Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 143

Search results for: livelihoods

143 Access to Livelihoods for Urban Refugees in Kenya: The Case Study of Somalis Living in Eastleigh

Authors: Nancy Njoka, Manuela Ramos Cacciatore

Abstract:

In Kenya, refugee situations are becoming increasingly protracted, stretching over the years or even decades. As urbanization rates increase, so do the numbers of urban refugees in the country. Refugees living in urban areas face a range of challenges. In their efforts to pursue livelihoods, refugees have identified strategies to confront these challenges. In the same manner, humanitarian actors have come up with different interventions to promote access to livelihoods working through obstacles and barriers created by host governments. This paper seeks to understand the experience of Somali urban refugees living in the urban area of Eastleigh, Nairobi, both by investigating their own actions towards creating avenues to access livelihoods and by understanding their social, economic and policy context in which they forge livelihoods. The empirical data collected through fieldwork in Nairobi in 2020 serves as the basis of this qualitative case study. Drawing upon the themes of urban refugee movement, Somali ethnicity, citizenship discrimination and the livelihoods of refugees, the paper highlights how the actions of the Kenyan government and international non-governmental organization (INGO)s affect access to livelihoods and the consequences of these actions for Somali urban refugees. The results of the paper found that Somali urban refugees are taking active steps to create livelihoods for themselves. This is seen in the growth of Eastleigh as an economic hub in Kenya which is owned and run mostly by Somalis. Indeed, the Somali community is central to the establishment of networks in the neighborhood. Somali urban refugees are marginalized by the Kenyan government, reducing their opportunity to create dignified lives in Eastleigh. Findings also point out the community-based approaches used by INGOs in livelihood interventions. The relevance of this research lies in the interconnection of humanitarian development interventions for protracted refugees and the promotion of livelihoods in an urban and global context.

Keywords: Kenya, livelihoods, Somali, urban refugees

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142 Reformed Land: Extent of Use and Contribution to Livelihoods in the Waterberg District

Authors: A. J. Netshipale, M. L. Mashiloane, S. J. Oosting, I. J. M. De Boer, E. N. Raidimi

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Three tier land reform programme (land restitution, land redistribution and land tenure reform) had been implemented for the past two decades in South Africa with an aim of redressing the unjust land ownership patterns of the past. Land restitution and redistribution seeked to make land available for beneficiaries’ ownership based on policy guidelines. Attention given to the two sub-programmes was mostly land reform focused with the quantity of land that exchanged ownership being used as a measure of success with disregard for how the land is used by the beneficiaries for their livelihoods. In few cases that the land use assessment was done for the two sub-programmes it was assessed on a case basis or few selected cases. The current study intended to shed light on a broader scope. This study investigated the extent to which land reform farms were used and contribution made by farms to the livelihoods of active beneficiaries. Seventy six farms that represented restitution (16 farms) and redistribution (60) programmes were selected for land use investigation. Land use data were collected from farm representatives by means of semi-structured questionnaire. A stratified sample of 87 households (38 for restitution and 49 for redistribution) were selected for livelihood investigations. Data on income generating activities and passive income sources were collected from household heads using semi-structured questionnaire. Additional data were collected through focus group discussions and from stakeholders through key-informants interviews. Livestock production used more land per farm on average (45%) in relation to the amount of average total land used per farm of 77% under land redistribution programme. Land restitution transformed crop farms into mixed farming and unused farms to be under use while land redistribution converted conservation land into agricultural land and also unused farms to be used. Livestock production contributed on average 25% to the livelihoods of 48% of the households whereas crop production contributed 31% on average to the livelihoods of 67% of the households. Government grants had the highest contribution of 54% on average and contributed to most households (72%). Agriculture was the sole source of livelihoods to only three per cent of the households. Most households (40%) had a mix of three livelihoods sources as their livelihood strategy. It could be concluded that the use of reformed land would be mainly influenced by the agro-ecological conditions of the area and agriculture could not be the main source of livelihoods for households that benefited from land reform. Land reform policies which accommodate diverse livelihoods activities could contribute to sustainable livelihoods.

Keywords: active beneficiaries, households, land reform, land use, livelihoods

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
141 The Effects of Urbanization on Peri-Urban Livelihood in Ghana: A Case of Kumasi Peri-Urban Communities

Authors: Charles Kwaku Oppong

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The research linked urban expansion resulting from urbanization with changing morphology processes happening in peri-urban communities. Two villages of Kumasi City peri-urban were used as a case study. Appropriate analytical framework and methodology (literature review and empirical evidence) were employed to ensure that all pertinent issues of peri-urban interface are brought to light. It was discovered from the study that since peri-urban livelihood is linked with assets base; it has been found that stock of asset, as well as transformation processes, were major factors in the shaping of livelihoods strategies. For that reason, success or failure of household livelihoods was seen to relate to the kind of livelihood strategy employed. With efforts to mitigate for livelihoods failure due to peri-urban development, households' recourse to remittances, land disposal, and other means as an alternative livelihood approach. The study calls for local government policy interventions in regulating peri-urban transformation process and providing safety nets for the vulnerable.

Keywords: urban expansion, peri-urban interface, livelihoods, asset

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
140 Assessing the Effects of Community Informatics on Livelihoods Sustainability in Nigeria: a Model for Rural Communities

Authors: Adebayo J. Julius, Oluremi N. Iluyomade

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Livelihood in Nigeria is a paradox of poverty amidst plenty. The Country is endowed with a good climate for agriculture, naturally growing fruit trees and vegetables, and undomesticated water resources. In spite of all its endowment, Nigeria continues to live in poverty year in year out. This thus raises a very important question as to how can there be so much poverty in Nigeria with all its natural endowments. This study focused comparative analysis of the utilization of community informatics for sustainable livelihoods through agriculture. The idea projected in this study is that small strategic changes in the modus operandi of social informatics can have a significant impact on sustainability of livelihoods. This paper carefully explored the theories of community informatics and its efficacies in dealing with sustainability issues. This study identified, described and evaluates the roles of community informatics in some sectors of the economy, different analytical tools to benchmark the influence of social informatics in agriculture against what is obtainable in agricultural sectors of the economy were used. It further employed comparative analysis to build a case model for sustainable livelihood in agriculture through community informatics.

