Search results for: employment
917 Employment Discrimination on Civil Servant Recruitment
Authors: Li Lei, Jia Jidong
Abstract:Employment right is linked to the people’s livelihood in our society. As a most important and representative part in the labor market, the employment of public servants is always taking much attention. But the discrimination in the employment of public servants has always existed and, to become a controversy in our society. The paper try to discuss this problem from four parts as follows: First, the employment of public servants has a representative status in our labor market. The second part is about the discrimination in the employment of public servants. The third part is about the right of equality and its significance. The last part is to analysis the legal predicament about discrimination in the employment of public servants in China.
Keywords: discrimination, employment of public servants, right of labor, lawProcedia PDF Downloads 339
916 Precarious Employment Experience; Developing a Precariousness Scale
Authors: Gul Selin Erben
Abstract:Precariousness can be evaluated as the new employment climate of the neo-liberal employment markets. As the word refers to a new mode of employment experience and working practices, it was felt as a necessity to reveal the basic characteristics of this kind of employment experience. Furthermore, according to the literature, precarious employment practices have some negative outcomes such as alienation, sense of anger, and anomy. Thus, it has quite significant to reveal the conditions' characteristics and practices of precarious employment. This study has the purpose to develop an instrument which measures the precarious employment practices. In order to develop a precariousness scale, the relevant literature was examined, and 30 statements were established as a result of the literature review. The development and validation of the scale were done by a sample of 123 individuals who work in different sectors in İstanbul as a white color employee. Convenience sampling was used as a sampling methodology. Reliability and factor analysis were conducted. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, 3 dimensions were gathered.
Keywords: employment, employment experience, precariousness, scale developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 107
915 The Accuracy of Small Firms at Predicting Their Employment
Authors: Javad Nosratabadi
Abstract:This paper investigates the difference between firms' actual and expected employment along with the amount of loans invested by them. In addition, it examines the relationship between the amount of loans received by firms and wages. Empirically, using a causal effect estimation and firm-level data from a province in Iran between 2004 and 2011, the results show that there is a range of the loan amount for which firms' expected employment meets their actual one. In contrast, there is a gap between firms' actual and expected employment for any other loan amount. Furthermore, the result shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between the amount of loan invested by firms and wages.
Keywords: expected employment, actual employment, wage, loanProcedia PDF Downloads 71
914 Employment Problems of Graduands Graduated Form Vocational High Schools
Authors: Refik Uyanöz, Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya
Abstract:The aim of this study is to show the employing ability of vocational students. And also, the employment problems of these students are emphasized in this study.The rapid development in technology and information and increased qualified labor is widely affects labor market. On the other hand, labor market will look for educated, qualified, talented and young people. Because of this reason, qualified staff should be educated at vocational high schools. Vocational high schools are one of the best institutions to educate qualified staff. In this research, the conditions of vocational high schools are studied. The difference between the employment policies and current employment problems are researched.
Keywords: vocational high school, employment, employment problems, vocational studentsProcedia PDF Downloads 391
913 The Labor Participation-Fertility Trade-Off: Exploring Fecundity and Its Consequences to Women's Employment in the Philippines
Authors: Ariane C. Lim, Daphne Ashley L. Sze, Kenneth S. Santos
Abstract:As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child-rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.
Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundityProcedia PDF Downloads 556
912 A Study on the Waiting Time for the First Employment of Arts Graduates in Sri Lanka
Authors: Imali T. Jayamanne, K. P. Asoka Ramanayake
Abstract:Transition from tertiary level education to employment is one of the challenges that many fresh university graduates face after graduation. The transition period or the waiting time to obtain the first employment varies with the socio-economic factors and the general characteristics of a graduate. Compared to other fields of study, Arts graduates in Sri Lanka, have to wait a long time to find their first employment. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of the transition from higher education to employment of these graduates using survival models. The study is based on a survey that was conducted in the year 2016 on a stratified random sample of Arts graduates from Sri Lankan universities who had graduated in 2012. Among the 469 responses, 36 (8%) waiting times were interval censored and 13 (3%) were right censored. Waiting time for the first employment varied between zero to 51 months. Initially, the log-rank and the Gehan-Wilcoxon tests were performed to identify the significant factors. Gender, ethnicity, GCE Advanced level English grade, civil status, university, class received, degree type, sector of first employment, type of first employment and the educational qualifications required for the first employment were significant at 10%. The Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to model the waiting time for first employment with these significant factors. All factors, except ethnicity and type of employment were significant at 5%. However, since the proportional hazard assumption was violated, the lognormal Accelerated failure time (AFT) model was fitted to model the waiting time for the first employment. The same factors were significant in the AFT model as in Cox proportional model.
