Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 83

Search results for: UNESCO

83 The Education-Development Nexus: The Vision of International Organizations

Authors: Thibaut Lauwerier

Abstract:

This presentation will cover the vision of international organizations on the link between development and education. This issue is very relevant to address the general topic of the conference. 'Educating for development' is indeed at the heart of their discourse. For most of international organizations involved in education, it is important to invest in this field since it is at the service of development. The idea of this presentation is to better understand the vision of development according to these international organizations and how education can contribute to this type of development. To address this issue, we conducted a comparative study of three major international organizations (OECD, UNESCO and World Bank) influencing education policy at the international level. The data come from the strategic reports of these organizations over the period 1990-2015. The results show that the visions of development refer mainly to the neoliberal agenda, despite evolutions, even contradictions. And so, education must increase productivity, improve economic growth, etc. UNESCO, which has a less narrow conception of the development and therefore the aims of education, does not have the same means as the two other organizations to advocate for an alternative vision.

Keywords: development, education, international organizations, poilcy

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82 The World Heritage List: A Big Data Spatial Econometrics Approach to Sites Promoting the Brand

Authors: David Wuepper, Marc Patry

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UNESCO’s World Heritage program requests the inscribed locations to promote the World Heritage brand by clearly presenting information about it on-site. Based on feedback from over 319,000 visitors at 791 locations, we create an index that shows how much the World Heritage sites actually brand themselves as such. We find great heterogeneity throughout the list and explain this econometrically mostly with the economic benefit for the sites but also with cultural brand preferences, which are highest in Asia, followed by Europe and North America. We also find a positive relationship between World Heritage branding and conservation status and a U-shaped relationship between visitor numbers and WH branding. Based on our findings, we recommend to make clear World Heritage branding mandatory for all sites.

Keywords: UNESCO World Heritage, collective brand, cultural tourism, heritage conservation, brand equity, spatial econometrics

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81 Study of Land Use Land Cover Change of Bhimbetka with Temporal Satellite Data and Information Systems

Authors: Pranita Shivankar, Devashree Hardas, Prabodhachandra Deshmukh, Arun Suryavanshi

Abstract:

Bhimbetka Rock Shelters is the UNESCO World Heritage Site located about 45 kilometers south of Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Rapid changes in land use land cover (LULC) adversely affect the environment. In recent past, significant changes are found in the cultural landscape over a period of time. The objective of the paper was to study the changes in land use land cover (LULC) of Bhimbetka and its peripheral region. For this purpose, the supervised classification was carried out by using satellite images of Landsat and IRS LISS III for the year 2000 and 2013. Use of remote sensing in combination with geographic information system is one of the effective information technology tools to generate land use land cover (LULC) change information.

Keywords: IRS LISS III, Landsat, LULC, UNESCO, World Heritage Site

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80 The Increasing Importance of the Role of AI in Higher Education

Authors: Joshefina Bengoechea Fernandez, Alex Bell

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In its 2021 guidance for policy makers, the UNESCO has proposed 4 areas where AI can be applied in educational settings: These are: 1) Education management and delivery; 2) Learning and assessment; 3) Empowering teachers and facilitating teaching, and 4) Providing lifelong learning possibilities (UNESCO, 2021). Like with wblockchain technologies, AI will automate the management of educational institutions. These include, but are not limited to admissions, timetables, attendance, and homework monitoring. Furthermore, AI will be used to select relevant learning content across learning platforms for each student, based on his or her personalized needs. A problem educators face is the “one-size-fits-all” approach that does not work with a diverse student population. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate if the implementation of Technology is the solution to the Problems faced in Higher Education. The paper builds upon a constructivist approach, combining a literature review and research on key publications and academic reports.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, learning platforms, students personalised needs, life- long learning, privacy, ethics

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79 Highlighting Adverse Effects of Privatization of Heritage on Taj Mahal and Providing Solutions to Improve the Condition without Privatizing

Authors: Avani Saraswat

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The paper studies the present condition of Taj Mahal (the UNESCO world heritage site) and the reasons behind deterioration. Analysis is done to explore the reasons behind this building to be included in the list of adopt heritage scheme, by the Government of India. The aim is to find out the future effects on Taj Mahal after being adopted by a private body. Finally, it suggests solutions which can lead to improvement of the present condition of the building. In order to establish a research, a further analysis is done through a case study of Red Fort, New Delhi (another UNESCO world heritage site). This monument was given to Dalmia Group of India Pvt. Ltd. for the tenure of 5 years. Paper discusses the consequences of privatization on Red Fort and then analyze it for Taj Mahal. It terms monument as riches of a heritage chest, not as a commercial tourist place. The study is concluded with the ideas and suggestions proposed for saving Taj Mahal and advantages on improving the health of the building.