Keywords: informatics , model, rural community, livelihoods sustainability, Nigeria

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139 Climate Change, Multiple Stressors, and Livelihoods: A Search for Communities Understanding, Vulnerability, and Adaptation in Zanzibar Islands

Authors: Thani R. Said

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There is a wide concern on the academic literatures that the world is on course to experience “severe and pervasive” negative impacts from climate change unless it takes rapid action to slash its greenhouse gas emissions. The big threat however, is more belligerent in the third world countries, small islands states in particular. Most of the academic literatures claims that the livelihoods, economic and ecological landscapes of most of the coastal communities are into serious danger due to the peril of climate change. However, focusing the climate change alone and paying less intention to the surrounding stressors which sometimes are apparent then the climate change its self has now placed at the greater concern on academic debates. The recently studies have begun to question such narrowed assessment of climate change intervening programs from both its methodological and theoretical perspectives as related with livelihoods and the landscapes of the coastal communities. Looking climate as alone as an ostentatious threat doesn't yield the yield an appropriate mechanisms to address the problem in its totality and tend to provide the partially picture of the real problem striking the majority of the peoples living in the coastal areas of small islands states, Zanzibar in particular. By using the multiples human grounded knowledge approaches, the objective of this study is to go beyond the mere climate change by analyzing other multiples stressors that real challenging and treating the livelihoods, economic and ecological landscapes of the coastal communities through dialectic understanding, vulnerability and adaptive mechanisms at their own localities. To be more focus and to capture the full picture on this study special intention will be given to those areas were climate changes intervening programs have been onto place, the study will further compare and contrast between the two islands communities, Unguja and Pemba taking into account their respective diverse economic and geographical landscapes prevailed.

Keywords: climate change, multiple stressors, livelihoods, vulnerability-adaptation

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138 Evaluating the Effects of Community Informatics on Sustainable Livelihoods: a Case Model for Rural Communities in Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo J. Julius, Oluremi N. Iluyomade

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Livelihood in Nigeria is a paradox of poverty amidst plenty. The Country is endowed with a good climate for agriculture, naturally growing fruit trees and vegetables, and undomesticated water resources. In spite of all its endowment, Nigeria continues to live in poverty year in year out. Rural communities adopted for this study are Ido, Omi-Adio, Onigambari, Okija and Lambata, 500 questionnaires were administered to solicit information from the respondents. This study focused on comparative analysis of the utilization of community informatics for sustainable livelihoods through agriculture. The idea projected in this study is that small strategic changes in the modus operandi of social informatics can have a significant impact on the sustainability of livelihoods. This paper carefully explored the theories of community informatics and its efficacies in dealing with sustainability issues. This study identified, described and evaluates the roles of community informatics in some sectors of the economy, different analytical tools to benchmark the influence of social informatics in agriculture against what is obtainable in agricultural sectors of the economy were used. It further employed comparative analysis to build a case model for sustainable livelihood in agriculture through community informatics.

Keywords: informatics, model, rural community, livelihood, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
137 A Drop of Water for the Thirsty Ground: Implementing Drip-Irrigation System as an Alternative to the Existing System to Promote Sustainable Livelihoods in the Archipelagic Dryland East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Authors: F. L. Benu, I. W. Mudita, R. L. Natonis

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East Nusa Tenggara, together with part of East Java, West Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku, has been included as part of global drylands defined according to the ratio of annual precipitation (P) and annual potential evaporation (PET) and major vegetation types of grassland and savannah ecosystems. These tropical drylands are unique because, whereas drylands in other countries are mostly continental, here they are archipelagic. These archipelagic drylands are also unique in terms of being included because of more on their major vegetation types than of their P/PET ratio. Slash-and-burn cultivation and free roaming animal husbandry are two major livelihoods being widely practiced, along with alternative seasonal livelihood such as traditional fishing. Such livelihoods are vulnerable in various respects, especially because of drought, which becomes more unpredictable in the face of climate changes. To cope with such vulnerability, semi-intensive farming using drip irrigation is implemented as an appropriate technology with the goal of promoting a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods. The implementation was started in 2016 with a pilot system at the university field laboratory in Kupang in which various designs of installation were tested. The modified system consisting of an uplifted water reservoir and solar-powered pump was tested in Papela, the District of Rote-Ndao, in 2017 to convince fishermen who had been involved in illegal fishing in Australia-Indonesia transboundary waters, to adopt small-scale farming as a more sustainable alternative to their existing livelihoods. The system was again tested in a larger coverage in Oesena, the District of Kupang, in 2018 to convince slash-and-burn cultivators to adopt an environmentally friendlier cultivation system. From the implementation of the modified system in both sites, the participating fishermen in Papela were able to manage the system under tight water supply to grow chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon and the slash-and-burn cultivators in Oesena to grow chili pepper in a more efficient water use than water use in a conventional irrigation system. The gross margin obtained from growing chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon in Papela and from growing chili pepper in Oesena showed that small-scale farming using drip irrigation system was a promising alternative to local people in generating cash income to support their livelihoods. However, before promoting this appropriate technology as a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods elsewhere in the region, better understanding on social-related contexts of the implementation is needed.