Keywords: AFT model, first employment, proportional hazard, survey design, waiting timeProcedia PDF Downloads 243
911 Barriers of Successful Employment of Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities
Authors: Mubarak Aldosari
Abstract:The focus of this qualitative study was to explore the main barriers of successful employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: The semi-structured interviews were used to explore perception of a sample of eight managers/supervisors of employees who had ID regarding the main barriers that face successful employment of individuals with ID. Results: Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed four major themes that impede successful employment of individuals with ID: experiences of work, (b) social skills, (c) attitudes to individuals with ID, and (d) transportation. Conclusion: The current study was designed to provide important information to policymakers, officials, educators and parents regarding the challenges and barriers that face the successful employment of individuals with ID. The study show the importance of the support as well as effective and planned preparation for individuals with ID during schools to be qualified and have skills that they to be successful in the employment. Additionally, the results of this study will encourage further study of transition to post schools for individuals with ID in Saudi Arabia.
Keywords: barriers, employment, individuals with mild intellectual disabilities, social skillsProcedia PDF Downloads 281
910 The Role of Entrepreneurship Education in Enhancing Self-Employment: Students' Perspective
Authors: Stanley Fore, Gaetan Ngabonziza
Abstract:In spite of the need for skilled labour in South Africa, tertiary education graduates are increasingly faced with unemployment, which poses a serious obstacle to the economic growth of the country. This paper is an outcome of the study that investigated students’ perceptions on the role of entrepreneurship education in enhancing graduates’ self-employment. The study was descriptive in nature and used a survey questionnaire to answer questions pertaining to the extent to which entrepreneurship education is important in enhancing self-employment endeavours. Collected data were analysed using of the statistical software for social science (SPSS) for descriptive statistics in the form of tables and charts. The study found that entrepreneurship education is critical in providing knowledge and skills that are required to succeed in self-employment. As one module of entrepreneurship does not ensure self-employment orientation or more positive expectations about entrepreneurial abilities and careers, this study suggests that students, irrespective of their field of study, should be given entrepreneurship modules in every academic year. This will help in reminding them that their success does not solely rely on their ability to find a better-paying employment but also on their ability to employ themselves.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, education, self-employment, studentsProcedia PDF Downloads 187
909 Role of MGNREGA(s) in Seasonal Labour Migration: Micro Evidence from Telangana State, India
Authors: Vijay Korra
Abstract:The main focus of this paper is to examine the performance, outcomes and impacts of MGNREGA Scheme in particular on migrant beneficiary households. This article is based on a field survey carried out in 2010 in three randomly selected villages in Mahabubnagar district of Telangana State, India. It was found that majority of the job card holders are only able to get employment/work between 30-60 days and receive wages maximum between Rs.60 to 70 per day wherein wage discrimination was prevalent in line with gender. It concludes by saying that the government sponsored employment programme has indeed given rural poor a sense of hope about livelihood security through guaranteed employment. On the other hand, the scheme is defected in providing full employment days, wages, and thus unable to prevent the working class from migrating to cities/towns in search of employment mainly due to malpractices involved in the implementation of the scheme.
Keywords: MGNREGA(s), labour, employment, wages, livelihood, seasonal migrationProcedia PDF Downloads 313
908 The Labor Participation–Fertility Trade-off: The Case of the Philippines
Authors: Daphne Ashley Sze, Kenneth Santos, Ariane Gabrielle Lim
Abstract:As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.
Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundityProcedia PDF Downloads 531
907 Retirement Planning and Job Satisfaction: Cushion to Avoid Bridge Employment?
Authors: Zaiton Osman, Imbarine Bujang, Azaze-Azizi Abdul Adis, Grace Phang Ing, Mohd Rizwan Abdul Majid, Izyanti Awang Razli
Abstract:Retirement forces older workers to disconnect with their previous behavioural patterns and economic position. Transition and adjustment from working life to retirement places create psychological pressure and financial distress on older workers, especially those with dependent children. Bridge employment provides a solution for older workers to continue working after retirement while transitioning into retirement slowly and smoothly. As losing the job role has a significant impact on the psychological well-being of retirees, engageing in bridge employment helps to fulfill the important psychological functions of older workers by providing an adaptive style to retirement. This study investigates the influence of retirement planning and job satisfaction on bridge employment. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study and a total of 523 samples were collected for nine major district in Sabah. Data were analysed using Partial Least Square (PLS) method wersion 2.0. The result shows a significant relationship between retirement planning and job satisfaction on bridge employment, explaining 4.7% the variance in bridge employment and job satisfaction was found to be the strongest predictor of bridge employment.
Keywords: ageing population, retirement planning, job satisfaction, bridge employmentProcedia PDF Downloads 290
906 Problems of Youth Employment in Agricultural Sector of Georgia and Causes of Migration
Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia, N. Sagareishvili
Abstract:The article substantiates that youth employment in Georgia, especially in the agricultural sector, is an acute socio-economic problem. The paper analyzes the indicators of youth employment and unemployment rates by age and gender in the agriculture sector. Research revealed that over the past decade, the unemployment rate in rural areas has decreased; however, the problem of unemployment is more sensitive than in the city in this field. The article established youth unemployment rates in rural areas; it assesses labor and educational migration causes. Based on the survey, there are proposed findings and recommendations of the agricultural sector about improving youth employment, reducing unemployment rate, reaching migration processes optimization.
Keywords: youth employment, the agricultural sector, unemployment rate, youth migration, agricultural educationProcedia PDF Downloads 257
905 Characters of Developing Commercial Employment Sub-Centres and Employment Density in Ahmedabad City
Authors: Bhaumik Patel, Amit Gotecha
Abstract:Commercial centres of different hierarchy and sizes play a vital role in the growth and development of the city. Economic uncertainty and demand for space leads to more urban sprawl and emerging more commercial spaces. The study was focused on the understanding of various indicators affecting the commercial development that can help to solve many issues related to commercial urban development and can guide for future employment growth centre development, Accessibility, Infrastructure, Planning and development regulations and Market forces. The aim of the study was to review characteristics and identifying employment density of Commercial Employment Sub-centres by achieving objectives Understanding various employment sub-centres, Identifying characteristics and deriving behaviour of employment densities and Evaluating and comparing employment sub-centres for the Ahmedabad city. Commercial employment sub-centres one in old city (Kalupur), second in highly developed commercial (C.G.road-Ashram road) and third in the latest developing commercial area (Prahladnagar) were identified by distance from city centre, Land use diversity, Access to Major roads and Public transport, Population density in proximity, Complimentary land uses in proximity and Land price. Commercial activities were categorised into retail, wholesale and service sector and sub categorised into various activities. From the study, Time period of establishment of the unit is a critical parameter for commercial activity, building height, and land-use diversity. Employment diversity is also one parameter for the commercial centre. The old city has retail, wholesale and trading and higher commercial density concerning units and employment both. Prahladnagar area functioned as commercial due to market pressure and developed as more units rather than a requirement. Employment density is higher in the centre of the city, as far as distance increases from city centre employment density and unit density decreases. Characters of influencing employment density and unit density are distance from city centre, development type, establishment time period, building density, unit density, public transport accessibility and road connectivity.
