Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1456

Search results for: Ashok Kumar

1456 Extraction of Strontium Ions through Ligand Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Ashok Khanna

Abstract:

Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) hasbeen investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL, Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents.Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant.

Keywords: distribution ratio, ionic liquid, ligand, organic solvent, stripping

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1455 Analyzing the Feasibility of Low-Cost Composite Wind Turbine Blades for Residential Energy Production

Authors: Aravindhan Nepolean, Chidamabaranathan Bibin, Rajesh K., Gopinath S., Ashok Kumar R., Arun Kumar S., Sadasivan N.

Abstract:

Wind turbine blades are an important parameter for surging renewable energy production. Optimizing blade profiles and developing new materials for wind turbine blades take a lot of time and effort. Even though many standards for wind turbine blades have been developed for large-scale applications, they are not more effective in small-scale applications. We used acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene to make small-scale wind turbine blades in this study (ABS). We chose the material because it is inexpensive and easy to machine into the desired form. They also have outstanding chemical, stress, and creep resistance. The blade measures 332 mm in length and has a 664 mm rotor diameter. A modal study of blades is carried out, as well as a comparison with current e-glass fiber. They were able to balance the output with less vibration, according to the findings. Q blade software is used to simulate rotating output. The modal analysis testing and prototype validation of wind turbine blades were used for experimental validation.

Keywords: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, e-glass fiber, modal, renewable energy, q-blade

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1454 Design and Analysis of Highly Efficient and Reliable Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for PV Systems

Authors: L. Ashok Kumar, N. Sujith Kumar

Abstract:

Most of the PV systems are designed with transformer for safety purpose with galvanic isolation. However, the transformer is big, heavy and expensive. Also, it reduces the overall frequency of the conversion stage. Generally PV inverter with transformer is having efficiency around 92%–94% only. To overcome these problems, transformerless PV system is introduced. It is smaller, lighter, cheaper and higher in efficiency. However, dangerous leakage current will flow between PV array and the grid due to the stray capacitance. There are different types of configurations available for transformerless inverters like H5, H6, HERIC, oH5, and Dual paralleled buck inverter. But each configuration is suffering from its own disadvantages like high conduction losses, shoot-through issues of switches, dead-time requirements at zero crossing instants of grid voltage to avoid grid shoot-through faults and MOSFET reverse recovery issues. The main objective of the proposed transformerless inverter is to address two key issues: One key issue for a transformerless inverter is that it is necessary to achieve high efficiency compared to other existing inverter topologies. Another key issue is that the inverter configuration should not have any shoot-through issues for higher reliability.

Keywords: grid-connected, photovoltaic (PV) systems, transformerless inverter, stray capacitance, common-mode, leakage current, pulse width modulation (PWM)

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1453 Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of 4-(Phenylsulfonamido)Benzamide Derivatives as Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Authors: Sushil Kumar Singh, Ashok Kumar, Ankit Ganeshpurkar, Ravi Singh, Devendra Kumar

Abstract:

In spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. It results in cognitive and memory impairment due to loss of cholinergic neurons, which is considered to be one of the contributing factors. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor which also inhibits butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and improves the memory and brain’s cognitive functions, is the most successful and prescribed drug to treat the symptoms of AD. The present work is based on designing of the selective BuChE inhibitors using computational techniques. In this work, machine learning models were trained using classification algorithms followed by screening of diverse chemical library of compounds. The various molecular modelling and simulation techniques were used to obtain the virtual hits. The amide derivatives of 4-(phenylsulfonamido) benzoic acid were synthesized and characterized using 1H & 13C NMR, FTIR and mass spectrometry. The enzyme inhibition assays were performed on equine plasma BuChE and electric eel’s AChE by method developed by Ellman et al. Compounds 31, 34, 37, 42, 49, 52 and 54 were found to be active against equine BuChE. N-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide and N-(2-bromophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide (compounds 34 and 37) displayed IC50 of 61.32 ± 7.21 and 42.64 ± 2.17 nM against equine plasma BuChE. Ortho-substituted derivatives were more active against BuChE. Further, the ortho-halogen and ortho-alkyl substituted derivatives were found to be most active among all with minimal AChE inhibition. The compounds were selective toward BuChE.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, butyrylcholinesterase, machine learning, sulfonamides