Keywords: archipelagic drylands, drip irrigation system, East Nusa Tenggara, sustainable livelihoods

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136 Income Inequality and Its Effects on Household Livelihoods in Parker Paint Community, Liberia

Authors: Robertson Freeman

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The prime objective of this research is to examine income inequality and its effects on household livelihoods in Parker Paint. Many researchers failed to address the potential threat of income inequality on diverse household livelihood indicators, including health, food, housing, transport and many others. They examine and generalize the effects of income differentials on household livelihoods by addressing one indicator of livelihood security. This research fills the loopholes of previous research by examining the effects of income inequality and how it affects the livelihoods of households, taking into consideration livelihood indicators including health, food security, and transport. The researcher employed the mixed research method to analyze the distribution of income and solicit opinions of household heads on the effects of their monthly income on their livelihoods. Age and sex structure, household composition, type of employment and educational status influence income inequality. The level of income, Lorenz curve and the Gini coefficient was mutually employed to calculate and determine the level of income inequality. One hundred eighty-two representing 96% of household heads are employed while 8, representing 4%, are unemployed. However, out of a total number of 182 employed, representing 96%, 27 people representing 14%, are employed in the formal private sector, while 110, representing 58%, are employed in the private informal sector. Monthly average income, savings, investments and unexpected circumstances affect the livelihood of households. Infrastructural development and wellbeing should be pursued by reducing expenditure earmarked in other sectors and channeling the funds towards the provision of household needs. One of the potent tools for consolidating household livelihoods is to initiate livelihood empowerment programs. Government and private sector agencies should establish more health insurance schemes, providing mosquito nets, immunization services, public transport, as well as embarking on feeding programs, especially in the remote areas of Parker paint. To climax the research findings, self-employment, entrepreneurship and the general private sector employment is a transparent double-edged sword. If employed in the private sector, there is the likelihood to increase one’s income. However, this also induces the income gap between the rich and poor since many people are exploited by affluence, thereby relegating the poor from the wealth hierarchy. Age and sex structure, as well as type of employment, should not be overlooked since they all play fundamental roles in influencing income inequality. Savings and investments seem to play a positive role in reducing income inequality. However, savings and investment in this research affect livelihoods negatively. It behooves mankind to strive and work hard to the best of ability in earning sufficient income and embracing measures to retain his financial strength. In so doing, people will be able to provide basic household needs, celebrate the reduction in unemployment and dependence and finally ensure sustainable livelihoods.

Keywords: income, inequality, livelihood, pakerpaint

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135 Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) through Harvesting Encosternum delegorguei Insect (Harurwa) in Nerumedzo, Bikita District, Zimbabwe

Authors: Mkhokheli Sithole, Brenda N. Muchapondwa

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Food security is becoming a critical issue for people residing mainly in the rural areas where frequent droughts interrupt food production, reduce income, compromise the ability to save and erode livelihoods. This tends to increase the vulnerability of poor households to food and income insecurity, hence, malnutrition. There is an emerging need for DRR strategies to complement the existing rain fed crop production based livelihoods. One of such strategies employed by the community of Nerumedzo in Bikita district is the harvesting of Encosternum delegorguei insect. This article analyses the livelihood impacts of Encosternum delegorguei insect as a DRR strategy. The research used a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The insect samples were tested in the laboratory for their nutritional composition while surveys were done on a sample of 40 community members. Participatory observations and 5 focus group discussions were also done. The results revealed that harvesting the Encosternum delegorguei insects provides a livelihood for the locals by complementing crop production thereby mitigating potential negative effects of frequent droughts. The insects are now a significant source of income to poor households in the community.

Keywords: disaster risk reduction, livelihoods, human, social sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
134 Local People’s Livelihoods and Coping Strategies in the Wake of a Co-management System in the Campo Ma'an National Park, Cameroon

Authors: Nchanji Yvonne Kiki, Mala William Armand, Nchanji Eileen Bogweh, Ramcilovik-Suominen Sabaheta, Kotilainen Juha

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The Campo Ma'an National Park was created as part of an environmental and biodiversity compensation for the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project, which was meant to help alleviate poverty and boost the livelihood of rural communities around the area. This paper examines different strategies and coping mechanisms employed by the indigenous people and local communities to deal with the national and internationally driven conservation policies and initiatives in the case of the Campo Ma'an National Park. While most literature on park management/co-management/nature conservation has focused on the negative implications for local peoples’ livelihoods, fewer studies have investigated the strategies of local people to respond to these policies and renegotiate their position in a way that enables them to continue their traditional livelihoods using the existing local knowledge systems. This study contributes to the current literature by zooming into not only the impacts of nature conservation policies but also the local individual and collective strategies and responses to such policies and initiatives. We employ a qualitative research approach using ethnomethodology and a convivial lens to analyze data collected from October to November 2018. We find that conservation policies have worsened some existing livelihoods on the one hand and constrained livelihood improvement of indigenous people and local communities (IPLC) on the other hand. Nonetheless, the IPLC has devised individual and collective coping mechanisms to deal with these conservation interventions and the negative effects they have caused. Upon exploring these mechanisms and their effectiveness, this study proposes a management approach to conservation centered on both people and nature, based on indigenous and local people's knowledge and practices, promoting nature for and by humans and strengthening both livelihood and conservation. We take inspiration from the convivial conservation approach and thinking by Bucher and Fletcher.