Keywords: commercial employment sub-centres, employment density, employment diversity, unit densityProcedia PDF Downloads 76
904 The Relationship between Quality of Work and Employment, Self-Perceived Health and Use of Health Services among the Older Japanese Workforce
Authors: Jacques Wels
Abstract:Japan has one of the highest average retirement ages within the OCDE and is paving the way to raise the retirement age to 70. However, the Japanese labour market is facing two main issues that can have detrimental effects on health: non-standard employment forms are widespread among the ageing workforce, and poor working conditions can contribute to explain poor health in late career. To assess such a relationship, the study uses data from JSTAR. Using mediation analysis, it particularly looks at the association between job dissatisfaction, employment status, self-perceived health (SPH), and use of health care services. Results show that work quality and employment status are associated with SPH. Contract work has a particularly negative impact and therefore contributes to explain the use of health care services but is not significantly associated with lower job satisfaction levels. SPH is a good predictor of the use of health care services.
Keywords: self-reported health, occupational health, employment, older workers, mediationProcedia PDF Downloads 44
903 Identify the Factors Affecting Employment and Prioritize in the Economic Sector Jobs of Increased Employment MADM approach of using SAW and TOPSIS and POSET: Ministry of Cooperatives, Do Varamin City Social Welfare
Authors: Mina Rahmani Pour
Abstract:Negative consequences of unemployment are: increasing age at marriage, addiction, depression, drug trafficking, divorce, immigration, elite, frustration, delinquency, theft, murder, etc., has led to addressing the issue of employment by economic planners, public authorities, chief executive economic conditions in different countries and different time is important. All countries are faced with the problem of unemployment. By identifying the influential factors of occupational employment and employing strengths in the basic steps can be taken to reduce unemployment. In this study, the most significant factors affecting employment has identified 12 variables based on interviews conducted Choose Vtasyrafzaysh engaged in three main business is discussed. DRGAM next question the 8 expert ministry to respond to it is distributed and for weight Horns AZFN Shannon entropy and the ranking criteria of the (SAW, TOPSIS) used. According to the results of the above methods are not compatible with each other, to reach a general consensus on the rating criteria of the technique of integrating (POSET) involving average, Borda, copeland is used. Ultimately, there is no difference between the employments in the economic sector jobs of increased employment.
Keywords: employment, effective techniques, SAW, TOPSISProcedia PDF Downloads 173
902 Canada vs Australia: Regulating the Gig Economy
Authors: Fabian Flintoff
Abstract:The nature of the workforce has changed radically over the last 50 years in terms of a wide range of factors, including its education levels, gender composition, and the status of workers. Despite extensive changes to the structure of the workforce, lawmakers and judges have shown a reluctance to reshape employment law. In particular, employment laws have not kept pace with the extensive use of flexible forms of employment, whether part-time, casual or agency employees. This paper focuses on recent attempts at legislative change in the state/provincial and federal jurisdictions in both Australia and Canada. Australian and Canadian employment laws share a common heritage and many similarities. However, there are significant differences in the way in which employment-based disputes are resolved. The Australian component of the paper considers the changes made by the Federal conservative Coalition government in 2021. The paper also reviews the proposals for change to regulating the gig economy made by the Canadian Federal government in the 2021 budget and the idea of a rebuttable presumption in favor of an employment relationship over a contract for services. The paper suggests that there are considerable institutional impediments to achieving pragmatic law reform that balances the interests of workers and employers. It concludes that there are strong interests in the legal and labor law community for continuing the status quo, despite the fact that it may negatively impact the most marginalized members of the workforce in Australia, Canada, and other jurisdictions.
