Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5515

Search results for: local communities

5515 Whose Education Is It? Developing Communities Left Out in Framing Higher Education

Authors: Muwanga Zake, Johnnie Wycliffe Frank

Abstract:

Developing communities accommodating institutions of Higher Education (HE) often have no capacity to pay for HE and so do not contribute values and do not participate in Quality Assurance. Only governments, academia, employers and professional organisations determine values, QA and curricula in HE. A gap between the values in HE and those desirable in local communities and environments leads to erroneous conceptions of the purposes of HE, and to graduates who hardly fit into those local communities. Unemployment and under-utilization of local resources are thus expected. As a way to improve and make HE more relevant for local communities and environment, public perceptions, values and needs should be researched and HE courses should relate with local values and environments. Communities should participate in QA.

Keywords: values, quality assurance, higher education, utilization

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5514 Living outside the fence: Opportunities for Neighbouring Communities to Supply Products and Services to the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa

Authors: Andrew Rylance, Anna Spenceley

Abstract:

An evaluation was undertaken to understand opportunities for stimulating local enterprise development within the tourism supply chain, linked to a private game reserve in South Africa, the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, which neighbors the Kruger National Park. The study focused on understanding the market demand for local products and services from commercial lodges, and the current local supply from enterprises and entrepreneurs in local communities. This article quantifies the value of current procurement spend by lodges on local products and services and estimates their potential future expenditure. The study matches these responses with the availability of products and services in the neighboring communities. It also provides insights into relationships between private lodges, game reserves and local communities in South Africa. It concurs with previous research on tourism supply chains in rural South Africa, and also makes recommendations for the development of local businesses with higher technical capacity development.

Keywords: tourism, communities, business development, South Africa, Sabi Sand Game Reserve, market study, supply study

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5513 Community Forest Management Practice in Nepal: Public Understanding of Forest Benefit

Authors: Chandralal Shrestha

Abstract:

In the developing countries like Nepal, the community based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicated the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, forest benefits, lowland, Nepal

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5512 A Contested Territory in a Sacralized Landscape: The Fight of the Gich Community over Semien Mountains National Park

Authors: Marshet Girmay

Abstract:

Local community involvement is widely considered vital for the sustainability of heritage management. Yet, it is often the case that heritage-related projects lag behind in community involvement. In the Semien Mountains the creation, first, and expansion, later, of the National Park has led to several conflicts with the local communities that for centuries have inhabited the area. Local communities have only been passive actors in the plans to expand the Park set up by UNESCO and by local decision makers. This paper investigates the causes that led the Gich community, one of the communities affected by the Park’s expansion, to refuse the resettlement plan offered by the authorities. Qualitative research methods were employed, including document analysis, community conference and interview of informants. The paper shows that although the local community of Gich was highly attached to the Park’s heritage assets, their level of involvement in the heritage management was very low due to shortcomings in the design and implementation of official policies. Therefore, their attitude towards the Park’s managers has been until the present one of mistrust and opposition. The paper recommends to policy-makers a series of measures more sensitive towards local communities, such as that the development agencies act as true communication facilitators and regional authorities nurture sincere relationships with the locals.

Keywords: Gich, heritage management, local communities, Semen Mountains, sustainability, UNESCO, world heritage site

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5511 Economic Benefits in Community Based Forest Management from Users Perspective in Community Forestry, Nepal

Authors: Sovit Pujari

Abstract:

In the developing countries like Nepal, the community-based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have a better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in the valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicating the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, low pricing strategy, forest benefits, livelihood opportunities, Nepal

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5510 Analysis of Risk-Based Disaster Planning in Local Communities

Authors: R. A. Temah, L. A. Nkengla-Asi

Abstract:

Planning for future disasters sets the stage for a variety of activities that may trigger multiple recurring operations and expose the community to opportunities to minimize risks. Local communities are increasingly embracing the necessity for planning based on local risks, but are also significantly challenged to effectively plan and response to disasters. This research examines basic risk-based disaster planning model and compares it with advanced risk-based planning that introduces the identification and alignment of varieties of local capabilities within and out of the local community that can be pivotal to facilitate the management of local risks and cascading effects prior to a disaster. A critical review shows that the identification and alignment of capabilities can potentially enhance risk-based disaster planning. A tailored holistic approach to risk based disaster planning is pivotal to enhance collective action and a reduction in disaster collective cost.