Keywords: conservation policies, national park management, indigenous and local people’s experiences, livelihoods, local knowledge, coping strategies, conviviality

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133 Women as Victims of Land Grabbing: Implications for Household Food Security and Livelihoods in Cameroon

Authors: Valentine Ndi

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This multi-sited research will make use of primary and secondary data to understand the multiple implications of land grabbing for local food production and rural livelihoods in Cameroon. Amidst restricted access to land and forest resources, this study will demonstrate how land previously accessed by communities to grow crops and to harvest forest resources is being acquired and transformed into commercial oil palm plantations by Herakles Farms, a US-based company, with Sithe Global Sustainable Oils Cameroon as its local subsidiary. Focusing on selected land grabbing communities in Cameroon, the study uses a feminist political ecology lens to examine the gendered nature in resources access and its impacts for women’s food production in particular, and rural livelihoods in general. The paper will argue that the change in land use particularly erodes women’s rights to access land and forest resources, and in turn negatively affects local food production and rural livelihood in the region. It will show how women in the region play instrumental and dominant roles in ensuring local food production through subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture but are unfortunately the main losers of territory that the state considers as ‘empty’ or underutilized - and is subjected to appropriation. The paper will conclude that, rural women’s active participation in the decision-making processes concerning the use of and/or allotment of land to foreign investors is indispensable to guarantee local, national and global food security, but also to ensure that alternative livelihood options are provided, particularly to those rural women facing dispossession or at risk of being dispossessed.

Keywords: land grabbing, feminst political ecology, gender, access to resources, rural livelihoods, Cameroon

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
132 Empowering Nigerian Rural Women through Ownership of Productive Resources

Authors: Sidiqat A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, Lateef L. Adefalu, Rashid S. Adisa, Felix O. Oladipo, Tawakalitu A. Dolapo

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This study investigates whether the rural women in Nigeria have access to productive resources such as land, livestock, and capital in order to determine their level of socio-economic empowerment. The study adopted a case study design while employing qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to identify 7 locations, where 88 women were selected based on simple random sampling technique. Focus group discussions and questionnaire were used to elicit information. Gender analysis framework was used to explore and analyse the data generated for the study. The study found that the rural women desire to engage in gainful economic activities. However, cultural barriers prevent them from adequately exploring livelihood-improving opportunities. It was established that ownership of productive resources such as land and livestock can enhance their livelihoods provided cultural and governance issues do not deter them from accessing the services. It was therefore recommended that appropriate policies that will favour the access and ownership of assets by women so as to empower them need to be in place. The study provides a nuanced perspective on the influence and relevance of possession of physical assets in enhancing women’s livelihood diversification and overall development of rural livelihoods.

Keywords: livelihoods, productivity, development, economic activities, socio-economic empowerment

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
131 The Last of Centuries Old Cardamom Farming in Eastern Nepal: Crop Disease, Coping Strategies and Institutional Innovation

Authors: K. C. Sony

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This paper investigates the coping strategies of households confronting disease in large cardamom (Amomum Subulatum Roxb.) in eastern Nepal. Cardamom farmers draw on various coping strategies to reduce the impact of crop disease in their livelihoods. Yet farmers face tremendous decline in production with a constant effort for revival. Past evidences provides dearth of information about coping strategies employed by farmers and institutional intervention to combat disease. Using factual data from Ilam district, and conducting a political economic analysis, this research addresses the gap by 1) understanding the impact of crop disease in farmers’ livelihoods, 2) identifying the coping strategies adopted by farmers and, 3) examining the existing institutional arrangements to address the disease. Coping strategies vary by household’s status defined by size of land, alternative income, and access to supporting institutions. Measures adopted are burning the cardamom field, changing land use pattern, diversifying crops, and visiting institutions for support. The local government’s support is limited to providing trainings and producing new varieties of cardamom. During crisis, farmers expect institutions to help revive the cardamom production, despite customary practice to combat disease. To retain and improve the livelihoods of farmers, there needs to be institutional innovation at the community level and policies that endorse immediate and sustainable support during hazards.

Keywords: cardamom, coping strategy, disease, institutions, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
130 Cost Implications of Natural Resources Conflicts on Livelihoods of Farmers and Pastoralists in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Ahmed Jajere

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Resource use conflicts capable of undermining of pastoralists’ livelihoods are on the increase in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria. In order to expose socio - economic effects of conflicts and benefits of peace, this study assessed cost implications of farmers/pastoralists conflicts over natural resources. Interviews were conducted with 94 farmers, 90 agro-pastoralists and 91 pastoralists’ household heads. The farmers and agro-pastoralists were systematically sampled while pastoralists were located using snowballing. Both farmers and pastoralists suffered losses in the form of injuries to, and even death of household members, and loss of shelter. Farmers sustained losses of facilities and farm produce while pastoralists suffered loss and seizure of livestock, arrest of household members and forced migrations. The material losses in monetary terms amounted to 14,242,200.00 nairas for farmers, a figure higher than the 10,915,500.00 nairas incurred by pastoralists.

Keywords: cost, conflicts, farmers, pastoralists

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
129 Socio-Economic Setting and Implications to Climate Change Impacts in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Kenneth Nhundu, Leocadia Zhou, Farhad Aghdasi, Voster Muchenje

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Climate change poses increased risks to rural communities that rely on natural resources, such as forests, cropland and rangeland, waterways, and open spaces Because of their connection to the land and the potential for climate change to impact natural resources and disrupt ecosystems and seasons, rural livelihoods and well-being are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change. Climate change has the potential to affect the environment in a number of ways that place increased stress on everyone, but disproportionately on the most vulnerable populations, including the young, the old, those with chronic illness, and the poor. The communities in the study area are predominantly rural, resource-based and are generally surrounded by public or private lands that are dominated by natural resources, including forests, rangelands, and agriculture. The livelihoods of these communities are tied to natural resources. Therefore, targeted strategies to cope will be required. This paper assessed the household socio-economic characteristics and their implications to household vulnerability to climate change impacts in the rural Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the rural communities are climate-vulnerable populations as they have a large proportion of people who are less economically or physically capable of adapting to climate change. The study therefore recommends that at each level, the needs, knowledge, and voices of vulnerable populations, including indigenous peoples and resource-based communities, deserve consideration and incorporation so that climate change policy (1) ensures that all people are supported and able to act, (2) provides as robust a strategy as possible to address a rapidly changing environment, and (3) enhances equity and justice.