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1452 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1451 Antifeedant Activity of Ageratum conyzoides (L.) (Asteraceae) Extracts against Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Authors: Tarun Kumar Vats, Sanjiv Mullick, Vagisha Rawal, Ashok Kumar Singh

Abstract:

Antifeedant activity of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of powdered leaves of Ageratum conyzoides (L.) was evaluated against the last instar larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.), an oligophagous pest of Crucifer crops. Cauliflower leaf discs treated with different concentrations of extracts were provided to last instar larvae in both no-choice and choice bioassays under the standard laboratory conditions. All three extracts showed antifeedant effects in both the test conditions. In no-choice condition, hexane extract was found to significantly reduce the leaf area consumption at all the tested concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%). Also, aqueous and methanol extracts significantly reduced the leaf area consumption at different concentrations (P<0.05). In choice tests, effect of aqueous extract was significantly higher at 3%, 4% and 5% concentrations as compared to control. However, significant activities of methanol and hexane extracts were recorded even at lowest concentrations of 1% (P < 0.05). Complete feeding inhibition of larvae was observed at 2% concentration of hexane extract. Antifeedant index values (AFI) obtained were found to increase in a dose dependent manner, i.e. higher the concentration, more the activity. The results clearly indicate the potential of A. conyzoides extracts for its use in the integrated management of P. xylostella, which will be ecofriendly and sustainable.

Keywords: ageratum conyzoides, plutella xylostella, crucifer, antifeedant index

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1450 Preparation and Characterization of Polyaniline (PANI) – Platinum Nanocomposite

Authors: Kumar Neeraj, Ranjan Haldar, Ashok Srivastava

Abstract:

Polyaniline used as light-emitting devices (LEDs), televisions, cellular telephones, automotive, Corrosion-resistant coatings, actuators and ability to have micro- and nano-devices. the electrical conductivity properties can be increased by introduction of metal nano particles. In the present study, platinum nano particles have been utilized to achieve the improved properties. Polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite are synthesized by chemical routes. The samples characterized by X-ray diffractometer show the amorphous nature of polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite. The Bragg’s diffraction peaks correspond to platinum nano particles and thermogravimetric analyzer predicts its decomposition at certain temperature. The current-potential characteristics of the samples are also studied which indicate a significant increasing the value of conductivity after introduction of pt nanoparticles in the matrix of polyaniline (PANI).

Keywords: polyaniline, XRD and platinum nanoparticles, characterization, pharmaceutical sciences

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1449 An in vitro Study on Synergetic Antifungal Activity of Garlic Extract with Honey and Lemon Juice against Candida sp.

Authors: P. Karpagam, Babu Joseph, P. Ashok Kumar

Abstract:

The incidence of Candida infections is increasing worldwide. The serious nature of these infections is compounded by increasing levels of drug resistance. Pure cultures of the Candida sp. were obtained from clinical isolates and fresh garlic extracts were obtained by extraction techniques. The antifungal activity of garlic extract was investigated in an in vitro system. The extract (100%, 75% and 50%) showed significant antifungal activity against Candida, whereas, low concentration (25%) of the extract showed less antifungal activity against the test organism. Antifungal activities of honey and lemon juice were tested against the Candida; however, the growth was not inhibited by these extracts. On the other hand honey and lemon when combined with garlic exhibited a good antifungal activity. The study thus confirms the antifungal properties of garlic extract along with additives like honey and lemon have significant antifungal activity against isolates of Candida species.

Keywords: Candida, garlic extract, lemon, synergitic antifungal activity

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1448 Potential Serological Biomarker for Early Detection of Pregnancy in Cows

Authors: Shveta Bathla, Preeti Rawat, Sudarshan Kumar, Rubina Baithalu, Jogender Singh Rana, Tushar Kumar Mohanty, Ashok Kumar Mohanty

Abstract:

Pregnancy is a complex process which includes series of events such as fertilization, formation of blastocyst, implantation of embryo, placental formation and development of fetus. The success of these events depends on various interactions which are synchronized by endocrine interaction between a receptive dam and competent embryo. These interactions lead to change in expression of hormones and proteins. But till date no protein biomarker is available which can be used to detect successful completion of these events. We employed quantitative proteomics approach to develop putative serological biomarker which has diagnostic applicability for early detection of pregnancy in cows. For this study, sera were collected from control (non-pregnant, n=6) and pregnant animals on successive days of pregnancy (7, 19, 45, n=6). The sera were subjected to depletion for removal of albumin using Norgen depletion kit. The tryptic peptides were labeled with iTRAQ. The peptides were pooled and fractionated using bRPLC over 80 min gradient. Then 12 fractions were injected to nLC for identification and quantitation in DDA mode using ESI. Identification using Mascot search revealed 2056 proteins out of which 352 proteins were differentially expressed. Twenty proteins were upregulated and twelve proteins were down-regulated with fold change > 1.5 and < 0.6 respectively (p < 0.05). The gene ontology studies of DEPs using Panther software revealed that majority of proteins are actively involved in catalytic activities, binding and enzyme regulatory activities. The DEP'S such as NF2, MAPK, GRIPI, UGT1A1, PARP, CD68 were further subjected to pathway analysis using KEGG and Cytoscape plugin Cluego that showed involvement of proteins in successful implantation, maintenance of pluripotency, regulation of luteal function, differentiation of endometrial macrophages, protection from oxidative stress and developmental pathways such as Hippo. Further efforts are continuing for targeted proteomics, western blot to validate potential biomarkers and development of diagnostic kit for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

Keywords: bRPLC, Cluego, ESI, iTRAQ, KEGG, Panther

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1447 In-Situ Redevelopment in Urban India: Two Case Studies from Delhi and Mumbai

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Anjali Sharma

Abstract:

As cities grow and expand spatially, redevelopment in urban India is beginning to emerge as a new mode of urban expansion sweeping low-income informal settlements. This paper examines the extent and nature of expanding urban frontier before examining implications for the families living in these settlements. Displacement of these families may appear to be an obvious consequence. However, we have conducted ethnographic studies over the past several months in a Delhi slum named Kathputli Colony, Delhi. In depth analysis of the study for this slum appears to present a variegated set of consequences for the residents of informal settlements including loss of livelihoods, dismantling of family ties, and general anxiety arising out of uncertainty about resettlement. Apart from Delhi case study, we also compare and contrast another redevelopment case from Mumbai located at Bhendi Bazar. These examples from the two mega cities of Mumbai and Delhi are analysed to understand and explore expanding urban frontiers and their consequences for informing future public policy.

Keywords: informal settlements, policy, redevelopment, urban

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1446 Antifeedant Activity of Methanol and Hexane Extracts of Datura Innoxia (Mill.) (Solanaceae) in the Management of Spodoptera Litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae

Authors: Vagisha Rawal, Anupam V. Sharma, Tarun Kumar Vats, Ashok Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The antifeedant activity of methanol and hexane extract of leaves and seeds of Datura innoxia (Mill.) (Solanaceae) was evaluated against the 5th instar Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in choice and no-choice leaf disc bioassays under laboratory conditions. These larvae when given a choice between the ‘control’ and ‘treated’ leaf discs in choice bioassays, consumed significantly (p ˂ 0.05) greater area of the ‘control’ leaf discs compared to those treated with the crude extracts of leaves and seeds of D. innoxia. The Antifeedant Index (AFI) for 5% concentration of the hexane extract of Datura seeds (DSHE) was 43.3% and 38.5% for methanol extract of Datura seeds (DSME). On the other hand, these values were 34.1% for the hexane extract of Datura leaves (DLHE), and 31.0% for the methanol extract of Datura leaves (DLME), respectively. In no-choice bioassays also, there was a significant (p˂0.05) reduction in the larval consumption of ‘treated’ leaf discs compared to the ‘control’ leaf discs. Maximum AFI was recorded at 5% concentration of the extracts of both the leaves and seeds with 47.7% for DSHE against 40.0% (DSME) and 39.4% for DLHE compared with 38.4% (DLME). Moreover, DSHE was found to have the maximum antifeedant effect irrespective of its concentration in comparison to the other crude extracts of leaves or seeds of D. innoxia. It is evident from these results that the crude methanol and hexane extracts of leaves and seeds of D. innoxia exhibited potent antifeedant activity against the 5th instar S. litura larvae. Also, the use of the bioactive compound(s) present in these extracts can prove to be an effective, eco-friendly, viable and sustainable component that can be integrated in IPM programs for the management of this economically important polyphagous insect pest in the Indian subcontinent.