Keywords: capabilities, disaster planning, hazards, local community, risk-based

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5509 A Case Study: Community Forestry in Nepal: Achievements and Challenges

Authors: Bhmika Raiu

Abstract:

The community forestry programme in Nepal officially started in the late 1970s. Since then concerning movement has been evolving to involve local communities in the management and utilization of forests. The policy of the government was originally intended to meet the basic forest products required by the communities through active participation in forest development and management. Later, it was expanded to include the mobilization and empowerment of the members of community forest user groups in the development of their local communities. It was observed that the trend of forest degradation has decreased since the handing over of national forests to local communities, but a number of unintended social anomalies have also cropped up. Such anomalies essentially constitute of the inequity and unfairness in the local and national level and in terms of long-term sustainability of forest resources. This paper provides an overview of various issues of community forestry, especially focusing on the major achievements made in community forestry. It calls for rethinking the community forestry programme in order to face the present day challenges of linking community forestry with livelihood promotion, good governance, and sustainable forest management. It also lays out strategies for reforms in community forestry.

Keywords: community forest, livelihood promotion, challenges, achievements

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5508 Local Religion 'Parmalim': Between Civilization and Faith

Authors: Sabrina Yulianti

Abstract:

This study aims to explain the identity struggles of local religious communities in Indonesia. Local religion in Indonesia is not recognized by the government and is not incorporated into the official religion in Indonesia. This makes the local religions in Indonesia experienced the challenges and obstacles in fulfilling their rights as citizens of Indonesia. Challenges and barriers they experience such as: difficulty in making of the birth certificate and marriage. It is as experienced by one of the local religions namely Parmalim which located in North Sumatra. Not only difficulty in taking care of the bureaucracy as a citizen, but the local religion is seen as a minority and sometimes regarded as follower of deviate religion.

Keywords: local religion, faith, struggles, civilization, discrimination

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5507 Effect of Rural Entrepreneurship in Rural Development in Nigeria: A Study of Selected Entrepreneurs in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Ifeanyi Charles Otuokere, Victoria Nneoma Nnochiri

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship generally and specifically within the rural communities in Nigeria is a fast means of bringing development within the communities. This is made possible by utmost maximization and management of available local resources to develop rural areas through good management of these local resources. This study anchors on the rural development paradigm and the integrated rural development theories to understudy the knowledge of rural entrepreneurs on rural economic development. The research study made use of surveys and descriptive analysis. The assessable population for the study, which was randomly selected, is 100 rural entrepreneurs from ten rural communities within the Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The study made use of both primary and secondary as a source of data collection with much emphasis on a primary source, although secondary data such as journals, textbooks electronic sources were also utilised. A carefully structured questionnaire drafted to extract raw data was administered to selected entrepreneurs. The findings of the study showed that developments within rural communities can only be achieved through rural entrepreneurship. This is evidenced in increased output, job creation, and most importantly, reduction of rural to urban migration, among other things. Recommendations were also made based on these findings; the researchers recommended that infrastructural developments should be made available in the rural communities and government policies should create enabling environments along with other assistance to help these rural entrepreneurs achieve their sole aim.

Keywords: economic developments, rural communities, rural development, rural entrepreneurship

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5506 Effective Citizen Participation in Local Government Decision-Making and Democracy

Authors: Ali Zaimi

Abstract:

Citizen participation in local government is an opportunity given to citizens and government to increase communication between them, create public support for local government plans and most important grow public trust in government. Also, the citizens’ involvement in the political process is an important part of democracy. This study aims to define the strategies for increasing citizen participation in local governance and concentrated in two important mechanisms such as participatory budget and public policy councils. Three strategies that promote more effective citizen involvement in local governance are understanding and using formal institutions of power, collaboration of citizens’ groups and governments officials to jointly formulate programs plans, electing and appointing local officials. A unique aspect of citizen participation to operate effectively is the transparency of government and the inclusion of actors into decision-making. The citizen engagement in local governance enhances accountability and problem solving, promote more inclusive and cohesive communities and enlarge the quality and quantity of initiatives made by communities.