Keywords: climate change, vulnerable, socio-economic, livelihoods

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128 Impact of Climatic Hazards on the Jamuna River Fisheries and Coping and Adaptation Strategies

Authors: Farah Islam, Md. Monirul Islam, Mosammat Salma Akter, Goutam Kumar Kundu

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The continuous variability of climate and the risk associated with it have a significant impact on the fisheries leading to a global concern for about half a billion fishery-based livelihoods. Though in the context of Bangladesh mounting evidence on the impacts of climate change on fishery-based livelihoods or their socioeconomic conditions are present, the country’s inland fisheries sector remains in a negligible corner as compared to the coastal areas which are spotted on the highlight due to its higher vulnerability to climatic hazards. The available research on inland fisheries, particularly river fisheries, has focussed mainly on fish production, pollution, fishing gear, fish biodiversity and livelihoods of the fishers. This study assesses the impacts of climate variability and changes on the Jamuna (a transboundary river called Brahmaputra in India) River fishing communities and their coping and adaptation strategies. This study has used primary data collected from Kalitola Ghat and Debdanga fishing communities of the Jamuna River during May, August and December 2015 using semi-structured interviews, oral history interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and impact matrix as well as secondary data. This study has found that both communities are exposed to storms, floods and land erosions which impact on fishery-based livelihood assets, strategies, and outcomes. The impact matrix shows that human and physical capitals are more affected by climate hazards which in turn affect financial capital. Both communities have been responding to these exposures through multiple coping and adaptation strategies. The coping strategies include making dam with soil, putting jute sac on the yard, taking shelter on boat or embankment, making raised platform or ‘Kheua’ and involving with temporary jobs. While, adaptation strategies include permanent migration, change of livelihood activities and strategies, changing fishing practices and making robust houses. The study shows that migration is the most common adaptation strategy for the fishers which resulted in mostly positive outcomes for the migrants. However, this migration has impacted negatively on the livelihoods of existing fishers in the communities. In sum, the Jamuna river fishing communities have been impacted by several climatic hazards and they have traditionally coped with or adapted to the impacts which are not sufficient to maintain sustainable livelihoods and fisheries. In coming decades, this situation may become worse as predicted by latest scientific research and an enhanced level of response would be needed.

Keywords: climatic hazards, impacts and adaptation, fisherfolk, the Jamuna River

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
127 Challenges Affecting the Livelihoods of Small-Scale, Aggregate Miners, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Ndivhudzannyi Rembuluwani, Francis Dacosta, Emmanuel Mhlongo

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The small-scale rock aggregate sector of the mining industry is a major source of employment for a significant number of people, particularly in remote rural areas, where alternative livelihoods are rare. It contributes to local economy by generating income and producing major and essential materials for the building, construction, and other industries. However, the sector is confronted with many challenges that hamper productivity and growth. The problems that confront this sector includes: health and safety, environmental impacts, low production and low adherence to mining legislations. This study investigated the challenges confronting selected small-scale rock aggregate mines in the Vhembe District of Limpopo province of South Africa, assesses the health, safety, low production and environmental impacts associated with aggregate production and to develop an integrated approach of addressing the multi-faceted challenges.

Keywords: health and safety, legislative framework, productivity, rock aggregate, small-scale mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
126 Socioeconomic Benefits in Agroforestry Practices by Rural Community: Case Study in Paitan District, Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: J. Kodoh, H. L. Dumil, M. Maid

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Agroforestry system has been widely documented that provide benefits to rural livelihoods and improved socioeconomic status. This study concerns on agroforestry practices in generating local socioeconomic livelihoods. The general approach is to survey local community involvement in the agroforestry activities at four selected rural villages in Paitan district, using a structured questionnaire through personal interview technique. A total of 200 respondents were interviewed where the largest age group of the respondents was more than 50 years old (31%). Almost all respondents had former education (76%), and majority of them were employed (97%) either in the government and private sectors or self-employed. All respondents (100%) were involved in agroforestry activities where agroforestry products as their source of income (Hevea brasiliensis, Durio zibethinus, Elaeis guinensis) and foods (Manihot esculenta, Mangifera sp., Musa sp.) The mean monthly income from selling agroforestry products contributed 16.6% (USD130.37) of the mean total monthly income of the respondents (r=0.407, r²=0.166, p < 0.01). This study also showed that the main driven factor for the respondents (93%) to adopt and sustain the agroforestry practices is their traditional ways of farming that transferred from generation to generation.

Keywords: agroforestry, Paitan district, rural community, socioeconomic

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
125 Local Farmer’s Perception on the Role of Room for the River in Livelihoods: Case Study in An Phu District, An Giang Province, Vietnam

Authors: Hoang Vo Thi Minh, Duyen Nguyen Thi Phuong, Gerardo Van Halsema

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As one of the deltas which is extremely vulnerable to climate change, the Mekong Delta, Vietnam is facing many challenges that need to be addressed in strategic and holistic ways. In this study scope, a strategic delta planning is recently considered as a new vision of Adaptive Delta Management for the Mekong Delta. In Adaptive Delta Management, Room for the Rivers (RftR) has been formulated as a typical innovation, which is currently in need of careful consideration for implementing in the Mekong Delta’s planning process. This study then attempts to investigate the roles and analyze sociological aspects of the RftR as potential strategic 'soft' measure, in upstream of Hau River in An Phu district, An Giang province, especially in terms of its so-called multifunctions. The study applied social science approach embedded with a few qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and questionnaire distribution and conjoint analysis as a quantitative approach. The former mainly aims at gaining the local community’s perceptions about the RftR solution. The latter tries to gain farmers’ willingness to accept (WTA) with regard to their level of preference towards the three selected solutions which are considered as strategic plans for sustainably developing the MD. Qualitative data analysis shows that, farmers perceive RftR as very useful for their livelihoods due to its multifunctions as well as in terms of water management. The quantitative results illustrated that respondents expressed their WTAs on RftR as 84. 240 thousand VND / year. Amongst the three solutions that are analysed within this study (Floating rice for upper delta, Room for the Rivers for the Middle, and Shrimp-Mangrove integration for the coastal delta), RfrR was ranked as second preference from respondents. This result is not exactly reflecting the real values of these three mentioned solutions but showing a tendency that can be seen as a reference for the decision-makers in delta planning processes.