Keywords: privatisation of heritage, heritage, Taj Mahal, adopt heritage scheme

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78 A Contested Territory in a Sacralized Landscape: The Fight of the Gich Community over Semien Mountains National Park

Authors: Marshet Girmay

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Local community involvement is widely considered vital for the sustainability of heritage management. Yet, it is often the case that heritage-related projects lag behind in community involvement. In the Semien Mountains the creation, first, and expansion, later, of the National Park has led to several conflicts with the local communities that for centuries have inhabited the area. Local communities have only been passive actors in the plans to expand the Park set up by UNESCO and by local decision makers. This paper investigates the causes that led the Gich community, one of the communities affected by the Park’s expansion, to refuse the resettlement plan offered by the authorities. Qualitative research methods were employed, including document analysis, community conference and interview of informants. The paper shows that although the local community of Gich was highly attached to the Park’s heritage assets, their level of involvement in the heritage management was very low due to shortcomings in the design and implementation of official policies. Therefore, their attitude towards the Park’s managers has been until the present one of mistrust and opposition. The paper recommends to policy-makers a series of measures more sensitive towards local communities, such as that the development agencies act as true communication facilitators and regional authorities nurture sincere relationships with the locals.

Keywords: Gich, heritage management, local communities, Semen Mountains, sustainability, UNESCO, world heritage site

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77 Place Branding and the Sense of Place in the Italian UNESCO World Heritage Site of Vicenza

Authors: A. Chtourou, K. Ben Youssef, M. Friel, T. Leicht

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These Place attributes and destination images associated with tourism destinations are often crucial important for tourist travel decisions and choice behavior. Understanding the interactions between them is fundamental for developing sustainable place brands. Despite their extensive use on an empirical ground, little research has been done in terms of analyzing the constructs that determine the sense of place in the marketing of cultural heritage sites and on how tourist experiences at such places influence tourist motivations to revisit destinations. By referring to the Italian city of Vicenza, internationally renowned for its gold jewelry production and for the Palladian architectures and buildings which have been recognized World Heritage by the UNESCO, the paper aims to identify how destination image, place familiarity and travel satisfaction influence tourists’ motivations to revisit Vicenza. After an introduction and literature review, the paper investigates the importance of the core constructs that determine the sense of place in the tourist practice. In accordance with previous research, the results provide evidence that favorable travel experiences influence revisit intentions positively. The managerial implications and recommendations for the city of Vicenza are discussed.

Keywords: consumer behavior, heritage tourism, sense of place, place branding, territorial marketing

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76 Historic Urban Landscape Approach, a Methodology to Elaborate Sustainable Development Plans through Culture and Heritage: The Case Study of Valverde de Burguillos (Spain)

Authors: Julia Rey Perez, Victoria Dominguez Ruiz

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The phenomenon of depopulation puts the authorities at risk of abandoning a number of rural-urban areas of significant cultural value, affecting their architecture and intangible cultural heritage. The purpose of this research is to present a methodology created according to the UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL), which through the identification of cultural values and attributes, leads to ´Strategic Plans´ build upon the culture and heritage. This methodology is based on the analysis of the town from three perspectives: 1) from the public administration, 2) from the discipline of architecture, and 3) from citizen perception. In order to be able to work on the development of a diagnosis from three very different approaches, collaborative cartographies have been used as working tools. The methodology discussed was applied in Valverde de Burguillos, in Spain, leading to the construction of an inclusive ‘Strategic Plan’ that integrates the management of the town within the overall territorial development plan. The importance of incorporating culture and heritage as a conductor for sustainable urban development through the HUL approach has allowed the local authorities to assume these new tools for heritage conservation, acknowledging community participation as the main element for the ´Strategic Plan” elaboration.

