and erosion have led to widespread displacement, and disaster relief funds are largely tied to legal land tenure. Displaced residents of informal settlements receive little or no resettlement aid, and their subsequent migration strategies and risk from guerrilla violence are poorly understood. Semi-structured interviews and comprehensive surveys focused on perceptions of risk, efficacy of disaster relief, and migration and adaptation strategies were conducted with households identified as being ‘at-risk’ of catastrophic flooding and erosion in Majuli District, Assam. Interviews with policymakers and government workers were conducted to assess disaster relief efforts in informal settlements, and remote sensing methods were used to identify informal settlement and hydrogeomorphic change. The results show that various ethnic and religious groups have differential strategies and preferences for resettlement. However, these varying strategies are likely to lead to differential levels of risk from guerrilla violence. Members of certain ethnic groups residing in informal settlements, in the absence of resettlement assistance, are more likely to seek out unofficial settlement on land far from the protection of the state and experience greater risk of becoming victims of political violence. As climate change and deforestation are likely to increase the severity of the displacement crisis in the Brahmaputra River Valley, more comprehensive disaster relief and surveying efforts are vital for limiting migration and informal settlement in potential sites of guerrilla warfare.

Keywords: climate, displacement, flooding, India, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
37 Trauma Narratives and Meaning Making in Refugee Women Post Resettlement

Authors: Melika Taheri, Sally Fitzpatrick, Lynne McCormack

Abstract:

The complex trauma narratives of women refugees, one of the largest minority displaced groups worldwide, reflect multiple losses, threats, and dangers. Trauma narratives and meaning making play a significant role in the recovery process and becoming empowered in the spirit of resilience, thriving, and growth. How refugee women reconstruct meaning is not known, given the paucity of research on this population; however, posttraumatic growth is now known to be one consequence of catastrophic experiences. This study aims to explore both positive and negative subjective interpretations of former women refugees' lived experiences of pre-migration, transition, and host country resettlement. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect in-depth data, which was analysed according to the protocols of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Participants were ten former Afghan refugee women who had been resettled in Australia for over 15 years. The current study's findings will contribute to understanding and updating theoretical and conceptual frameworks, particularly the constructs of trauma and posttraumatic growth, underpinning refugee literature. It also has the potential to support government policy and health system program providers in the delivery of services to this vulnerable group.

Keywords: interpretative phenomenological analysis, narratives, refugee, trauma, women

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36 Gilgel Gibe III: Dam-Induced Displacement in Ethiopia and Kenya

Authors: Jonny Beirne

Abstract:

Hydropower developments have come to assume an important role within the Ethiopian government's overall development strategy for the country during the last ten years. The Gilgel Gibe III on the Omo river, due to become operational in September 2014, represents the most ambitious, and controversial, of these projects to date. Further aspects of the government's national development strategy include leasing vast areas of designated 'unused' land for large-scale commercial agricultural projects and 'voluntarily' villagizing scattered, semi-nomadic agro-pastoralist groups to centralized settlements so as to use land and water more efficiently and to better provide essential social services such as education and healthcare. The Lower Omo valley, along the Omo River, is one of the sites of this villagization programme as well as of these large-scale commercial agricultural projects which are made possible owing to the regulation of the river's flow by Gibe III. Though the Ethiopian government cite many positive aspects of these agricultural and hydropower developments there are still expected to be serious regional and transnational effects, including on migration flows, in an area already characterized by increasing climatic vulnerability with attendant population movements and conflicts over scarce resources. The following paper is an attempt to track actual and anticipated migration flows resulting from the construction of Gibe III in the immediate vicinity of the dam, downstream in the Lower Omo Valley and across the border in Kenya around Lake Turkana. In the case of those displaced in the Lower Omo Valley, this will be considered in view of the distinction between voluntary villagization and forced resettlement. The research presented is not primary-source material. Instead, it is drawn from the reports and assessments of the Ethiopian government, rights-based groups, and academic researchers as well as media articles. It is hoped that this will serve to draw greater attention to the issue and encourage further methodological research on the dynamics of dam constructions (and associated large-scale irrigation schemes) on migration flows and on the ultimate experience of displacement and resettlement for environmental migrants in the region.