Keywords: employment law, flexible employment, labor law, legislative reformProcedia PDF Downloads 116
901 Innovation and Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Uganda Microdata
Authors: Milton Ayoki, Edward Bbaale
Abstract:This paper analyses the relationship between innovation and employment at firm level with the objective of understanding the contribution of the different innovation strategies in fostering employment growth in Uganda. We use National Innovation Survey (micro-data of 705 Ugandan firms) for the period 2011-2014 and follow closely Harrison et al. (2014) structured approach, and relate employment growth to process innovations and to the growth of sales separately due to innovative and unchanged products. We find positive effects of product innovation on employment at firm level, while process innovation has no discernable impact on employment. Although there is evidence to suggest displacement of labour in some cases where firms only introduce new process, this effect is compensated by growth in employment from new products, which for most firms are introduced simultaneously with new process. Results suggest that source of innovation as well as size of innovating firms or end users of innovation matter for job growth. Innovation that develops from within the firm itself (user) and involving larger firms has greater impact on employment than that developed from outside or coming from within smaller firms. In addition, innovative firms are one and half times more likely to survive in the innovation driven economy environment than those that do not innovate. These results have important implications for policymakers and stakeholders in innovation ecosystem. Supporting policies need to be correctly tailored since the impacts depend on the innovation strategy (type) and characteristics and sector of the innovative firms (small, large, industry, etc.). Policies to spur investment, particularly in innovative sectors and firms with high growth potential would have long lasting effects on job creation. JEL Classification: D24, J0, J20, L20, O30.
Keywords: employment, process innovation, product innovation, Sub-Saharan AfricaProcedia PDF Downloads 100
900 The Role of Tourism Industry in the Creation of Youth Employment Opportunities in Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria
Authors: Isiya Salihu Shinkafi
Abstract:The focus of this paper is to elaborate on employment opportunities within the tourism sector and the solutions to youth unemployment in Africa and Nigeria in particular. Youth unemployment creates a monumental social problem to African continent, the world over and Nigeria in particular. The intelligence of this paper was collected from secondary sources using previews researches and analysis of scholars to gather empirical data. The findings revealed that unemployment in Africa and specifically Nigeria among youths were caused by certain factors which constitute a greater challenge to the economy and the existence of the continent. The tourism sector provides the enabling environment to address the different categories of unemployment among the youths. One of the unique characteristics of the tourism industry that makes it a prime sector from which employment can be engineered; especially in the case of the African countries, are its labour intensive characteristics of both experts, skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour.
Keywords: tourism industry, employment opportunities, youth employmentProcedia PDF Downloads 418
899 A Critical Study on Unprecedented Employment Discrimination and Growth of Contractual Labour Engaged by Rail Industry in India
Authors: Munmunlisa Mohanty, K. D. Raju
Abstract:Rail industry is one of the model employers in India has separate national legislation (Railways Act 1989) to regulate its vast employment structure, functioning across the country. Indian Railway is not only the premier transport industry of the country; indeed, it is Asia’s most extensive rail network organisation and the world’s second-largest industry functioning under one management. With the growth of globalization of industrial products, the scope of anti-employment discrimination is no more confined to gender aspect only; instead, it extended to the unregularized classification of labour force applicable in the various industrial establishments in India. And the Indian Rail Industry inadvertently enhanced such discriminatory employment trends by engaging contractual labour in an unprecedented manner. The engagement of contractual labour by rail industry vanished the core “Employer-Employee” relationship between rail management and contractual labour who employed through the contractor. This employment trend reduces the cost of production and supervision, discourages the contractual labour from forming unions, and reduces its collective bargaining capacity. So, the primary intention of this paper is to highlight the increasing discriminatory employment scope for contractual labour engaged by Indian Railways. This paper critically analyses the diminishing perspective of anti-employment opportunity practiced by Indian Railways towards contractual labour and demands an urgent outlook on the probable scope of anti-employment discrimination against contractual labour engaged by Indian Railways. The researcher used doctrinal methodology where primary materials (Railways Act, Contract Labour Act and Occupational, health and Safety Code, 2020) and secondary data (CAG Report 2018, Railways Employment Regulation Rules, ILO Report etc.) are used for the paper.
Keywords: anti-employment, CAG Report, contractual labour, discrimination, Indian Railway, principal employerProcedia PDF Downloads 78
898 Egyptian Women in the Informal Economy: Implications of the Covid-19 Pandemic
Authors: Hagar Wahba
Abstract:In an attempt to bridge a literature gap, the study explores the different gendered consequences of economic globalization on Egyptian women in informal employment. Under the intersectionality theory, the study highlights issues related to equal economic opportunities among women in different segments of informal employment during Covid-19. Accordingly, this study explores the different vulnerabilities of women in lower segments of the informal sector in Egypt, which intersected with inequalities brought by the pandemic. Therefore, through collecting primary data, the study was able to gain a more intersectional understanding of women’s experiences in informal employment during Covid-19. In women in technology-based work in Egypt were proven to be in a more advantaged position than other women whose jobs depended on face-to-face interactions during the pandemic.