Keywords: strategic delta planning, room for the River, farmers’ perception, willingness-to-accept, local livelihoods

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
124 Livestock Depredation by Large Predators: Patterns, Perceptions and Implications for Conservation and Livelihoods in Karakoram Mountain Ranges

Authors: Muhammad Zafar Khan, Babar Khan, Muhammad Saeed Awan, Farida Begum

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Livestock depredation has greater significance in pastoral societies like Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindu Kush mountain ranges. The dynamics of depredation by large predators (snow leopard and wolf) and its implications for conservation and livelihoods of local people was investigated by household surveys in Hushey valley of Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We found that, during five years (2008-12) 90% of the households in the valley had lost their livestock to snow leopard and wolf, accounting for 4.3% of the total livestock holding per year. On average each household had to bear a loss of 0.8 livestock head per year, equivalent to Pak Rupees 9,853 (US$ 101), or 10% of the average annual cash income. Majority of the predation incidences occurred during late summer in alpine pastures, mostly at night when animals were not penned properly. The prey animals in most of the cases were females or young ones. Of the total predation incidences, 60% were attributed to snow leopard, 37% to wolf, while in 3% the predator was unknown. The fear of snow leopard is greater than that of wolf. As immediate response on predation, majority of the local people (64%, n=99) preferred to report the case to their village conservation committee, 32% had no response while only 1% tended to kill the predator. The perceived causes of predation were: poor guarding practices (77%); reduction in wild prey (13%) and livestock being the favourite food of predators (10%). The most preferred strategies for predator management, according to the respondents were improved and enhanced guarding of livestock (72%), followed by increasing wild prey (18%) and lethal control (10%). To strike a balance between predator populations and pastoral livelihoods, better animal husbandry practices should be promoted including: improved guarding through collective hiring of skilled shepherds; corral improvement and use of guard dogs.

Keywords: Panthera unica, Canis lupus, Karakoram, human-carnivore conflict, predation

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123 Small-Scale Mining Policies in Ghana: Miners' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices

Authors: Franklin Nantui Mabe, Robert Osei

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Activities and operations of artisanal small scale mining (ASM) have recently appealed to the attention of policymakers, researchers, and the general public in Ghana. This stems from the negative impacts of ASM operations on the environment and livelihoods of local inhabitants, as well as the disregard for available ASM mining policies. This study, therefore, investigates whether or not artisanal small-scale miners have enough knowledge of the mining policies and their implementations. The study adopted the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) framework approach to design the research, collect and analyze primary data. The most aware ASM policy provision is the one that mandates the government to reserve demarcated ASM areas for Ghanaians, whilst the least aware provision is the one that admonishes the government to promote co-operative saving among ASM. The awareness index is lower than the attitude index towards the policy provisions. In terms of practices, miners continued to use bad practices with the associated negative impacts on the environment and rural livelihoods. It is therefore important for the government through mineral commission, district, municipal and metropolitan assemblies to intensify the education on the ASM policies. These could be done with the help of ASM associations. The current systems where a cluster of districts have a single Mineral Commission Office should be restructured to make sure that each mining district has an office.

Keywords: mining policies, KAP, awareness, artisanal small-scale mining

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122 Conflicts between Conservation and Community Livelihoods: Lessons from KwaNibela and iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Zwelakhe Maseko

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This chapter assesses the conflict arising from conservation between iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community of KwaNibela, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. To achieve the aim of this study a qualitative research approach was adopted which included one-on-one in-depth interviews with fifty people from the community of KwaNibela who were randomly selected. In-depth interviews were further conducted with three officials from iSimangaliso Wetland Park who were purposely selected to understand their perceptions. The findings suggest that iSimangaliso Wetland Park conservation strategies have a negative impact on the socio-economic wellbeing of the people in KwaNibela due to limited access to natural resources and lack of economic opportunities. This has led to conflict between the stakeholders of iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community. ISimangaliso Wetland Park generates income from tourists who visit the park, while the community of KwaNibela receives little to no benefits from both tourism and conservation. This has led to conflict since the community of KwaNibela feels that iSimangaliso is generating income from their traditional land and natural resources while they (the community) are left poverty-stricken. In order to achieve conservation that caters to the needs and livelihoods of local people, it is suggested that iSimangaliso Wetland Park includes the community of KwaNibela in their conservation efforts and creates economic opportunities for the same community through conservation and tourism.

Keywords: conservation, socio-economic development, protected areas, natural Resources

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121 Concerns for Extreme Climate Conditions and Their Implications in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Oyenike Eludoyin

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Extreme climate conditions are deviation from the norms and are capable of causing upsets in many important environmental parameter including disruption of water balance and air temperature balance. Studies have shown that extreme climate conditions can foretell disaster in regions with inadequate early warning systems. In this paper, we combined geographical information systems, statistics and social surveys to evaluate the physiologic indices [(Dewpoint Temperature (Td), Effective Temperature Index (ETI) and Relative Strain Index (RSI)] and extreme climate conditions in different parts of southwest Nigeria. This was with the view to assessing the nature and the impact of the conditions on the people and their coping strategies. The results indicate that minimum, mean and maximum temperatures were higher in 1960-1990 than 1991-2013 periods at most areas, and more than 80% of the people adapt to thermal stress by changing wear type or cloth, installing air conditioner and fan at home and/or work place and sleeping outside at certain period of the night and day. With respect to livelihoods, about 52% of the interviewed farmers indicated that too early rainfall, late rainfall, prolonged dryness after an initial rainfall, excessive rainfall and windstorms caused low crop yields. Main (76%) coping strategies were changing of planting dates, diversification of crops, and practices of mulching and intercropping. Government or institutional support was less than 20%.