Keywords: forced displacement, voluntary resettlement, migration, human rights, human security, land grabs, dams, commercial agriculture, pastoralism, ecosystem modification, natural resource conflict, livelihoods, development

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35 Assessing the Resilience to Economic Shocks of the Households in Bistekville 2, Quezon City, Philippines

Authors: Maria Elisa B. Manuel

Abstract:

The Philippine housing sector is bracing challenges with the massive housing backlog and the adamant cycle of relocation, resettlement and returns to the cities of informal settler families due to the vast inaccessibility of necessities and opportunities in the past off-city housing projects. Bistekville 2 has been established as a model socialized housing project by utilizing government partnerships with private developers and individuals in the first in-city and onsite resettlement effort in the country. The study looked into the resilience of the residents to idiosyncratic economic shocks by analyzing their vulnerabilities, assets and coping strategies. The study formulated an economic resilience framework to identify how these factors that interact to build the household’s capacity to positively adapt to sudden expenses in their households. The framework is supplemented with a scale that presents the proximity of the household to resilience by identifying through its indicators whether the households are in the level of subsistence, coping, adaptive or transformative. Survey interviews were conducted with 91 households from Bistekville 2 on the components that have been identified by the framework that was processed with qualitative and quantitative processes. The study has found that the households are highly vulnerable due to their family composition and other conditions such as unhealthy loans, inconsistent amortization payment. Along with their high vulnerability, the households have inadequate strategies to anticipate shocks and primarily react to the shock. This has led to the conclusion that the households do not reflect resilience to idiosyncratic economic shocks and are still at the level of coping.

Keywords: idiosyncratic economic shocks, socialized housing, economic resilience, economic vulnerability, adaptive capacity

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34 Strategies for a Sustainable Future of Forest and Tribal Peoples on This Planet

Authors: Dharmpal Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this proposed project is to relocation and resettlement of carnivores tribal communities who are currently residing in the protected forest land in all over the world just like resettlement project of the carnivores tribal families of Mongia who at past were residing in Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (RTR) and had caused excess damage of endangered species of wildlife including Tigers. At present several tribal communities are residing in the another national parks and they not only consuming the wild animals but also involved in illegal trading of vital organs, skin and bones with National and international traders. Tribal are ideally suited for the job because they are highly skilled game trackers and due to having had a definite source of income over the years, they easily drawn in to the illegal wildlife trade and slaughter of wild animals. Their income is increasing but wild animals are on the brink of extinction. For the conservation of flora and fauna the rehabilitation process should be thought out according to the RTR project (which not only totally change the quality of life of mongia tribal community but also increased the conopy cover of forest and grass due to reduced the biotic pressure on protected land of forest in Rajasthan state) with appropriate understanding of the sociology of the people involved, their culture, education standard and the need of different skills to be acquired by them for sustenance such as agriculture, dairy, poultry, social forestry, job as forest guard and others eco-development programmes. Perhaps, the dimensions presented by me may generate discussion among the international wild life lovers and conservationists and remedies may be result oriented in the field of management of forest and conservation of wildlife on this planet.

Keywords: strategies, rehablety of tribals, conservation of forest, eco-development Programmes, wildlife

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33 Drawbacks of Second Generation Urban Re-Development in Addis Ababa

Authors: Ezana Haddis Weldeghebrael

Abstract:

Addis Ababa City Administration is engaged in a massive facelift of the inner-city. The paper, therefore, aims to analyze the challenges of the current urban regeneration effort by paying special attention to Lideta and Basha Wolde Chilot projects. To this end, the paper has adopted a documentary research strategy to collect the data and Institutionalist perspective as well as the concept of urban regeneration to analyze the data. The sources were selected based on relevance and recency. Academic research outputs were used primarily. However, where much scholastic publications are not available institutional reports, newspaper articles, and expert presentations were used. The major findings of the research revealed that although the second generation of urban redevelopment projects have attempted to involve affected groups and succeeded in designing better neighborhoods, they are riddled with three major drawbacks. The first one is institutional constraints, i.e. absence of urban redevelopment strategy as well as housing policy, broad definition of ‘public purpose’, little regard for informal businesses, limitation on rights groups, negotiation power not devolved at sub-city level and no plan for groups that cannot afford to pay the down payment for low-cost apartments. The second one is planning limitation, i.e. absence of genuine affected group participation as well as consultative level of public engagement. The third one is implementation failure, i.e. no regard to maintaining social bond, non-participatory and ill-informed resettlement, interference from senior government officials, failure to protect the poor from speculators, corruption and disregard to heritage buildings. Based on the findings, the paper concluded that the current inner-city redevelopment has failed to be socially sustainable and calls for enactment of housing policy as well as redevelopment strategy, affected group participation, on-site resettlement, empowering the Sub-city to manage the project and allowing housing rights groups to advocate for the poor slum dwellers.