Keywords: economic globalisation, informal employment, women, egypt, intersectional feminism, decent work, Covid-19Procedia PDF Downloads 36
897 Effectiveness of European Active Labor Market Policies
Authors: Marwa Sahnoun, Chokri Abdennadher
Abstract:This article comes, very timely, to look at the effectiveness of active labor market policies (ALMP) in improving labor market outcomes. Using panel data estimates for 19 European countries during the period 2000-2012, this article showed the role of institutional factors, especially the role of employment policies implementation based on three variables: the allocation of resources for the implementation of policies, continuity and timing in the implementation of policies to capture their effectiveness on the labor market. Empirical results shows favor effect of training, employment incentives, sheltered employment and rehabilitation and direct job creation on the entire population employment growth. Results shows also that start-up incentives seems to be more effective in increasing employment than other types of policies. Importantly, two aspects are important in terms of implementation: public expenditure on program administration, e.g. (PES) watches the most favorable aspect and the continuity of policies implemented.
Keywords: active labor market policies, implementation, public expenditure on program administration, start-up incentives, trainingProcedia PDF Downloads 338
896 Fast-Tracking University Education for Youth Employment: Empirical Evidence from University Graduates in Rwanda
Authors: Fred Alinda, Marjorie Negesa, Gerald Karyeija
Abstract:Like elsewhere in the world, youth unemployment remains a big problem more so to the most educated youth and female. In Rwanda, unemployment is estimated at 13.2% among youth graduates compared to 10.9% and 2.6 among secondary and primary graduates respectively. Though empirical evidence elsewhere associate youth unemployment with education level, relevance of skills and access to business support opportunities, mixed evidence still exist on the significance of these factors to youth employment. As youth employment strategies in countries like Rwanda continue to recognize the potential role university education can play to enhance employment, there is a need to understand the catalysts or barriers. This paper, therefore, draws empirical evidence from a survey on the influence of education qualification, skills relevance and access to business support opportunities on employment of the youth university graduates in Masaka sector, Rwanda. The analysis tested four hypotheses; access to university education significantly affects youth employment, Relevance of university education significantly contributes to youth employment; access to business support opportunities significantly contributes to youth employment, and significant gender differences exist in the employment of youth university graduates. A cross-section survey was used in lieu of the need to explore the prevailing status of youth employment and contributing factors across the sector. A questionnaire was used to collect data on a large sample of 269 youth to allow statistical analysis. This was beefed up with qualitative views of leaders and technical officials in the sector. The youth University graduates were selected using simple random sampling while the leaders and technical officials were selected purposively. Percentages were used to describe respondents in line with the variables under while a regression model for youth employment was fitted to determine the significant factors. The model results indicated a significant influence (p<0.05) of gender, education level and access to business support opportunities on employment of youth university graduates. This finding was also affirmed by the qualitative views of key informants. Qualitative views pointed to the fact that university education generally equipped the youth with skills that enabled their transition into employment mainly for a salary or wage. The skills were, however, deficient in technical and practical aspects. In addition, the youth generally lacked limited access to business support opportunities particularly guarantees for loans, business advisory, and grants for business as well as training in business skills that would help them gain salaried employment or transit into self-employment. The study findings bear an implication on the strategy for catalyzing youth employment through university education. The findings imply that university education should be embraced but with greater emphasis on or supplementation with specialized training in practical and technical skills as well as extending business support opportunities to the youth. This will accelerate the contribution of university education to youth employment.