Keywords: accountability, citizen participation, democracy, government

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5505 Career Development for Benjarong Porcelain Handicraft Communities in Central Thailand

Authors: Chutikarn Sriwiboon, Suwaree Yordchim

Abstract:

Benjarong handicraft product is one of the most important handicraft products from Thailand. It involves the management of traditional wisdom of arts and Thai culture. This paper drew upon data collection from local communities by using an in-depth interview technique which was conducted in Thailand during summer of 2014. The survey was structured primarily to obtain local wisdom and concerns toward their career development. This research paper was a qualitative research conducted by focus groups with a total of 51 cooperative women and occupational groups around Thailand which produced the Benjarong products. The data were significantly collected from many sources and many communities, which totaled 24,430 handicraft products, in which the 668 different patterns of Benjarong products were produced by 51 local community network groups in Thailand. The findings revealed that after applying the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy, there was a significantly positive change in their career development and the process of knowledge management enables local community to enhance their personal development and career.

Keywords: Benjarong, career development, community, handicraft

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5504 Community Perception of Dynamics and Drivers of Land Cover Change around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Northern Benin

Authors: Jesugnon E. A. Kpodo, Aurlus D. Ouindeyama, Jan H. Sommer, Fifanou G. Vodouhe, Kolo Yeo

Abstract:

Local communities are recognized as key actors for sustainable land use and to some extent actors driving land use land cover (LULC) change around protected areas. Understanding drivers responsible for these changes are very crucial for better policy decisions making. This study analyzed perception of 425 local people in 28 villages towards land cover change around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve using semi-structured questionnaire. 72.9% of local communities perceive land cover as degrading while 24.5% as improving and only 2.6% as stable during the five last years. Women perceived more land cover degradation than men do (84.1 vs. 67.1%). Local communities identified cultivated land expansion, logging, firewood collection, charcoal production, population growth, and poverty as the key drivers of declined LULC in the study area. Education has emerged as a significant factor influencing respondents’ perceptions of these drivers of LULC changes. Appropriate management measures and government policies should be implemented around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve to control drivers of LULC change.

Keywords: local perceptions, LULC drivers, LULC dynamics, Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, rural livelihoods, sustainable resource management

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5503 Role of Different Land Use Types on Ecosystem Services Provision in Moribane Forest Reserve - Mozambique

Authors: Francisco Domingos Francisco

Abstract:

Tropical forests are key providers of many Ecosystem Services (ES), contributing to human wellbeing on a global and local scale. Communities around and within Moribane Forest Reserve (MFR), Manica Province - Mozambique, benefit from ES through the exploitation of non-wood and wood forest products. The objective was to assess the provisioning capacity of the MFR in woody forest products in species and profiles of interest to local communities in the main sources of extraction. Social data relating to the basic needs of local communities for these products were captured through an exploratory study before this one. From that study, it became known about the most collected wood species, the sources of collection, and their availability in the profiles of greatest interest to them. A field survey through 39 rectangular 50mx20m plots was conducted with 13 plots established in each of the three land-use types (LUT), namely Restricted Forest, Unrestricted Forest, and Disturbed areas. The results show that 89 species were identified, of which 28 (31.4%) are assumed to be the most used by the communities. The number of species of local interest does not vary across the LUT (p>0.05). The most used species (MUS) is distributed in 82% in Restricted Forest, 75% in Unrestricted, and also 75% in Disturbed. Most individuals of both general and MUS found in Unrestricted Forest, and Degraded areas have lower end profiles (5-7 cm), representing 0.77 and 0.26%, respectively. The profile of individuals of species of local interest varies by LUT (p<0.05), and their greatest proportion (0.51%) outside the lower end is found in Restricted Forest. There were no similarities between the LUT for the species in general (JCI <0.5) but between the MUS (JCI >0.5). Conclusion, the areas authorized for the exploitation of wood forest products in the MFR tend to reduce their ability to provide local communities with forest products in species and profiles of their interest. This reduction item is a serious threat to the biodiversity of the Restricted Forest. The study can help the academic community in future studies by replicating the methodology used for monitoring purposes or conducting studies in other similar areas, and the results may support decision-makers in designing better strategies for sustainability.