Keywords: participation, redevelopment, planning, implementation, consultation

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32 Exploring Barriers and Pathways to Wellbeing and Sources of Resilience of Refugee Mothers in Calgary during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)

Authors: Chloe Zivot, Natasha Vattikonda, Debbie Bell

Abstract:

We conducted interviews with refugee mothers (n=28) participating in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program in Calgary to explore experiences of wellbeing and resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disruptions to education and increased isolation, and parental duties contributed to decreased wellbeing. Mothers identified tangible protective factors at the micro, meso, and macro levels. HIPPY played a substantial role in pandemic resilience, speaking to the potential of home-based intervention models in mitigating household adversity.

Keywords: refugee resettlement, family wellbeing, COVID-19, motherhood, resilience, gender, health

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
31 Making Meaning, Authenticity, and Redefining a Future in Former Refugees and Asylum Seekers Detained in Australia

Authors: Lynne McCormack, Andrew Digges

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Since 2013, the Australian government has enforced mandatory detention of anyone arriving in Australia without a valid visa, including those subsequently identified as a refugee or seeking asylum. While consistent with the increased use of immigration detention internationally, Australia’s use of offshore processing facilities both during and subsequent to refugee status determination processing has until recently remained a unique feature of Australia’s program of deterrence. The commonplace detention of refugees and asylum seekers following displacement is a significant and independent source of trauma and a contributory factor in adverse psychological outcomes. Officially, these individuals have no prospect of resettlement in Australia, are barred from applying for substantive visas, and are frequently and indefinitely detained in closed facilities such as immigration detention centres, or alternative places of detention, including hotels. It is also important to note that the limited access to Australia’s immigration detention population made available to researchers often means that data available for secondary analysis may be incomplete or delayed in its release. Further, studies into the lived experience of refugees and asylum seekers are typically cross-sectional and convenience sampled, employing a variety of designs and research methodologies that limit comparability and focused on the immediacy of the individual’s experience. Consequently, how former detainees make sense of their experience, redefine their future trajectory upon release, and recover a sense of authenticity and purpose, is unknown. As such, the present study sought the positive and negative subjective interpretations of 6 participants in Australia regarding their lived experiences as refugees and asylum seekers within Australia’s immigration detention system and its impact on their future sense of self. It made use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative research methodology that is interested in how individuals make sense of, and ascribe meaning to, their unique lived experiences of phenomena. Underpinned by phenomenology, hermeneutics, and critical realism, this idiographic study aimed to explore both positive and negative subjective interpretations of former refugees and asylum seekers held in detention in Australia. It sought to understand how they make sense of their experiences, how detention has impacted their overall journey as displaced persons, and how they have moved forward in the aftermath of protracted detention in Australia. Examining the unique lived experiences of previously detained refugees and asylum seekers may inform the future development of theoretical models of posttraumatic growth among this vulnerable population, thereby informing the delivery of future mental health and resettlement services.

Keywords: mandatory detention, refugee, asylum seeker, authenticity, Interpretative phenomenological analysis

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30 Compromising Quality of Life in Low Income Settlement's: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa, Khulna

Authors: Salma Akter, Md. Kamal Uddin

Abstract:

This study aims to demonstrate how top-down shelter policy and its resultant dwelling environment leads to ‘everyday compromise’ by the grassroots according to subjective (satisfaction) and objective (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) indicators, which are measured across three levels of the settlement; macro (Community), meso (Neighborhood or shelter/built environment) and micro (family). Ashrayan Prakalpa is a resettlement /housing project of Government of Bangladesh for providing shelters and human resources development activities like education, microcredit, and training programme to landless, homeless and rootless people. Despite the integrated nature of the shelter policies (comprises poverty alleviation, employment opportunity, secured tenure, and livelihood training), the ‘quality of life’ issue at the different levels of settlements becomes questionable. As dwellers of shelter units (although formally termed as ‘barracks’ rather shelter or housing) remain on the receiving end of government’s resettlement policies, they often involve with spatial-physical and socio-economic negotiation and assume curious forms of spatial practice, which often upholds contradiction with policy planning. Thus, policy based shelter force dwellers to persistently compromise with their provided built environments both in overtly and covertly. Compromising with prescribed designed space and facilities across living places articulated their negotiation with the quality of allocated space, built form and infrastructures, which in turn exert as less quality of life. The top-down shelter project, Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa at Dighalia Upazila, the study area located at the Eastern fringe area of Khulna, Bangladesh, is still in progress to resettle internally displaced and homeless people. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and adopts a case study method, and an analytical framework is developed through the deductive approach for evaluating the quality of life. Secondary data have been obtained from housing policy analysis and relevant literature review, while key informant interview, focus group discussion, necessary drawings and photographs and participant observation across dwelling, neighborhood, and community level have also been administered as primary data collection methodology. Findings have revealed that various shortages, inadequacies, and negligence of policymakers force to compromise with allocated designed space, physical infrastructure and economic opportunities across dwelling, neighborhood and mostly community level. Thus, the outcome of this study can be beneficial for a global-level understating of the compromising the ‘quality of life’ under top-down shelter policy. Locally, for instance, in the context of Bangladesh, it can help policymakers and concerned authorities to formulate the shelter policies and take initiatives to improve the well-being of marginalized.

Keywords: Ashrayan Prakalpa, compromise, displaced people, quality of life

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29 Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The overall goal of this paper is to examine the suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration. Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of various types of housing development in all zones of the country. There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to have their own houses.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, housing policy, affordability, social housing, housing provision, environmental sustainability principles, resettlement

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28 In-Situ Redevelopment in Urban India: Two Case Studies from Delhi and Mumbai

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Anjali Sharma

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As cities grow and expand spatially, redevelopment in urban India is beginning to emerge as a new mode of urban expansion sweeping low-income informal settlements. This paper examines the extent and nature of expanding urban frontier before examining implications for the families living in these settlements. Displacement of these families may appear to be an obvious consequence. However, we have conducted ethnographic studies over the past several months in a Delhi slum named Kathputli Colony, Delhi. In depth analysis of the study for this slum appears to present a variegated set of consequences for the residents of informal settlements including loss of livelihoods, dismantling of family ties, and general anxiety arising out of uncertainty about resettlement. Apart from Delhi case study, we also compare and contrast another redevelopment case from Mumbai located at Bhendi Bazar. These examples from the two mega cities of Mumbai and Delhi are analysed to understand and explore expanding urban frontiers and their consequences for informing future public policy.

Keywords: informal settlements, policy, redevelopment, urban

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27 Finding Out the Best Place for Resettling of Victims after the Earthquake: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi, Nima Ghasemloo

Abstract:

Iran is a capable zone for earthquake that follows loss of lives and financial damages. To have sheltering for earthquake victims is one of the basic requirements although it is hard to select suitable places for temporary resettling after an earthquake happens. Before these kinds of disasters happen, the best places for resettling the victims must be designated. This matter is an important issue in disaster management and planning. Geospatial Information System (GIS) has a determining role in disaster management; it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this paper the best criteria have been determined associated with their weights and buffers by use of research and questionnaire for locating the best places. In this paper, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling is done based on the selected criteria. Also in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Finally there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in QGIS software.

Keywords: disaster management, temporary resettlement, earthquake, criteria

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26 Finding out the Best Criteria for Locating the Best Place Resettling of Victims after the Earthquake: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi

Abstract:

Iran is a capable zone for the earthquake that follows the loss of lives and financial damages. To have sheltering for earthquake victims is one of the basic requirements although it is hard to select suitable places for temporary resettling after an earthquake happens. Before these kinds of disasters happen, the best places for resettling the victims must be designated. This matter is an important issue in disaster management and planning. Geospatial Information System(GIS) has a determining role in disaster management, it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this paper, the best criteria have been determined associated with their weights and buffers by use of research and questionnaire for locating the best places. In this paper, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling is done based on the selected criteria. Also, in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Finally, there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in ArcGIS software.