Keywords: antifeedant activity, antifeedant index, datura innoxia, spodoptera litura

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1445 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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1444 Use of Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Aqueous and Juice Samples

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Ashok Kumar Malik

Abstract:

Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction (FPSE) combined with Gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) has been developed for the determination of nineteen organochlorine pesticides in various aqueous samples. The method consolidates the features of sol-gel derived microextraction sorbents with rich surface chemistry of cellulose fabric substrate which could directly extract sample from complex sample matrices and incredibly improve the operation with decreased pretreatment time. Some vital parameters such as kind and volume of extraction solvent and extraction time were examinedand optimized. Calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range 0.5-500 ng/mL. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.033 ng/mL to 0.136 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for extraction of 10 ng/mL 0f OCPs were less than 10%. The developed method has been applied for the quantification of these compounds in aqueous and fruit juice samples. The results obtained proved the present method to be rapid and feasible for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples.

Keywords: fabric phase sorptive extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, organochlorine pesticides, sample pretreatment

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1443 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

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1442 In vitro Antiviral Activity of Ocimum sanctum against Animal Viruses

Authors: Anjana Goel, Ashok Kumar Bhatia

Abstract:

Ocimum sanctum, a well known medicinal plant is used for various alignments in Ayurvedic medicines. It was found to be effective in treating the humans suffering from different viral infections like chicken pox, small pox, measles and influenza. In addition, curative effect of the plant in malignant patients was also reported. In the present study, leaves of this plant were screened against animal viruses i.e. Bovine Herpes Virus-type-1 (BHV-1), Foot and Mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). BHV-1 and FMDV were screened in MDBK and BHK cell lines respectively using cytopathic inhibition test. While NDV was propagated in chick embryo fibroblast culture and tested by haemagglutination inhibition test. Maximum non toxic dose of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves was calculated by MTT assay in all the cell cultures and nontoxic doses were used for antiviral activity against viruses. 98.4% and 85.3% protection were recorded against NDV and BHV-1 respectively. However, Ocimum sanctum extract failed to show any inhibitory effect on the cytopathic effect caused by FMD virus. It can be concluded that Ocimum sanctum is a very effective remedy for curing viral infections in animals also.

Keywords: bovine herpes virus-type-1, foot and mouth disease virus, newcastle disease virus, Ocimum sanctum

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1441 Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20MN-MO-NI 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Sarita Sahu, H. N. Bar

Abstract:

Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.

Keywords: dynamic strain ageing, hardening, low cycle fatigue, softening

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1440 A Study of Some Selected Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Variables of Junior Free Style Wrestlers

Authors: Parwinder Singh, Ashok Kumar

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected Anthropometric and physical fitness variables of Junior Free Style Wrestlers. Method: one hundred fifty (N = 150) male Junior Free Style Wrestlers were selected as subjects, and they were categorized into five groups according to their weight categories; each group was comprised of 30 wrestlers. Body Mass Index can be considered according to the World Health Organization. Body fat percentage was assessed by using Durnin and Womersley equation, and Bodyweight was checked with a weighing machine. Cardiovascular endurance was checked by the Havard Step test of junior freestyle wrestlers. Results: A statistically positive significant correlation was found between Body Weight and Body Mass Index, skinfold thickness, and Percentage Body Fat. Fitness index was observed as negatively significant relationship related with Body Weight, Percent Body Fat, and Body Mass Index. Conclusion: It is concluded that freestyle wrestling is a weight classified sport and physical fitness is the most important factor in freestyle wrestling; therefore, the correlation of the fitness index of the wrestlers with body composition is important. The results of the present study also demonstrated the effect of Age, Body Height, Body Weight, Body Mass Index, and percentage body fat of the aerobic fitness of junior freestyle wrestlers.