Keywords: coping strategies, extreme climate, livelihoods, physiologic comfort

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120 A Change in Property-Rights Regime and the Proliferation of Fenced Plots, Investigating Its Implication on the Livelihoods of the Locals: A Case Study of the Guji Highlands of South Ethiopia

Authors: Tingirtu Gebretsadik

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This study aimed at explaining factors behind the ever increasing individualization over pastoral commons land and assesses the implication of the current change in property-ownership and land use system on the livelihoods of the Guji agro-pastoral system. Thus, three kebeles of Ana Sora woreda were selected for they conventionally appear to accommodate farming, pastoral and agro-pastoral systems. The survey method was employed to gather information on the major socio-economic condition of households. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were also held in all the three kebele. The empirical results were interpreted by integrating institutional, livelihood and adaptation frameworks. In this study individualization of ownership of pastoral commons manifested in the form of fenced closures is on the rise among the Guji and it has been adopted as the outcome of a long run process. Factors related to ecology and rangeland degradation, socio-economic changes, land registration and certification has allowed the increasing engagement in fencing commons grazing land for individual use. Consequently, the Guji pastoral system of production demonstrated a declining trend, and are adapting to alternative livelihood strategies. Moreover, farming and other developments have facilitated pastoral land losses and land use claims and tenure ambiguities.

Keywords: land tenure, traditional institutions, property rights, fenced plots

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119 Women in Violent Conflicts and the Challenges of Food Security in Northeast Nigeria: The Case of Boko Haram Insurgency

Authors: Grace Modupe Adebo, Ayodeji Oluwamuyiwa Adedapo

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Women are key actors in ensuring food security in terms of food availability, food access, and food utilization in the developing economy, however, they suffer mostly during violent conflicts due to their feminist nature of rearing and caring for their children and relatives. The study was embarked upon to access the effects of violent conflicts posed by Boko Haram insurgency on women and food security in the Northeast of Nigeria. The study made use of secondary data. A time series data collected over a 22 years period were used. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and t-test analysis. The findings of the study established a significant difference in food production (availability) before and after the Boko Haram insurgency at the 1% level of significance. The high level of Internally Displaced Person (IDP) with a high proportion of women depicts a very low level of food accessibility as the men and women has fled and uninhabited their place of abode for over a period of four to five years, thus diminishing their economic power, and the means of acquiring food which invariably endanger food stability and utilization. The study confirmed the abduction and changing roles of women as cooks, porters, spies, partners, and sex slaves to Boko Haram troop members, thus affecting their livelihoods and food security. The study recommends hands-on interventions by the governmental, non-governmental and international agencies to terminate the activities of Boko Haram in the area and restore the food production for enhanced food security.

Keywords: Boko Haram insurgency, food accessibility, food production, food utilization, women’s livelihoods

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118 Perceptions of Climate Change Risk to Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study of Patale Community Forestry User Group, Nepal

Authors: N. R. P Withana, E. Auch

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The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of climate change risk to forest ecosystems and forest-based communities as well as perceived effectiveness of adaptation strategies for climate change as well as challenges for adaptation. Data was gathered using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Simple random selection technique was applied. For the majority of issues, the responses were obtained on multi-point Likert scales, and the scores provided were, in turn, used to estimate the means and other useful estimates. A composite knowledge index developed using correct responses to a set of self-rated statements were used to evaluate the issues. The mean of the knowledge index was 0.64. Also all respondents recorded values of the knowledge index above 0.25. Increase forest fire was perceived by respondents as the greatest risk to forest eco-system. Decrease access to water supplies was perceived as the greatest risk to livelihoods of forest based communities. The most effective adaptation strategy relevant to climate change risks to forest eco-systems and forest based communities livelihoods in Kathmandu valley in Nepal as perceived by the respondents was reforestation and afforestation. As well, lack of public awareness was perceived as the major limitation for climate change adaptation. However, perceived risks as well as effective adaptation strategies showed an inconsistent association with knowledge indicators and social-cultural variables. The results provide useful information to any party who involve with climate change issues in Nepal, since such attempts would be more effective once the people’s perceptions on these aspects are taken into account.

Keywords: climate change, risk perceptions, forest ecosystems, forest-based communities

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117 Status of Mangrove Wetlands and Implications for Sustainable Livelihood of Coastal Communities on the Lagos Coast (West Africa)

Authors: I. Agboola Julius, Christopher A. Kumolu-Johnson, O. Kolade Rafiu, A. Saba Abdulwakil

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This work elucidates on mangrove diversity, trends of change, factors responsible for loss over the years and implications for sustainable livelihoods of locals in four villages (Ajido (L1), Tarkwa bay (L2), University of Lagos (L3), and Ikosi (L4)) along the coast of Lagos, Nigeria. Primary data were collected through field survey, questionnaires, interviews, and review of existing literature. Field observation and data analysis reveals mangrove diversity as low and varied on a spatial scale, where Margalef’s Diversity Index (D) was 0.368, 0.269, 0.326, and 0.333, respectively for L1, L2, L3, and L4. Shannon Weiner’s Index (H) was estimated to be 1.003, 1.460, 1.160, 1.046, and Specie Richness (E) 0.913, 0.907, 0.858, and 0.015, respectively, for the four villages. Also, The Simpson’s index of diversity was analyzed to be 0.632, 0. 731, 0.647, 0.667, and Simpson’s reciprocal index 2.717, 3.717, 3.060, and 3.003, respectively, for the four villages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the impact of mangrove loss on the sustainable livelihood of coastal communities. Calculated Chi-square (X2) value (5) was higher than tabulated value (4.30), suggesting that loss of mangrove wetlands impacted on local communities’ livelihood at the four villages. Analyses of causes and trends of mangrove wetland loss over the years suggest that urbanization, fuel wood and agricultural activities are major causes. Current degradation observed in mangrove wetlands on the Lagos coast suggest a reduction in mangroves biodiversity and associated fauna with potential cascading effects on higher trophic levels such as fisheries. Low yield in fish catch, reduction in income and increasing cases of natural disaster has culminated in threats to sustainable livelihoods of local communities along the coast of Lagos.