Keywords: disaster management, temporary resettlement, earthquake, criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
25 Volunteering and Social Integration of Ex-Soviet Immigrants in Israel

Authors: Natalia Khvorostianov, Larissa Remennick

Abstract:

Recent immigrants seldom join the ranks of volunteers for various social causes. This gap reflects both material reasons (immigrants’ lower income and lack of free time) and cultural differences (value systems, religiosity, language barrier, attitudes towards host society, etc.). Immigrants from the former socialist countries are particularly averse to organized forms of volunteering for a host of reasons rooted in their past, including the memories of false or forced forms of collectivism imposed by the state. In this qualitative study, based on 21 semi-structured interviews, we explored the perceptions and practices of volunteer work among FSU immigrants - participants in one volunteering project run by an Israeli NGO for the benefit of elderly ex-Soviet immigrants. Our goal was to understand the motivations of immigrant volunteers and the role of volunteering in the processes of their own social and economic integration in their adopted country – Israel. The results indicate that most volunteers chose causes targeting fellow immigrants, their resettlement and well-being, and were motivated by the wish to build co-ethnic support network and overcome marginalization in the Israeli society. Other volunteers were driven by the need for self-actualization in the context of underemployment and occupational downgrading.

Keywords: FSU immigrants, integration, volunteering, participation, social capital

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24 Long-Term Climate Patterns in Eastern and Southeastern Ethiopia

Authors: Messay Mulugeta, Degefa Tolossa

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to scrutinize trends of climate risks in eastern and southeastern parts of Ethiopia. This part of the country appears severely affected by recurrent droughts, erratic rainfall, and increasing temperature condition. Particularly, erratic rains and moisture stresses have been forcibly threatening and shoving the people over many decades coupled with unproductive policy frameworks and weak institutional setups. These menaces have been more severe in dry lowlands where rainfall is more erratic and scarce. Long-term climate data of nine weather stations in eastern and southeastern parts of Ethiopia were obtained from National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia (NMA). As issues related to climate risks are very intricate, different techniques and indices were applied to deal with the objectives of the study. It is concluded that erratic rainfall, moisture scarcity, and increasing temperature conditions have been the main challenges in eastern and southeastern Ethiopia. In fact, these risks can be eased by putting in place efficient and integrated rural development strategies, environmental rehabilitation plans of action in overworked areas, proper irrigation and water harvesting practices and well thought-out and genuine resettlement schemes.

Keywords: rainfall variability, erratic rains, precipitation concentration index (PCI), climatic pattern, Ethiopia

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23 A Contested Territory in a Sacralized Landscape: The Fight of the Gich Community over Semien Mountains National Park

Authors: Marshet Girmay

Abstract:

Local community involvement is widely considered vital for the sustainability of heritage management. Yet, it is often the case that heritage-related projects lag behind in community involvement. In the Semien Mountains the creation, first, and expansion, later, of the National Park has led to several conflicts with the local communities that for centuries have inhabited the area. Local communities have only been passive actors in the plans to expand the Park set up by UNESCO and by local decision makers. This paper investigates the causes that led the Gich community, one of the communities affected by the Park’s expansion, to refuse the resettlement plan offered by the authorities. Qualitative research methods were employed, including document analysis, community conference and interview of informants. The paper shows that although the local community of Gich was highly attached to the Park’s heritage assets, their level of involvement in the heritage management was very low due to shortcomings in the design and implementation of official policies. Therefore, their attitude towards the Park’s managers has been until the present one of mistrust and opposition. The paper recommends to policy-makers a series of measures more sensitive towards local communities, such as that the development agencies act as true communication facilitators and regional authorities nurture sincere relationships with the locals.

Keywords: Gich, heritage management, local communities, Semen Mountains, sustainability, UNESCO, world heritage site

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22 Locating the Best Place for Earthquake Refugee Camps by OpenSource Software: A Case Study for Tehran, Iran

Authors: Reyhaneh Saeedi

Abstract:

Iran is one of the regions which are most prone for earthquakes annually having a large number of financial and mortality and financial losses. Every year around the world, a large number of people lose their home and life due to natural disasters such as earthquakes. It is necessary to provide and specify some suitable places for settling the homeless people before the occurrence of the earthquake, one of the most important factors in crisis planning and management. Some of the natural disasters can be Modeling and shown by Geospatial Information System (GIS). By using GIS, it would be possible to manage the spatial data and reach several goals by making use of the analyses existing in it. GIS has a determining role in disaster management because it can determine the best places for temporary resettling after such a disaster. In this research QuantumGIS software is used that It is an OpenSource software so that easy to access codes and It is also free. In this system, AHP method is used as decision model and to locate the best places for temporary resettling, is done based on the related organizations criteria with their weights and buffers. Also in this research are made the buffer layers of criteria and change them to the raster layers. Later on, the raster layers are multiplied on desired weights then, the results are added together. Eventually, there are suitable places for resettling of victims by desired criteria by different colors with their optimum rate in QuantumGIS platform.