Keywords: aerobic fitness, anthropometry, fat percentage, free style wrestling, skinfold, strength

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1439 Relation of Black Carbon Aerosols and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height during Wet Removal Processes over a Semi Urban Location

Authors: M. Ashok Williams, T. V. Lakshmi Kumar

Abstract:

The life cycle of Black carbon aerosols depends on their physical removal processes from the atmosphere during the precipitation events. Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration has been analysed during rainy and non-rainy days of Northeast (NE) Monsoon months of the years 2015 and 2017 over a semi-urban environment near Chennai (12.81 N, 80.03 E), located on the east coast of India. BC, measured using an Aethalometer (AE-31) has been related to the atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH) obtained from the ERA Interim Reanalysis data during rainy and non-rainy days on monthly mean basis to understand the wet removal of BC over the study location. The study reveals that boundary layer height has a profound effect on the BC concentration on rainy days and non rainy days. It is found that the BC concentration in the night time is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days owing to wash out on rainy days and the boundary layer height remaining nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days. On the other hand, in the daytime, it is found that the BC concentration remains nearly the same on rainy and non rainy days whereas the boundary layer height is lower on rainy days compared to non rainy days. This reveals that in daytime, lower boundary layer heights compensate for the wet removal effect on BC concentration on rainy days. A quantitative relation is found between the product of BC and BLH during rainy and non-rainy days which indicates the extent of redistribution of BC during non-rainy days when compared to the rainy days. Further work on the wet removal processes of the BC is in progress considering the individual rain events and other related parameters like wind speed.

Keywords: black carbon aerosols, atmospheric boundary layer, scavenging processes, tropical coastal location

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1438 Role of Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Study from North India

Authors: Alka Yadav, Mayank Jain, Rajan Saxena, Niraj Kumari, Narendra Krishnani, Ashok Kumar

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression and its clinicopathological correlation in colorectal cancer patients in North India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on histologically proven 52 (38 males and 14 females) patients with adenocarcinoma of colorectum. MMR protein loss was determined by using immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6. Results: 52 patients (38 males and 14 females) underwent resection for colorectal cancer with the median age of 52 years (16-81 years). 35% of the patients (n=18) were younger than 50 years of the age. 3 patients had associated history of malignancy in the family. 29 (56%) patients had right colon cancer, 9 (17%) left colon cancer and 14 (27%) rectal cancer. 2 patients each had synchronous and metachronous cancer. Histology revealed well-differentiated tumour in 16, moderately differentiated in 10 and poorly differentiated tumour in 26 patients. MMR protein loss was seen in 15 (29%) patients. Seven (46%) of these patients were less than 50 years of age. Combined loss of MSH2 and MSH6 was seen most commonly and it was found in 6 patients. 12 (80%) patients with MMR protein loss had tumour located proximal to the splenic flexure compared to 3 (20%) located distal to the splenic flexure. There was no difference in MMR protein loss based on patients' age, gender, degree of tumour differentiation, stage of the disease and tumour histological characteristics. Conclusions: This study revealed that there was less than 30% MMR protein loss in colorectal cancer patients. The loss was most commonly seen in right sided colon cancer than left. A larger study is further required to validate these findings.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, mismatch repair protein, immunohitochemistry, clinicopathological correlation

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1437 Investigation on Remote Sense Surface Latent Heat Temperature Associated with Pre-Seismic Activities in Indian Region

Authors: Vijay S. Katta, Vinod Kushwah, Rudraksh Tiwari, Mulayam Singh Gaur, Priti Dimri, Ashok Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

The formation process of seismic activities because of abrupt slip on faults, tectonic plate moments due to accumulated stress in the Earth’s crust. The prediction of seismic activity is a very challenging task. We have studied the changes in surface latent heat temperatures which are observed prior to significant earthquakes have been investigated and could be considered for short term earthquake prediction. We analyzed the surface latent heat temperature (SLHT) variation for inland earthquakes occurred in Chamba, Himachal Pradesh (32.5 N, 76.1E, M-4.5, depth-5km) nearby the main boundary fault region, the data of SLHT have been taken from National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). In this analysis, we have calculated daily variations with surface latent heat temperature (0C) in the range area 1⁰x1⁰ (~120/KM²) with the pixel covering epicenter of earthquake at the center for a three months period prior to and after the seismic activities. The mean value during that period has been considered in order to take account of the seasonal effect. The monthly mean has been subtracted from daily value to study anomalous behavior (∆SLHT) of SLHT during the earthquakes. The results found that the SLHTs adjacent the epicenters all are anomalous high value 3-5 days before the seismic activities. The abundant surface water and groundwater in the epicenter and its adjacent region can provide the necessary condition for the change of SLHT. To further confirm the reliability of SLHT anomaly, it is necessary to explore its physical mechanism in depth by more earthquakes cases.