Keywords: rural heritage, citizen participation, inclusiveness, urban governance, UNESCO

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75 Nigeria's Distressed Economy and Achievement of Child-Friendly School Model

Authors: Onyeke Paul Chuks

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Nigeria is ranked among the developing nations and a country with a low income per capita. The consequences of this economic situation have led to the low achievement records below UN benchmark especially in the area of basic education for her citizens. The country is, however, making relentless efforts at arresting the situation by making budgetary allocations to ensure the realization of Millennium Development Goal No. 2 which is achieving universal basic education, her distressed economy notwithstanding. Basic education which comprises primary and lower secondary education as well as pre-primary and/or adult literacy programs have suffered serious setbacks orchestrated by the dwindling of the nation’s economy. This category of education being the bedrock of all other levels of education is regarded as a priority by developing countries and also the focus of the Education for All Movement led by UNESCO. The introduction of child-friendly school model is one of the strategies designed by UNESCO to achieving this all important MDGs goal No. 2. Child-friendly education model is aimed at replacing the out-dated, mundane, regimented and officious school administrative model where the basic rights of school children are trampled upon with impunity and community participation in school activities is viewed as unnecessary interference by school managers. This paper ex-rayed the potential obstacles likely to impinge on the implementation of child-friendly school model in Nigeria especially from the angle of her distressed economy and the colossal effects of the corrupt practices bedeviling the nation. The paper as well outlines prospects for the successful implementation of the child-friendly school model in Nigeria.

Keywords: child-friendly school, distressed economy, model, Nigeria

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74 The UNESCO Management Plan for Urban Heritage Sites: A Critical Review of Olinda and Porto, in Brazil and Portugal

Authors: Francine Morales Tavares, Jose Alberto Rio Fernandes

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The expanding concept of Heritage and the increased relevance of how heritage places relate to their surroundings is associated with an important shift in public heritage policies and how they consider the development of cities and communities, with an increasingly relevant role of management. Within the current discussions, management plans, mandatory since the year 2005 in areas classified by UNESCO as World Heritage, it is a tool for the reconciliation of cultural heritage demands with the needs of multiple users of a certain area, being especially critical in the case of urban areas with intense touristic pressure. Considering the transformations of the heritage policy management model, this paper discusses the practices on the integration of cultural heritage in urban policies through indicators which were selected from resource manual 'Managing Cultural World Heritage (2013)' and analyzed two case studies: The Management Plan of the Historic Centre of Porto (Portugal) and The Management Plan for the Historic Site of Olinda (Brazil). The empirical evidence concluded that for the historic centre of Porto the increase of tourism is the main aim driver in the management plan, with positive and negative aspects on the heritage management point of view, unlike Olinda, where the plan for the development of local urban policies was identified as essential. Plans also differ in form, content and process but coincide on being unaligned with committed local political leaders’ agendas, with the consequent misunderstandings between theory and practice, planning and management, and critically missing in the field integration of urban policies. Therefore, more debate about management plans, more efficient tools and also, appropriate methodologies to correlate cultural heritage and urban public policy are still lacking.

Keywords: world heritage, management plan, planning, urban policies

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73 Attrition of Igbo Indigenous Wives' Given Pet Names: Implications for the Igbo Language Endangerment

Authors: Ogbonna Anyanwu

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Language attrition describes the non-pathological decrease in language that had previously been acquired by an individual. It can affect some aspects of a language use or all aspects of a language use. The Igbo language, (despite its status as one of the major Nigerian languages) based on recent studies is fast losing its population of first generation speakers and therefore, increasingly becoming endangered and may be heading to extinction as warned by UNESCO if there are no conscious efforts to reverse the situation. The present paper, which contributes to the Igbo endangerment studies, examines the attrition of an aspect of the Igbo language use and practice: the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names. It surveys the level of attrition of indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names; names which Igbo married men christen their wives upon marriage. The wives’ pet names under investigation here are specifically those which a husband traditionally christens his wife to reflect the intimate marital bond between them and also to extol his wife as an integral part of him. These pet names morphologically, are always suffixed with the compound morpheme diya which is translated as 'her husband' as in enyidiya 'her husband’s friend', obidiya 'her husband’s heart', ahudiya 'her husband’s body', ugwudiya 'her husband’s honour’, etc. The data for the study were collected through questionnaire, and oral interview from 300 male and 100 female respondents of different age groups who are married, indigenous Igbo speakers and are resident in the study areas (two Local Government Areas from two different Senatorial Zones in Abia and Imo States, south-eastern, Nigeria). Findings from the study show almost a total attrition of the Igbo indigenous wives’ pet names under study across the different age groups. For the respondents within the age group of 25-54 years, there is no more christening and bearing of the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names by men and women respectively. This age group gives and bears pet names which the group members feel are contemporary and in line with modernity. This is a piece of evidence that the Igbo indigenous pet names’ use and practice are no longer part of the lifestyle of this group of respondents and therefore, they cannot transmit such names to their own children. For the respondents within the age group of 55-74 years, the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names are also fading fast with less than 20% retention within the age group of 65-74 years with very few traces within the group of 55-64 years. These findings are further evidence that this aspect of Igbo language use and culture is severely threatened and may be on the verge of being lost. The loss of this aspect of the Igbo language or any aspect of the language has huge implications for the gradual and steady endangerment of the language as predicted by UNESCO.