Keywords: disaster management, temporary resettlement, earthquake, QuantumGIS

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21 The Causes and Effects of Housing Project Abandonment in Malaysia

Authors: Abdul Aziz Abdullah, Anuar Alias, Khor Hooi Ting, Guan Ngah Mei

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One of the major sectors which contribute significant growth to socio-economic development is the construction and development industry. This industry is most badly hurt during the 1997 and 2008 economic crisis thus causing many government and private projects to be deferred and abandoned. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes and effects of housing project abandonment in Malaysia. This objective is achieved through rigorous review of literatures and documents related to housing and abandoned housing project. The finding revealed there are several causes of housing project abandonment. The significant causes are: economic recession, inadequacy of finance, poor marketing and sales strategies, technical problems faced during construction, problems caused by compensations demanded by squatters for resettlement, insolvency of contractor, cost overrun and currency fluctuation amongst others. However the alarming effect of housing project is: house buyers of abandoned project have the monthly payment although the house is delivered to house buy. In other case house buyers have to entangle in many legal action with the financial institution. This finding provides the various ministries in the Government some insights on real causes and effects of abandoned project. Perhaps this finding can enhance the current solution the Ministry of Housing Local Government on addressing the prevailing issue of reviving existing abandoned project in the country.

Keywords: abandoned project, abandonment, housing project, ministry of housing and local government, causes and effect

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20 A Conceptual Approach for Evaluating the Urban Renewal Process

Authors: Muge Unal, Ahmet Cilek

Abstract:

Urban identity, having a dynamic characteristic spatial and semantic aspects, is a phenomenon in an ever-changing. Urban identity formation includes not only a process of physical nature but also development and change processes that take place in the political, economic, social and cultural values, whether national and international level. Although the concept of urban transformation is basically regarded as the spatial transformation; in fact, it reveals a holistic perspective and transformation based on dialectical relationship existing between the spatial and social relationship. For this reason, urban renewal needs to address as not only spatial but also the impact of spatial transformation on social, cultural and economic. Implementation tools used in the perception of urban transformation are varied concepts such as urban renewal, urban resettlement, urban rehabilitation, urban redevelopment, and urban revitalization. The phenomenon of urban transformation begins with the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1980s, it was interpreted as reconsidering physical fossil on urban environment factor like occurring in rapid urbanization, changing in the spatial structure of the city, concentrating of the population in urban areas. However, after the 1980s, it has resided in a conceptual structure which requires to be addressed physical, economic, social, technological and integrity of information. In conclusion, urban transformation, when it enter the literature as a practice of planning, has been up to date in terms of the conceptual structure and content and also hasn’t remained behind converting itself. Urban transformation still maintains its simplest expression, while it transforms so fast converts the contents. In this study, the relationship between urban design and components of urban transformation were discussed with strategies used as a place in the historical process of urban transformation besides a general evaluation of the concept of urban renewal.

Keywords: conceptual approach, urban identity, urban regeneration, urban renewal

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19 Development of Regional Cooperation to Sustainable Implementation of Customary Refugee Solutions in International Arena