Keywords: surface latent heat temperature, satellite data, earthquake, magnetic storm

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1436 Investigation of Delivery of Triple Play Service in GE-PON Fiber to the Home Network

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Rahul Malhotra, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.

Keywords: BER, PON, TDMPON, GPON, CWDM, OLT, ONT

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1435 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: normal force, tangential force, microstretch, thermoelastic, the integral transform technique, deforming force, microstress force, boundary value problem

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1434 Analysis of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) of Selected Nerves in Athletics

Authors: Jogbinder Singh Soodan, Ashok Kumar, Gobind Singh

Abstract:

Background: This study aims to describe the motor nerve conduction velocity of selected nerves of both the upper and lower extremities in athletes. Thirty high-level sprinters (100 mts and 200 mts) and thirty high level distance runners (3000 mts) were volunteered to participate in the study. Method: Motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV) of radial and sural nerves were recorded with the help of computerized equipment, NEUROPERFECT (MEDICAID SYSTEMS, India), with standard techniques of supramaximal percutaneus stimulation. The anthropometric measurements taken were body height (cms), age (yrs) and body weight (kgs). The neurophysiological parameters taken were MNCV of radial nerve (upper extremity) and sural nerve (lower extremity) of both sides (i.e. dominant and non-dominant) of the body. The room temperature was maintained at 37 degree Celsius. Results: Significant differences in motor nerve conduction velocities were found between dominant and non-dominant limbs in each group. The MNCV of radial nerve was obtained was significantly higher in the sprinters than long distance runners. The MNCV of sural nerve recorded was significantly higher in sprinters as compared to distance runners. Conclusion: The motor nerve conduction velocity of radial nerve was found to be higher in sprinters as compared to the distance runners and also, the MNCV for sural nerve was found to be higher in sprinters as compared to distance runners. In case of sprinters, the MNCV of radial and sural nerves were higher in dominant limbs (i.e. arms and legs) of both sides of the body. But, in case of distance runners, the MNCV of radial and sural nerves is higher in non dominant limbs.

Keywords: motor nerve conduction velocity, radial nerve, sural nerve, sprinters

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1433 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Tolyloxy Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Shivkanya Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Sokinder Kumar

Abstract:

m-Cresol and oxadiazoles are the potent antimicrobial moieties. 2-(m-Tolyloxy)acetohydrazide (1) on cyclization with aromatic acids yielded 2-(aryl)-5-(m-tolyloxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1A-E). The structures of newer oxadiazoles were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis. The newer compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. The compound 1E containing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the tolyloxy derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antibacterial, cresol, hydrazide, oxadiazoles

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1432 Repeated Batch Cultivation: A Novel Empty and Fill Strategy for the Enhanced Production of a Biodegradable Polymer, Polyhydroxy Alkanoate by Alcaligenes latus

Authors: Geeta Gahlawat, Ashok Kumar Srivastava

Abstract:

In the present study, a simple drain and fill protocol strategy of repeated batch was adopted for enhancement in polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production using alcaligenes latus DSM 1124. Repeated batch strategy helped in increasing the longevity of otherwise decaying culture in the bioreactor by supplementing fresh substrates during each cycle of repeated-batch. The main advantages of repeated batch are its ease of operation, enhancement of culture stability towards contamination, minimization of pre-culture effects and maintenance of organism at high growth rates. The cultivation of A. latus was carried out in 7 L bioreactor containing 4 L optimized nutrient medium and a comparison with the batch mode fermentation was done to evaluate the performance of repeated batch in terms of PHAs accumulation and productivity. The statistically optimized medium recipe consisted of: 25 g/L Sucrose, 2.8 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 3.25 g/L KH2PO4, 3.25 g/L Na2HPO4, 0.2 g/L MgSO4, 1.5 mL/L trace element solution. In this strategy, 20% (v/v) of the culture broth was removed from the reactor and supplemented with an equal volume of fresh medium when sucrose concentration inside the reactor decreased below 8 g/L. The fermenter was operated for three repeated batch cycles and fresh nutrient feeding was done at 27 h, 48 h, and 60 h. Repeated batch operation resulted in a total biomass of 27.89 g/L and PHAs concentration 20.55 g/L at the end of 69 h which was a marked improvement as compared to batch cultivation (8.71 g/L biomass and 6.24 g/L PHAs). This strategy demonstrated 3.3 fold and 1.8 fold increase in PHAs concentration and volumetric productivity, respectively as compared to batch cultivation. Repeated batch cultivation strategy had also the benefit of avoiding non-productive time period required for cleaning, refilling and sterilization of bioreactor, thereby increasing the overall volumetric productivity and making the entire process cost-effective too.