Keywords: education, employment, self-employment, youthProcedia PDF Downloads 196
895 Employment Opportunities in Automobile Sector-Indian Scenario
Authors: A. K. Sarathe, N. P. Patidar
Abstract:The Indian automobile sector is comprised of independent manufacturers and joint ventures with their foreign counterpart companies by making use of the Foreign Direct Investment policy of the Government of India. These manufacturers started capturing the hearts of Indian customers with their choice of technological and innovative product features, with quality and reliability. This transformed the automobile scene from a “sellers market to buyers market”. The potential benefits from the auto sector have been recognized by the planners, managers, and administrators of both the sectors –government and private. Generation of employment for the readily available technical workforce has been achieved not only through the manufacturers, but also through the growing ancillaries and service providers of the auto industries. The main purpose of this paper is to come up with the identification of possible working areas and associated job functions of mechanical and automobile diploma holders having employment opportunities in auto sector of India.
Keywords: automobile sector, diploma holder, employment, job descriptionProcedia PDF Downloads 356
894 Uneven Development: Structural Changes and Income Outcomes across States in Malaysia
Authors: Siti Aiysyah Tumin
Abstract:This paper looks at the nature of structural changes—the transition of employment from agriculture, to manufacturing, then to different types of services—in different states in Malaysia and links it to income outcomes for households and workers. Specifically, this paper investigates the conditional association between the concentration of different economic activities and income outcomes (household incomes and employee wages) in almost four decades. Using publicly available state-level employment and income data, we found that significant wage premium was associated with “modern” services (finance, real estate, professional, information and communication), which are urban-based services sectors that employ a larger proportion of skilled and educated workers. However, employment in manufacturing and other services subsectors was significantly associated with a lower income dispersion and inequality, alluding to their importance in welfare improvements.
Keywords: employment, labor market, structural change, wageProcedia PDF Downloads 96
893 Factors of Successful Transition of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities from School to Employment
Authors: Mubarak S. Aldosari
Abstract:Transition of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) from secondary level to post-school employment level is a critical step for them and their families. Transition of adolescents with mild ID to post secondary levels faces serious difficulties and challenges. The current research highlighted the important factors related to the success of transition of students with mild ID to post-school employment such as vocational training, Self-determination skills, Social skills, and family involvement.
Keywords: adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities, post-school employment, vocational training, self-determination skills, social skills, family involvementProcedia PDF Downloads 233
892 Effects of E-Commerce on Local Labor Markets
Authors: Anahid Bauer
Abstract:This paper studies how the expansion of e-commerce over the past decade affected labor markets. Utilizing the variation of state legislation on e-commerce sales tax collection-theAmazon Tax- which reduced out-of-state e-commerce retailers’ price advantage, this paper finds declines in employment and wages in sectors complementary to e-commerce, such as warehousing and last-mile transportation. In the retail sector, there are observed declines in local employment and the number of establishments. Effects in retail are heterogeneous by sub-sector. While big-box retail employment increases, other brick-and-mortar retail employment decreases. As the Amazon Tax may induce brick-and-mortar retailers to incorporate online channels, this paper analyzes changes in retail occupational structure. In non-urban areas, this paper finds an increase in the share of office and service occupations and a decrease in the share of sales and related occupations. Through a general equilibrium model, this paper finds that these results are consistent with an economy in which consumers substitute e-commerce purchases for big-box purchases, which leads to the crowding out of other brick-and-mortar retail.
Keywords: e-commerce, retail, employment, Amazon TaxProcedia PDF Downloads 70
891 Swot Analysis for Employment of Graduates of Physical Education and Sport Sciences in Iran
Authors: Mohammad Reza Boroumand Devlagh
Abstract:Employment problem, especially university graduates is the most important challenges in the decade ahead. The purpose of this study is the SWOT analysis for employment of graduates of Physical Education and Sport Sciences in Iran. The sample of this research consist of 115 (35.5 + 8.0 years) of physical education and sport sciences faculty members of higher education institutions, major sport managers and graduates of physical education and sport sciences. Library method, interview and questioners were used to collect data. The questionnaires were made in four parts: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.94. After data collection, means, standard deviation (SD) and percentage were calculated by using SPSS software. Fridman was used for the statical analysis at P < 0.05. The results showed that Employment of graduates of Physical Education and Sport Sciences in Iran Located In the worst position possible (T-W area) in Strategic Position and Action Evaluation Matrix) SPACEM), and there are more weaknesses than strengths (2.02 < 2.5) in internal evaluation and there are more threats than opportunities(2.36 < 2.5) in external evaluation.