Authors: Md. Reduanul Haque

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In recent time, more and more refugees are emerging in the international arena than the times ever that has come into the notice of world scholars. The prevailing customary solutions such as voluntary repatriation, local integration, and resettlement of refugee problem have been reflected unsustainable one for the lack of regional cooperation. In the international arena, the protraction of refugee problems is seen, and refugees are suffering due to the outrageous process of customary refugee solutions. If the regional cooperation can be developed, then the suffering of the refugees can be mitigated by the contribution of neighboring country and international and regional organizations. Data collected from the various secondary sources have been used throughout the research. It has been discussing in the refugee academia for a long time to develop regional cooperation mechanisms to ensure the sustainability of this solution and to make the environment of the country of origin for suitable voluntary repatriation as well as a durable solution. It is mainly qualitative research based on primary and secondary data will be studied on library-based project. Data collected by such methodology on this study indicates to make a bridge between the gaps of the cooperation mechanism and to make a more regional approach to share the burden and to strengthen the customary refugee solution. Hence, the importance of questing for a regional mechanism is to ensure the responsible countries to be more responsible towards refugees, their human rights, and durable solution under the mandate of the UNHCR. To implement effectively all the customary durable solutions, country to country or regional organization to organization based regional cooperation can be developed where the countries and regional organizations will work together to draw a sustainable solution to this problem in international context.

Keywords: refugee, regional cooperation, sustainable implementation, customary solutions, international arena

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18 The European Refugee Crisis and Its Effects on the Relationships between Turkey and the European Union

Authors: Ebru Nergiz

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The world is facing one of the biggest refugee crisis’ in history as hundred thousands of refugees who run away from the battle and genocide in the Middle East are travelling illegally to reach Europe over the Mediterranean and Aegean Sea. The number of refugees has reached huge numbers due to the civil war that was caused by the Arab Spring. The number of asylum applications to the European Union has also increased in parallel with the increase in the number of refugees. The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar Al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and especially Turkey. Turkey hosts massive numbers of Syrian refugees, almost 3 million and Syrians have been seeking protection in increasing numbers. The refugee crisis has affected the relationships between Turkey and the European Union deeply. President of the European Council Donald Tusk chaired a meeting of EU heads of state or government with Turkey on 29 November 2015. The meeting opened a new era in the relationships between Turkey and the European Union in terms of the migration crisis. The EU and Turkey agreed to negotiate Turkey's accession process to the European Union and to hold regular summits on Turkey-EU relations and discuss these issues. This paper looks at the reasons and consequences of the European refugee crisis and its effects on Turkey- European Union relationships. This paper also argues that the European Union has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement. The European Union’s priority is to guarantee that the lowest possible number of refugees reach Europe rather than to ensure the security of the refugees.

Keywords: European Union, human rights, refugee crisis, Turkey-European union relationships

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17 Disarmament and Rehabilitation of Women Maoists: A Case Study of Chhattisgarh, India

Authors: Pinal Patel

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The study defines the problems and issues of women in Maoist groups, also referred as ‘Naxalites’, in Chhattisgarh, India. It analyses the causes and consequences of increasing number of women joining Maoists groups and measures taken by the central and state government to retreat them. The main aspect of the study is, how to counter the challenges to resolve the issues and restore normalcy in the life of women Maoists to resettle them in mainstream once they become physically inactive and wish to become part of the society. The rationale behind this study is that women Maoists once inactive, has no place either with Maoist camps/rebel groups or particularly in society. The problems faced by the women Maoists, in society as well as in Maoists camps, can be studied through social, economic, cultural, political and humanitarian aspects. The methodology of the study is dependent on primary sources of information which includes a research survey in majorly affected areas, statistical analysis. Secondary sources of information are helpful for understanding the background of the problem. Government’s strategy of rewarding with cash and providing resettlement and rehabilitation benefits including houses and jobs to ex-women Maoists and their families is a well formulated and feasible policy and effectively implemented by the concerned authorities. But, the survey results show that the policy has not been able to have impacts as it was intended. Because inactive and physically disabled women are still left deserted in deep forests to die and police or authorities are not able to reach them and bring them back. The difficult terrain and dense forest areas are major hurdles to reach to Maoists camps. Moreover, to make people aware of government’s surrendering and rehabilitation schemes and policies as communication networks are very poor due to the lack of development in the state.