Keywords: ecosystem services, land-use types, local communities, species profile, wellbeing, wood forest product

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5502 Engaging Local Communities on Large-Scale Construction Project

Authors: Melissa Teo

Abstract:

It is increasingly important that project managers develop greater capabilities to better manage the social, cultural, political, environmental and economic impacts on proposed construction projects. These challenges are best resolved in consultation with communities rather than in conflict with them. This is particularly important on controversial projects which are projects that have obtained government sanctioned ‘development approval’ but not ‘community approval’. While a rich body of research and intellectual frameworks exist in the fields of urban geography and planning to understand and manage community concerns during the pre-development approval stages of new projects, current theoretical frameworks guiding community engagement in project management are inadequate. A new and innovative research agenda is needed to guide thinking about the role of local communities in the construction process and is an important research gap that needs to be filled. Within this context, this research aims to assess the effectiveness of strategies adopted by project teams to engage with local communities so as to capture lessons learnt to apply to future projects. This paper reports a research methodology which uses Arnstein’s model of participation to better understand how power differentials between the project team and local communities can influence the adoption of community engagement strategies. A case study approach is utilizing interviews and documentary analysis of a large-scale controversial construction project in Queensland, Australia is presented. The findings will result in a number of recommendations to guide community engagement practices on future projects.

Keywords: community engagement, construction, case study, project management

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5501 When Psychology Meets Ecology: Cognitive Flexibility for Quarry Rehabilitation

Authors: J. Fenianos, C. Khater, D. Brouillet

Abstract:

Ecological projects are often faced with reluctance from local communities hosting the project, especially when this project involves variation from preset ideas or classical practices. This paper aims at appreciating the contribution of environmental psychology through cognitive flexibility exercises to improve the acceptability of local communities in adopting more ecological rehabilitation scenarios. The study is based on a quarry site located in Bekaa- Lebanon. Four groups were considered with different levels of involvement, as follows: Group 1 is Training (T) – 50 hours of on-site training over 8 months, Group 2 is Awareness (A) – 2 hours of awareness raising session, Group 3 is Flexibility (F) – 2 hours of flexibility exercises and Group 4 is the Control (C). The results show that individuals in Group 3 (F) who followed flexibility sessions accept comparably the ecological rehabilitation option over the more classical one. This is also the case for the people in Group 1 (T) who followed a more time-demanding “on-site training”. Another experience was conducted on a second quarry site combining flexibility with awareness-raising. This research confirms that it is possible to reduce resistance to change thanks to a limited in-time intervention using cognitive flexibility. This methodological approach could be transferable to other environmental problems involving local communities and changes in preset perceptions.

Keywords: acceptability, ecological restoration, environmental psychology, Lebanon, local communities, resistance to change

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5500 Spatiotemporal Community Detection and Analysis of Associations among Overlapping Communities

Authors: JooYoung Lee, Rasheed Hussain

Abstract:

Understanding the relationships among communities of users is the key to blueprint the evolution of human society. Majority of people are equipped with GPS devices, such as smart phones and smart cars, which can trace their whereabouts. In this paper, we discover communities of device users based on real locations in a given time frame. We, then, study the associations of discovered communities, referred to as temporal communities, and generate temporal and probabilistic association rules. The rules describe how strong communities are associated. By studying the generated rules, we can automatically extract underlying hierarchies of communities and permanent communities such as work places.

Keywords: association rules, community detection, evolution of communities, spatiotemporal

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5499 Local Identities to Global in the Centre of Isan, Thailand: Promoting Local Development and Community Participation

Authors: Thammanoon Raveepong, Craig Wheway

Abstract:

Originating from a multifaceted research project beginning with the opening of the Green Market at Ban Laow sub-district, Kosum Phisai, Mahasarakham with the support of Kosum Phisai Governor. The project involves key stakeholders related to villagers who have become involved with linking local identity to a more global identity to help ameliorate falling agricultural incomes and casualised work. There have been fifteen formal meetings involving local government stakeholders that took place at the local university, local schools, a public meeting at Ban-Don-Toom and Village meeting shelters. These events hosted 176 local stakeholders consisting of the District Governor, 7 Chairpersons/Heads of the District Development Council, a Health Promotion group, District retired government staff, 4 sub-district local government members, the City Development Council, 2 representatives from Mahasarakham Provincial Culture Council, 4 principles of all local schools, 11 village heads, 15 scholars form local and national universities, 132 villagers and 4 staff from public relation units. The goal of the project was to initiate a variety of local projects including promotion of Local healthy food, farm/homestay accommodation, local uniqueness, Travel guides (in book form and guide youths) and the proposed development of community tourism with the aim to utilise local people and activities to tap into the growing alternative tourism market. This paper aims to document the progress thus far, and the challenges presented working with local communities that have lacked expertise in linking to the global economy to derive economic benefits for their communities.

Keywords: Community-based tourism, community participation, local identity, mahasarakham province

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5498 Communities And Local Food Systems In The Post Pandemic World: Lessons For Kerala

Authors: Salimah Hasnah, Namratha Radhakrishnan

Abstract:

Communities play a vital role in mobilizing people and resources for the benefit of all. Since time immemorial, communities have been spear heading different activities ranging from disaster management, palliative care, local economic development and many more with laudable success. Urban agriculture is one such activity where communities can prove to make a real difference. Farming activities in cities across different developed countries have proved to have favorable outcomes in the form of increased food security, neighborhood revitalization, health benefits and local economic growth. However, urban agriculture in the developing nations have never been prioritized as an important planning tool to cater to the basic needs of the public. Urban agricultural practices are being carried out in a fragmented fashion without a formal backing. The urban dwellers rely heavily on their far-off rural counterparts for daily food requirements. With the onset of the pandemic and the recurring lockdowns, the significance of geographic proximity and its impact on the availability of food to the public are gradually being realized around the globe. This warrants a need for localized food systems by shortening the distance between production and consumption of food. The significance of communities in realizing these urban farming benefits is explored in this paper. A case-study approach is adopted to understand how different communities have overcome barriers to urban farming in cities. The applicability of these practices is validated against the state of Kerala in India wherein different community centered approaches have been successful in the past. The existing barriers are assessed and way forward to achieve a self-sufficient localized food systems is formulated with the key lessons from the case studies. These recommendations will be helpful to successfully establish and sustain farming activities in urban areas by leveraging the power of communities.

Keywords: community-centric, COVID-19, drivers and barriers, local food system, urban agriculture

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5497 Factors Affecting Sense of Community in Residential Communities Case Study: Residential Communities in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Parvin Foroughifar

Abstract:

The concept of sense of community refers to residents’ sense of attachment and commitment to the other residents in a residential community. It is implicitly indicative of the mental image of a physical environment in which the residents enjoy strong social ties. Sense of community, a crucial factor in improving quality of life and social welfare, leads to life satisfaction in a residential community. Despite the important functions of such a notion, few empirical studies, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have been so far carried out in Iran to investigate the effective factors in sharpening the sense of community in residential communities. This survey research examined sense of community in 360 above 20-year old residents of three residential communities in Tehran, Iran using cluster sampling and questionnaire. The study yielded the result that variables of local social ties, social control and trust, sense of security, length of residence, use of public spaces, and mixed land use have a significant relationship with sense of community.

Keywords: sense of community, local social ties, sense of security, public space, residential community, Tehran

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5496 Community Based Tourism and Development in Third World Countries: The Case of the Bamileke Region of Cameroon

Authors: Ngono Mindzeng Terencia

Abstract:

Community based tourism, as a sustainable tourism approach, has been adopted as a tool for development among local communities in third world countries with income generation as the main driver. However, an analysis of community based tourism and development brings to light another driving force which is paramount to development strategies in the difficult conditions of third world countries: this driving force is “place revitalization”. This paper seeks to assess the relevance of “place revitalization” to the enhancement of development within the challenging context of developing countries. The research provides a community based tourism model to development in third world countries through a three step process based on awareness, mentoring and empowerment at the local level. It also tries to examine how effectively this model can address the development problems faced by the local communities of third world countries. The case study for this research is the Bamiléké region of Cameroon, the breeding ground of community based tourism initiatives and a region facing the difficulties of third world countries that are great impediments to community based tourism.