Keywords: attrition, endangerment, practice, Igbo

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72 Education for Sustainable Development Pedagogies: Examining the Influences of Context on South African Natural Sciences and Technology Teaching and Learning

Authors: A. U. Ugwu

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Post-Apartheid South African education system had witnessed waves of curriculum reforms. Accordingly, there have been evidences of responsiveness towards local and global challenges of sustainable development over the past decade. In other words, the curriculum shows sensitivity towards issues of Sustainable Development (SD). Moreover, the paradigm of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was introduced by the UNESCO in year 2015. The SDGs paradigm is essentially a vision towards actualizing sustainability in all aspects of the global society. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in retrospect entails teaching and learning to actualize the intended UNESCO 2030 SDGs. This paper explores how teaching and learning of ESD can be improved, by drawing from local context of the South African schooling system. Preservice natural sciences and technology teachers in their 2nd to 4th years of study at a university’s college of education in South Africa were contacted as participants of the study. Using qualitative case study research design, the study drew from the views and experiences of five (5) purposively selected participants from a broader study, aiming to closely understating how ESD is implemented pedagogically in teaching and learning. The inquiry employed questionnaires and a focus group discussion as qualitative data generation tools. A qualitative data analysis of generated data was carried out using content and thematic analysis, underpinned by interpretive paradigm. The result of analyzed data, suggests that ESD pedagogy at the location where this research was conducted is largely influenced by contextual factors. Furthermore, the result of the study shows that there is a critical need to employ/adopt local experiences or occurrences while teaching sustainable development. Certain pedagogical approaches such as the use of videos relative to local context should also be considered in order to achieve a more realistic application. The paper recommends that educational institutions through teaching and learning should implement ESD by drawing on local contexts and problems, thereby foregrounding constructivism, appreciating and fostering students' prior knowledge and lived experiences.

Keywords: context, education for sustainable development, natural sciences and technology preservice teachers, qualitative research, sustainable development goals

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71 Detonating Culture, Statistic and Developmenet in Imo State of Nigeria

Authors: Ejikeme Ugiri

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In an executive summary, UNESCO describes Framework for Cultural Statistics as a tool for organizing cultural statistics both nationally and internationally. This is based on conceptual foundation and a common understanding of culture that will enable the measurement of a wide range of cultural expressions. This means therefore that cultural expression in whatever guise has the potentiality of contributing reasonably to the development of a given society. The paper looked into the various tangible and intangible cultures in Imo State of Nigeria. Due to government’s insensitivity, there is need to remind ourselves of the need to pay adequate attention to the cultural heritage bequeathed to us by our forefathers for the sake of posterity. Documenting this information in written form therefore becomes imperative. The study concludes that culture if developed, could reasonably contribute to economic and social growth of the society.

Keywords: culture, detonation, development, statistics

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70 Embracing Inclusive Education: The Issues, Challenges, Dilemmas and Future Plans for Inclusive Secondary Schools in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Rinda Kurnia

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Despite the differences and additional needs in the learning process, every individual has the right to receive educational services in order to enhance her/his abilities and potentials. This notion underlies the principle of inclusive education system, something many countries in the world are striving for since the UNESCO Salamanca Statement in 1994. This paper will consider different views that many theorists have published of the term inclusive, the issues, challenges, and dilemmas encountered during the practice, as well as some possible ways forward. It is being described, criticized and analyzed using the standpoint of a shadow teacher in an inclusive secondary school in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Keywords: inclusive education, inclusive education challenges, inclusive education dilemmas, inclusive education future plans, inclusive education issues

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69 Detonating Culture, Statistics and Development in Imo State of Nigeria

Authors: Ugiri Ejikeme

Abstract:

In an executive summary, UNESCO describes Framework for Cultural Statistics as a tool for organizing cultural statistics both nationally and internationally. This is based on conceptual foundation and a common understanding of culture that will enable the measurement of a wide range of cultural expressions. This means therefore that cultural expression in whatever guise has the potentiality of contributing reasonably to the development of a given society. The paper looked into the various tangible and intangible cultures in Imo State of Nigeria. Due to government’s insensitivity, there is need to remind ourselves of the need to pay adequate attention to the cultural heritage bequeathed to us by our forefathers for the sake of posterity. Documenting this information in written form therefore becomes imperative. The study concludes that culture if developed, could reasonably contribute to economic and social growth of the society.