Keywords: Mangroves, lagos coast, fisheries, management

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116 Impact of Agroforestry Practices on Biodiversity Management and Livelihoods of Communities Adjacent Magamba Nature Reserve(MNR), Tanzania

Authors: P. J. Kagosi, M. Mndolwa, E. Japhate

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The study was conducted to communities adjacent MNR, Lushoto district, Tanzania. The MNR is one of the nine nature reserves in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania with an area of 8,700ha with high biological diversity. However, biodiversity in MNR have been threatened by increasing human activities for livelihood in 1970s. The AF systems in the study area was practised since 1980s however, no study was conducted on AF impacts. This paper presents the influence of AF on livelihood of communities adjacent MNR and biodiversity conservation. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using socio-economic survey and botanical surveys. Data were analysed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences and content analysis. The study found that in 1970s free livestock grazing caused considerable surface runoff, soil erosion and reduction of crop production. Since 1980s, the study area received various interventions based on the land conservations and improved livelihood through practising AF systems. It was further found that the AF farming improved crop productivity, reduced soil erosion, increased firewood (80.2%) and other forest products availability and AF encouraged community members practicing indoor livestock keeping.The dominant agroforestry tree found in the study area is grevillea reported by 74.1% of respondents planting an average of 40 trees. The study found that the AF reduced pressure to MNR as forest products and fodders were obtained from community's farms in turn, currently water flow from MNR has been increased. Thus AF products support livelihood needs and conserve biodiversity. The study recommends continuity education on new AF technology packages.

Keywords: impact of agroforestry, biodiversity management, communities’ livelihoods, Magamba nature reserve

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115 Participatory Approach for Urban Sustainability through Ostrom’s Principles

Authors: Kuladeep Kumar Sadevi

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The shift towards raising global urban population has intense implications on the sustainability of the urban livelihoods. Rapid urbanization has made governments, companies and civil societies recognize that they are barely equipped to deal with growing urban demands, especially water, waste and energy management. Effective management of land, water, energy and waste at a community level should be addressed well to attain greener cities. In pursuit of Green livelihoods; various norms, codes, and green rating programmes have been followed by stakeholders at various levels. While the sustainability is being adapted at smaller scale developments, greening the urban environment at community/city level is still finding its path to reality. This is due to lack of the sense of ownership in the citizens for their immediate neighborhoods and city as a whole. This phenomenon can be well connected to the theory of 'tragedy of commons' with respect to the community engagement to manage the common pool resources. The common pool resource management has been well addressed by Elinor Ostrom, who shared the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2009 for her lifetime of scholarly work investigating how communities succeed or fail at managing common pool (finite) resources. This paper examines the applicability of Elinor Ostrom's 8 Principles for Managing a Commons, to meet urban sustainability. The key objective of this paper is to come up with a model for effective urban common pool resource management, which ultimately leads to sustainability as a whole. The paper brings out a methodology to understand various parameters involved in urban sustainability, examine the synergies of all such parameters, and application of Ostrom’s principles to correlate these parameters in order to attain effective urban resource management.

Keywords: common pool resources, green cities, green communities, participatory management, sustainable development, urban resource management, urban sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
114 Conflicts and Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS: Gender Dimension in Rain Forest Zone of Nigeria

Authors: K. K. Bolarinwa, A. F. O. Ayinde, B. B. Abiona, O. Oyekunle

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Conflict and HIV/AIDS infection have had a profound impact on the Sub-Saharan African societies, individually and collectively. Nigeria has been experiencing several violent conflicts in many communities across the geographical spread of the country. These conflicts which often lead to loss of lives, properties and loss of livelihoods are mainly felt by women in terms of increased responsibility towards affected family members with attendant decrease in livelihood options. Despite these, conflict issues have not really received enough focal attention by Nigerian academics. It is against this backdrop that this study was undertaken to describe the respondents, the most prevalent conflict repercussions and most prevalent STDs, in conflict areas. Data were collected using interview schedule to elicit a response from 122 respondents in Southwest Nigeria, through a multi-stage sampling technique involving stratification of respondents into violent conflict areas (VCA) and non-violent conflict areas (NVCA). The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. Results revealed that majority (86.5% and 70.5 %) of the respondents were in the age bracket of 10-39 years in both the VCA and NVCA respectively; 35.5% and 40.2% of the respondents were literate in VCA and NVCA, respectively while 76.5% and 55.8% of the respondents were in the lower income groups in VCA and NVCA, respectively. HIV/AIDS and gonorrhoea were the more predominant (75.2% and 55.6% respectively) STDs in the VCA as against 33.2% and 38.3% respectively in the NVCA. Further, significant (p<0.05) correlation existed between conflict incidence and spread of HIV/AIDS, rape and torture, maltreatment of women as well as sexual harassment; in both VCA and NVCA among others. The study concluded that conflict situations in the study area aggravated incidence of HIV/AIDS and made the women more vulnerable to inhuman treatments such as rape, torture and harassment with attendant reduction in sources of livelihoods. The study recommended among others that sensitisation on control and preventive measures of HIV/AID and other sexually transmitted diseases should be included in programme designed to mitigate against conflicts in the study areas.

Keywords: conflict, gender dimension, HIV/AIDS epidemiology, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 194