Keywords: employment, graduate, physical education and sport sciences, SWOT analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 473
890 Creating a Senior-Friendly Workplaces: With Respect to Empowerment
Authors: Liu Yi Hui, Lin Yu Fang, Chiu Fan Yun
Abstract:In preparation for the coming super-aged society in Taiwan, the Ministry of Labor announced the Middle-aged and Elderly Employment Promotion Act in 2019, dedicating a chapter to expressly prohibiting age discrimination. This study aimed to enhance understanding of workplace ageism by collecting data through in-depth interviews. The findings can be summarized as follows: 1. Elderly employment in Taiwan and its three underlying motivations: Mainly in economic, social, and psychological needs. Economically, elders opt to continue working beyond the traditional retirement age because of financial shocks, a lack of financial planning, and being the breadwinner of the family. Socially and psychologically, they continue working to have a more diversified retirement life and find a new purpose in life. 2. Ageism on the re-employment of elders: On the ground, senior workers may face the age-based stereotype that their work performance is inferior and a broader social environment that is ostensibly friendly but essentially hostile. 3. Possible ways to facilitate elderly employment in terms of empowerment: By developing and empowering seniors with new skills or abilities for re-employment and strengthening their problem-solving skills in the face of new things through training programs, we can not only build the confidence and substantial abilities of senior workers in the workplace but also flip the social stereotype about age.
Keywords: senior-friendly workplaces, elderly employment, empowerment, ageismProcedia PDF Downloads 45
889 Women's Employment Issues in Georgia and Solutions Based on European Experience
Authors: N. Damenia, E. Kharaishvili, N. Sagareishvili, M. Saghareishvili
Abstract:Women's Employment is one of the most important issues in the global economy. The article discusses the stated topic in Georgia, through historical content, Soviet experience, and modern perspectives. The paper discusses segmentation insa terms of employment and related problems. Based on statistical analysis, women's unemployment rate and its factors are analyzed. The level of employment of women in Transcaucasia (Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) is discussed and is compared with Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia). The study analyzes women’s level of development, according to the average age of marriage and migration level. The focus is on Georgia's Association Agreement with the EU in 2014, which includes economic, social, trade and political issues. One part of it is gender equality at workplaces. According to the research, the average monthly remuneration of women managers in the financial and insurance sector equaled to 1044.6 Georgian Lari, while in overall business sector average monthly remuneration equaled to 961.1 GEL. Average salaries are increasing; however, the employment rate remains problematic. For example, in 2017, 74.6% of men and 50.8% of women were employed from a total workforce. It is also interesting that the proportion of men and women at managerial positions is 29% (women) to 71% (men). Based on the results, the main recommendation for government and civil society is to consider women as a part of the country’s economic development. In this aspect, the experience of developed countries should be considered. It is important to create additional jobs in urban or rural areas and help migrant women return and use their working resources properly.
Keywords: employment of women, segregation in terms of employment, women's employment level in Transcaucasia, migration levelProcedia PDF Downloads 60
888 Impact of Maternal Employment on the Overall Behavioral Development of Children
Authors: Hareem Kausar
Abstract:Women of today’s world are energetic, enthusiastic and high-spirited. They tend to be the best in whatever they do and strive to accept and fulfil each challenge with utmost liveliness. The aim of the research was about studying the impact of Maternal Employment on the Child’s Behavioral Development. It was conducted as an initiative to study the impact factor in Pakistani culture and for deep insight to the subject using qualitative research methodology. The samples were interviewed through semi-structured interview method in three phases including two working mothers, two children and a day care center official and the data was collected and analyzed through content analysis. Further, it was linked with the literature from the west and the results show that children of working mothers tend to be sound mentally and physically but at some points they face the inner feeling of solitude. Overall, develop the mechanism in independence in their nature and behavior but maternal employment definitely affects the overall behavioral development of the children.
Keywords: maternal employment, child behavior- development, childhood, impactProcedia PDF Downloads 493