Keywords: maoists, women, government, policy

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16 Health Services for Women Refugees: A Quantitative Exploratory Study in Ottawa, Canada

Authors: Kholoud Sheba

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Women refugees expectedly are physical, socially and mentally vulnerable due to their past traumatic experiences and their novel circumstances in their receiving countries. They may have a wide range of general, mental, and reproductive health problems, but reportedly avoid visiting health care facilities owing to complex elements. Women refugees are usually unfamiliar with their new country health system and unable to navigate it efficiently. They have limited English language skills, which makes it even harder to access culturally insensitive health services. This study examines barriers to health care for refugee women in Ottawa and offers suggestions to address these challenges. Drawing from culturally congruent health care models in Canada, the United Kingdom, and some parts of the United States, this study highlights the importance of cultivating compassion in the provision of health care for women refugees as a way of addressing some of the disparities in health care in Canada. To address the study purpose, a survey questionnaire was designed and pretested questionnaire and was administrated using SurveyMonkey, a paid source survey application, over a period of two weeks. Snowballing sampling procedures were used to recruit the participants. Data was measured using frequencies, percentages, t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square. The test of significance is set at p < .05. The study asked how refugees perceive their experience in accessing and navigating public health services in Ottawa; what challenges refugees face with healthcare in Canada, and, if gender is related to refugees’ perceptions of the health care system they are forced to use? Results show refugees perceived their experience accessing the healthcare services in Canada to be a positive experience and the health providers to be culturally sensitive and allowing enough time listening to their complaints. The language stood tall in their barriers accessing the services due to low English proficiency and the need for interpretation services to encourage them attending the services.

Keywords: women refugee, access barriers, Ottawa, resettlement

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15 The Influence of the Institutional Environment in Increasing Wealth: The Case of Women Business Operators in a Rural Setting

Authors: S. Archsana, Vajira Balasuriya

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In Trincomalee of Sri Lanka, a post-conflict area, resettlement projects and policy initiatives are taking place to improve the wealth of the rural communities through promoting economic activities by way of encouraging the rural women to opt to commence and operate Micro and Small Scale (MSS) businesses. This study attempts to identify the manner in which the institutional environment could facilitate these MSS businesses owned and operated by women in the rural environment. The respondents of this study are the beneficiaries of the Divi Neguma Development Training Program (DNDTP); a project designed to aid women owned MSS businesses, in Trincomalee district. 96 women business operators, who had obtained financing facilities from the DNDTP, are taken as the sample based on fixed interval random sampling method. The study reveals that primary challenges encountered by 82% of the women business operators are lack of initial capital followed by 71% initial market finding and 35% access to technology. The low level of education and language barriers are the constraints in accessing support agencies/service providers. Institutional support; specifically management and marketing services, have a significant relationship with wealth augmentation. Institutional support at the setting-up stage of businesses are thin whereas terms and conditions of the finance facilities are perceived as ‘too challenging’. Although diversification enhances wealth of the rural women business operators, assistance from the institutional framework to prepare financial reports that are required for business expansion is skinny. The study further reveals that institutional support is very much weak in terms of providing access to new technology and identifying new market networks. A mechanism that could facilitate the institutional framework to support the rural women business operators to access new technology and untapped market segments, and assistance in preparation of legal and financial documentation is recommended.

Keywords: business facilitation, institutional support, rural women business operators, wealth augmentation

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14 Approaches to Estimating the Radiation and Socio-Economic Consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Using the Data Available in the Public Domain

Authors: Dmitry Aron

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Major radiation accidents carry not only the potential risks of negative consequences for public health due to exposure but also because of large-scale emergency measures were taken by authorities to protect the population, which can lead to unreasonable social and economic damage. It is technically difficult, as a rule, to assess the possible costs and damages from decisions on evacuation or resettlement of residents in the shortest possible time, since it requires specially prepared information systems containing relevant information on demographic, economic parameters and incoming data on radiation conditions. Foreign observers also face the difficulties in assessing the consequences of an accident in a foreign territory, since they usually do not have official and detailed statistical data on the territory of foreign state beforehand. Also, they can suppose the application of unofficial data from open Internet sources is an unreliable and overly labor-consuming procedure. This paper describes an approach to prompt creation of relational database that contains detailed actual data on economics, demographics and radiation situation at the Fukushima Prefecture during the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, received by the author from open Internet sources. This database was developed and used to assess the number of evacuated population, radiation doses, expected financial losses and other parameters of the affected areas. The costs for the areas with temporarily evacuated and long-term resettled population were investigated, and the radiological and economic effectiveness of the measures taken to protect the population was estimated. Some of the results are presented in the article. The study showed that such a tool for analyzing the consequences of radiation accidents can be prepared in a short space of time for the entire territory of Japan, and it can serve for the modeling of social and economic consequences for hypothetical accidents for any nuclear power plant in its territory.

Keywords: Fukushima, radiation accident, emergency measures, database

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