Keywords: awareness, empowerment, local communities, mentoring, place revitalization, third world countries

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5495 Disaster Management and Resilience: A Conceptual Synthesis of Local

Authors: Oshienemen Albert, Dilanthi Amaratunga, Richard Haigh

Abstract:

Globally, disasters of any form can affect the environment, built environment, the waterways, societies, nations and communities in diverse areas. The such impacts could cut across, economic loss, social setting, cultural and livelihood structures of affected population. Thus, the raise of disaster impacts across developing nations are alarming with decades impact due to the lack of hard and soft infrastructural development across communities, inconsistency in the governmental policy and implementation, making it difficult for disaster affected communities to bounce back when necessary, especially in Nigeria. The Nigeria disasters, especially oil spillages have affected diverse communities across the Niger Delta region for decades with little or nothing as external support for the broken livelihood structure, cultural and economic damages of the people. Though, in the spirit of contribution to the communities affected by oil spill and negative consequence of petroleum production, the federal government at different times established some impressionistic bodies and agencies to oversee the affairs of the region as with regards to oil spillages and development. Thus, the agencies contributions are yet to manifest in practice. This amplifies the quest for the structural clarities of the management systems and the resilience’s of the communities, to better equip the communities for any such disaster. Therefore, the study sets to explore the Nigerian disaster management systems and resilience concept at local community level. Thus, desk-based approach and interviews are employed for the synthesis while, drawing conclusion and recommendations.

Keywords: disaster, community, management, resilience

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5494 The Roles of Local Administration Management to Promote the Culture Based On Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

Authors: Sukanya Sripho

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the role of local administration management to promote culture based on philosophy of sufficiency economy to many communities in Thailand. The philosophy was given to the Thai people by their King and become one of the important policies from the Thai government. A total of 375 local people in main district, Amnadcharoen province were selected by random sampling. A questionnaire was used as the tool for collecting data. Descriptive statistics in this research included percentage, mean, and multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that the role of facilitator was utilized the most from the management in order to promote culture based on philosophy of sufficiency economy to many communities in Thailand.

Keywords: administration, management, philosophy of sufficiency economy, facilitator

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5493 Community Perceptions towards Nature Conservation in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Daniel Angwenyi

Abstract:

Relationships between protected area managers and adjacent communities, as well as communities' attitudes, views and perceptions of these areas, are critical for the success of conservation efforts. It is, therefore, of utmost importance for protected area managers and administrators understand how local communities view these areas and their management, so that they can build sustainable working relationships. This paper is based on a survey of 375 semi-structured questionnaires administered to household heads, living at distances ranging from the edge of the reserves to 50 km away from the reserve boundary across Great Fish River, Mkambati, Hluleka, and Tsolwana in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The paper provides a longitudinal assessment of households’ knowledge on the role of reserves and how the reserves. In addition to households’ knowledge, the paper also provides an assessment of their attitudes towards the location and management, as well as views on the best way to manage the reserves. For 79% of community members reserves are important as they were seen to conserve biodiversity and valuable ecological systems necessary for sustaining life. Most (75%) respondents indicated that closely located reserves gave them opportunities to learn about nature conservation and to subsidize their incomes through tourism ventures. However, 58% had a problem with reserves’ staff, due to restrictions on resource use, which negatively impacted their livelihoods. Over half (51%) of the households were of the view that sustainable conservation can only be achieved through an integrated approach, where local communities’ and conservation needs are given equal weighting. Thus, it is concluded that reserve management should look at communities as active partners in the running of protected areas if sustainable conservation objectives are to be realised.

Keywords: nature conservation, conservation knowledge, local communities, views, protected areas

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5492 The Study on the Platform Strategy of Taipei City Urban Regeneration Station

Authors: Chao Jen-Chih, Kuo-Wei Hsu

Abstract:

Many venues and spaces in cities gradually become old and decayed as time goes by and develops. Urban regeneration is the critical strategy to promote local development, but the method of spatial reconstruction which is emphasized in the issue of urban regeneration is questioned for bringing cultural, social and economic impacts on old city areas. The idea of “Urban Regeneration Station (URS)” is proposed for Taipei City Government to introduce the entry and disturbance of communities and related groups with the concept of creative city. This study explored how an URS promotes local development again through the strength of communities and the energy of local residence community, and it established the Platform Strategy for URS. The research results are as follows: URS through the promotion of government agencies, experts, scholars and the third sector, to the selection of different types of units stationed in business, through exhibitions, seminars, and other activities to explore local development issues, vetting each stationed execution efficiency units, and different units stationed by URS establish URS overall network platform strategy.