Keywords: alcaligenes, biodegradation, polyhydroxyalkanoates, repeated batch

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1431 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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1430 Short and Long Crack Growth Behavior in Ferrite Bainite Dual Phase Steels

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Shiv Brat Singh, Kalyan Kumar Ray

Abstract:

There is growing awareness to design steels against fatigue damage Ferrite martensite dual-phase steels are known to exhibit favourable mechanical properties like good strength, ductility, toughness, continuous yielding, and high work hardening rate. However, dual-phase steels containing bainite as second phase are potential alternatives for ferrite martensite steels for certain applications where good fatigue property is required. Fatigue properties of dual phase steels are popularly assessed by the nature of variation of crack growth rate (da/dN) with stress intensity factor range (∆K), and the magnitude of fatigue threshold (∆Kth) for long cracks. There exists an increased emphasis to understand not only the long crack fatigue behavior but also short crack growth behavior of ferrite bainite dual phase steels. The major objective of this report is to examine the influence of microstructures on the short and long crack growth behavior of a series of developed dual-phase steels with varying amounts of bainite and. Three low carbon steels containing Nb, Cr and Mo as microalloying elements steels were selected for making ferrite-bainite dual-phase microstructures by suitable heat treatments. The heat treatment consisted of austenitizing the steel at 1100°C for 20 min, cooling at different rates in air prior to soaking these in a salt bath at 500°C for one hour, and finally quenching in water. Tensile tests were carried out on 25 mm gauge length specimens with 5 mm diameter using nominal strain rate 0.6x10⁻³ s⁻¹ at room temperature. Fatigue crack growth studies were made on a recently developed specimen configuration using a rotating bending machine. The crack growth was monitored by interrupting the test and observing the specimens under an optical microscope connected to an Image analyzer. The estimated crack lengths (a) at varying number of cycles (N) in different fatigue experiments were analyzed to obtain log da/dN vs. log °∆K curves for determining ∆Kthsc. The microstructural features of these steels have been characterized and their influence on the near threshold crack growth has been examined. This investigation, in brief, involves (i) the estimation of ∆Kthsc and (ii) the examination of the influence of microstructure on short and long crack fatigue threshold. The maximum fatigue threshold values obtained from short crack growth experiments on various specimens of dual-phase steels containing different amounts of bainite are found to increase with increasing bainite content in all the investigated steels. The variations of fatigue behavior of the selected steel samples have been explained with the consideration of varying amounts of the constituent phases and their interactions with the generated microstructures during cyclic loading. Quantitative estimation of the different types of fatigue crack paths indicates that the propensity of a crack to pass through the interfaces depends on the relative amount of the microstructural constituents. The fatigue crack path is found to be predominantly intra-granular except for the ones containing > 70% bainite in which it is predominantly inter-granular.

Keywords: bainite, dual phase steel, fatigue crack growth rate, long crack fatigue threshold, short crack fatigue threshold

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1429 Double Liposomes Based Dual Drug Delivery System for Effective Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Brajesh Kumar Tiwari, Ashok Kumar Jain, Kamta Prasad Namdeo

Abstract:

The potential use of liposomes as drug carriers by i.v. injection is limited by their low stability in blood stream. Firstly, phospholipid exchange and transfer to lipoproteins, mainly HDL destabilizes and disintegrates liposomes with subsequent loss of content. To avoid the pain associated with injection and to obtain better patient compliance studies concerning various dosage forms, have been developed. Conventional liposomes (unilamellar and multilamellar) have certain drawbacks like low entrapment efficiency, stability and release of drug after single breach in external membrane, have led to the new type of liposomal systems. The challenge has been successfully met in the form of Double Liposomes (DL). DL is a recently developed type of liposome, consisting of smaller liposomes enveloped in lipid bilayers. The outer lipid layer of DL can protect inner liposomes against various enzymes, therefore DL was thought to be more effective than ordinary liposomes. This concept was also supported by in vitro release characteristics i.e. DL formation inhibited the release of drugs encapsulated in inner liposomes. DL consists of several small liposomes encapsulated in large liposomes, i.e., multivesicular vesicles (MVV), therefore, DL should be discriminated from ordinary classification of multilamellar vesicles (MLV), large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). However, for these liposomes, the volume of inner phase is small and loading volume of water-soluble drugs is low. In the present study, the potential of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid anchored double liposomes (DL) to incorporate two drugs in a single system is exploited as a tool to augment the H. pylori eradication rate. Preparation of DL involves two steps, first formation of primary (inner) liposomes by thin film hydration method containing one drug, then addition of suspension of inner liposomes on thin film of lipid containing the other drug. The success of formation of DL was characterized by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Quantitation of DL-bacterial interaction was evaluated in terms of percent growth inhibition (%GI) on reference strain of H. pylori ATCC 26695. To confirm specific binding efficacy of DL to H. pylori PE surface receptor we performed an agglutination assay. Agglutination in DL treated H. pylori suspension suggested selectivity of DL towards the PE surface receptor of H. pylori. Monotherapy is generally not recommended for treatment of a H. pylori infection due to the danger of development of resistance and unacceptably low eradication rates. Therefore, combination therapy with amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX) as anti-H. pylori agent and ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) as antisecretory agent were selected for the study with an expectation that this dual-drug delivery approach will exert acceptable anti-H. pylori activity.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylorI, amoxicillin trihydrate, Ranitidine Bismuth citrate, phosphatidylethanolamine, multi vesicular systems

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1428 An Overview of Heating and Cooling Techniques Used in Green Buildings

Authors: Umesh Kumar Soni, Suresh Kumar Soni, S. R. Awasthi

Abstract:

Worldwide biggest difficulties are climate change, future availability of fossil fuels, and economical feasibility of renewable energy. They force us to use to a greater extent renewable energy and develop suitable hybrid renewable systems. Building heating/cooling consumes significant amount of energy. It can be conserved by use of proper heating/cooling techniques. This paper reviews and critically analyzes various active, passive and hybrid heating/cooling techniques used in green buildings.

Keywords: natural ventilation, energy conservation, hybrid ventilation techniques, climate change

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1427 A Study of Blood Alcohol Concentration in People Arrested for Various Offences and Its Demographic Pattern

Authors: Tabin Millo, Khoob Chand, Ashok Kumar Jaiswal

Abstract:

Introduction: Various kinds of violence and offences are related to alcohol consumption by the offenders. The relationship between alcohol and violence is complex. But its study is important to achieve understanding of violence as well as alcohol related behavior. This study was done to know the blood alcohol concentration in people involved in various offences and its demographic pattern. The study was carried out in the forensic toxicology laboratory, department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Material and methods: The blood samples were collected from the arrested people shortly after the commission of the offence by the emergency medical officers in the emergency department and forwarded to the forensic toxicology laboratory through the investigating officer. The blood samples were collected in EDTA vial with sodium fluoride preservative. The samples were analyzed by using gas chromatography with head space (GC-HS), which is ideal for alcohol estimation. The toxicology reports were given within a week. The data of seven years (2011-17) were analyzed for its alcohol concentration, associated crimes and its demographic pattern. Analysis and conclusion: Total 280 samples were analyzed in the period of 2011-2017. All were males except one female who was a bar dancer. The maximum cases were in the age group of 21-30 years (124 cases). The type of offences involved were road traffic accidents (RTA), assault cases, drunken driving, drinking in public place, drunk on duty, sexual offence, bestiality, eve teasing, fall etc. The maximum cases were of assault (75 cases) followed by RTA (64 cases). The maximum cases were in the alcohol concentration range of 101-150mg% (58 cases) followed by 51-100mg% (52 cases). The maximum blood alcohol level detected was 391.51 mg%, belonging to a security guard found unconscious. This study shows that alcohol consumption is associated with various kinds of violence and offences in society.

Keywords: alcohol, crime, toxicology, violence

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