Keywords: urban regeneration, platform strategy, creative city, Taipei city

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5491 Commoning as an Approach to Community Planning: An Inquiry into the Role of Urban Local Bodies and Commoners

Authors: Pruthvi Nath Palleti, Sarmada Madhulika Kone

Abstract:

Communities are formed based on the commonalities that exist in a set of individuals and when the group comes together on identifying those commonalities and to achieve their common goals. Thus, community planning with its vision to strengthen the community mostly involves with making or remaking of commons, which results in making or remaking of communities. This paper looks into different practices of planning around the world and tried to establish a link between commoning (the act of exercising the rights over commons by commoners) and participatory approach to community planning.

Keywords: commoners, commoning, community, participatory planning, urban local bodies

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5490 Quantitative Analysis of the Quality of Housing and Land Use in the Built-up area of Croatian Coastal City of Zadar

Authors: Silvija Šiljeg, Ante Šiljeg, Branko Cavrić

Abstract:

Housing is considered as a basic human need and important component of the quality of life (QoL) in urban areas worldwide. In contemporary housing studies, the concept of the quality of housing (QoH) is considered as a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary field. It emphasizes connection between various aspects of the QoL which could be measured by quantitative and qualitative indicators at different spatial levels (e.g. local, city, metropolitan, regional). The main goal of this paper is to examine the QoH and compare results of quantitative analysis with the clutter land use categories derived for selected local communities in Croatian Coastal City of Zadar. The qualitative housing analysis based on the four housing indicators (out of total 24 QoL indicators) has provided identification of the three Zadar’s local communities with the highest estimated QoH ranking. Furthermore, by using GIS overlay techniques, the QoH was merged with the urban environment analysis and introduction of spatial metrics based on the three categories: the element, class and environment as a whole. In terms of semantic-content analysis, the research has also generated a set of indexes suitable for evaluation of “housing state of affairs” and future decision making aiming at improvement of the QoH in selected local communities.

Keywords: housing, quality, indicators, indexes, urban environment, GIS, element, class

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5489 Revisiting Ecotourism Development Strategy of Cuc Phuong National Park in Vietnam: Considering Residents’ Perception and Attitudes

Authors: Bui Duc Sinh

Abstract:

Ecotourism in national parks seemed to be one of the options in the conservation of the natural resources and to improve the living condition of local communities. However, ecotourism development will be useless if it lacks the perception and support of local communities and appropriate ecotourism strategies. The aims of this study were to measure residents’ perception and satisfaction towards ecotourism impacts and their attitudes for ecotourism development in Cuc Phuong National Park; to assess the current ecotourism strategies based on ecotourism criteria and then to provide recommendations on ecotourism development strategies. The primary data were collected through personal observations, in-depth interviews with residents and national park staffs, and from surveys on households in all of the five communes in the Cuc Phuong National Park. The results depicted that local communities were aware of ecotourism impacts and had positive attitudes toward ecotourism development, and were satisfied of ecotourism development. However, higher perception rate was found on specific groups such as the young, the high income and educated, and those with jobs related to ecotourism. The study revealed the issues of concerns about the current ecotourism development strategies in Cuc Phuong National Park. The major hindrances for ecotourism development were lack of local participation and unattractive ecotourism services. It was also suggested that Cuc Phuong National Park should use ecotourism criteria to implement ecotourism activities sustainably and to harmonize the sharing of benefits amongst the stakeholders. The approaches proposed were to: create local employment through reengineering, improve the ecotourism quality, appropriate tourism benefits to the stakeholders, and carry out education and training programs. Furthermore, the results of the study helped tour operators and tourism promoters aware the real concerns, issues on current ecotourism activities in Cuc Phuong National Park.

Keywords: ecotourism, ecotourism impact, local community, national park

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5488 The Flood Disaster Management of Communities in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand

Authors: Eakarat Boonreang, Anothai Harasarn

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to investigate the flood disaster management capacity of communities in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand, and to recommend the sustainable flood management approaches of communities in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. The selected population consisted of the community leaders and committees, the executives of local administrative organizations, and the head of Ubon Ratchathani provincial office of disaster prevention and mitigation. The data was collected by in-depth interview, focus group, and observation. The data was analyzed and classified in order to determine the communities’ capacity in flood disaster management. The results revealed that communities’ capacity were as follows, before flood disaster, the community leaders held a meeting with the community committees in order to plan disaster response and determined evacuation routes, and the villagers moved their belongings to higher places and prepared vehicles for evacuation. During flood disaster, the communities arranged motorboats for transportation and villagers evacuated to a temporary evacuation center. Moreover, the communities asked for survival bags, motorboats, emergency toilets, and drinking water from the local administrative organizations and the 22nd Military Circle. After flood disaster, the villagers cleaned and fixed their houses and also collaborated in cleaning the temple, school, and other places in the community. The recommendation approaches for sustainable flood disaster management consisted of structural measures, such as the establishment of reservoirs and building higher houses, and non-structural measures such as raising awareness and fostering self-reliance, establishing disaster management plans, rehearsal of disaster response procedures every year, and transferring disaster knowledge among younger generations. Moreover, local administrative organizations should formulate strategic plans that focus on disaster management capacity building at the community level, particularly regarding non-structural measures. Ubon Ratchathani provincial offices of disaster prevention and mitigation should continually monitor and evaluate the outcomes of community based disaster risk management program, including allocating more flood disaster management-related resources among local administrative organizations and communities.

Keywords: capacity building, community based disaster risk management, flood disaster management, Thailand

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5487 Bioethical Standards as a Tool for the Improvement of Human Relations Toward Health, Animals, and Plants: The Example of Three Croatian Mediterranean Local Communities

Authors: Toni Buterin, Robert Doričić

Abstract:

Mainstream bioethics, narrowed down mainly to human medicine and research, can hardly be expected to efficiently face modern challenges related to environmental issues. Departing from the interpretation of "European Bioethics" as a discipline considering ethical duties not only toward fellow humans, but to all living beings, this paper presents the results of a study conducted in three communities in Croatian Northern Adriatic region, selected for their recent experience of ecological threats (Labin – thermo-electric power plant; Bakar – cokery), or representing a highly-valuable and vulnerable natural insular pocket (Mali Lošinj – health tourism, dolphin wildlife refuge, fragrant gardens programme, etc.). After targeted workshops and interviews had been organised in those communities, the results of the obtained insights were combined with experts' opinion and a list of around hundred “bioethical standards” was formed. "Bioethical standards" represent a set of principles and measures of the correct attitude of people towards their own health, animals, plants, and the eco-system as a whole. "Bioethical standards" charter might improve the level of local community environmental consciousness, and provide direct guidance for its sustainable development (including its tourism-advertising ace card). The present paper discusses the standards' potential benefits and some implementational risks.

Keywords: bioethical standards, croatia, European bioethics, local communities

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5486 Water and Sanitation Challenges: A Case of King Sabatha Dalindyebo Municipality

Authors: Masibulele Fiko, Sanjay Balkara, Beauty Makiwane, Samson Asoba

Abstract:

Several municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa suffer from severe infrastructure dilapidation and a backlog in repairs and replacement. This scourge is most critical in black dominated areas, such as the rural communities and townships. Several critical service delivery activities have been impaired consequent to the deteriorating facilities and a lot of human endeavors impacted adversely. As such, this study investigated the water and sanitation challenges in King Sabatha Dalindyebo municipality, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Questionnaires were distributed to the communities and interviews were conducted with the communities’ leaders. The Participants mentioned that their main sources of water supply were a dam, streams, springs and wells; and the distances to the water sources were thought to be too long and women were often attacked and sometimes raped. South African local authorities are facing problems of insufficient funds to meet their daily operations. The municipality should provide street taps. The alternative way for government to supply financial aid to local authorities is to introduce the private sector in the service rendering process.

Keywords: communities, sanitation, managers, municipality

Procedia PDF Downloads 48