Keywords: detonating culture, statistics and development, Imo State, Nigeria

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68 Expressions of Local Identity via Residential Architecture Practice in UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Authors: Surasak Kangkhao, Chaturong Louhapensang

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This research investigates design and cultural heritage interpretations by residential architecture design in World Heritage cities: Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand reflect on the essence of design based on local identity. The research consisted of three thematic foci. First, the studies examined the contextual background that led to the genesis of the building. Second, the investigations concentrated on how its design was developed and implemented. Third, these modes of problematisation lent a basis to argue that a quality of placeness was not confined exclusively to traditional or vernacular structures but could be found from the unconventional aesthetics of Residential Architecture as well.

Keywords: expressions, local identity, residential architecture, practice, world heritage site

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67 The World of Great Wines: The Douro Valley Experience

Authors: A. Oliveira-Brochado, R. Silva, C. Paulino

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The aim of this paper is to use an experiential view of wine tourism to develop a battery of items that can potentially capture the overall Douro Valley experience from the tourist’s perspective. The Douro Valley, a UNESCO World Heritage region located in Portugal, was the target of this study. The research took a mixed approach using both qualitative and quantitative designs. Firstly, we combine the literature review on service quality scales with a content analysis of five in-depth interviews with winery managers and a focus group with wine tourists to identify the main dimensions of the overall tourism experience and to develop a battery of items for each dimension. Eight dimensions of the overall wine tourism experience came out, as follows: winery service and staff, winery facilities, winery service, wine product, wine region environment, wine region accessibilities, wine region´s offerings, and the wine region and winery reputation.

Keywords: wine tourism, Douro region, survey, wineries, experience

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66 Indigenizing the Curriculum: Teaching at the Ifugao State University, Philippines

Authors: Nancy Ann P. Gonzales, Serafin L. Ngohayon

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The Nurturing Indigenous Knowledge Experts (NIKE) among the young generation in Ifugao was a project in Ifugao, Philippines spearheaded by the Ifugao State University (IFSU) and was sponsored by the UNESCO Association in Japan. Through the project, he Ifugao Indigenous Knowledge Workbook was developed. It contains nine chapters. The workbook was pilot-tested to students who had IK classes. The descriptive survey method of research was used. A questionnaire was used to gather data from first year Bachelor of Elementary Education and Bachelor of Political Science students. Frequency count, percentage and mean were computed. T-test was used to determine if there exists significant difference on knowledge gained before and after IK was taught to the students. Results revealed that the respondents have an increased level of IK in all the areas covered in the NIKE workbook after they enrolled in their classes. It is alarming to note that the students are knowledgeable about IK but they are not practicing it. However, according to the respondents, they will apply their IK through teaching after graduation.

Keywords: curriculum, elders, Indigenous knowledge, and students

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65 Armenian in the Jordanian Linguistic Landscape: Marginalisation and Revitalisation

Authors: Omar Alomoush

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This paper examines the Armenian language in the linguistic landscape of Jordanian cities. The results indicate that Armenian is chiefly marginalised in the LL. By quantitative and qualitative methods, the current study attempts to identify the main reasons behind this marginalisation. In the light of the fact that Armenian is completely absent from the commercial streets of major Jordanian cities, all monolingual and multilingual signs in Armenian Neighbourhood in Amman city are photographed to identify them according to function and language. To provide plausible explanations for the marginalisation of the Armenian language in the LL, the current study builds upon issues of language maintenance and underlying language policy. According to the UNESCO Endangerment Framework, it can be assumed that Armenian is a vulnerable language, even though the Armenian Church exerted great efforts to revitalise Armenian in all social settings, including the LL. It was found that language policies enacted by the state of Jordan, language shift, language hostility, voluntary migration and economic pressures are among the reasons behind this marginalisation.

Keywords: linguistic landscape, multilingualism, Armenian, marginalisation and revitalisation

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64 Development of Historical City Centers and Revitalization in Isfahan/Iran

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelt

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The need to protect our cultural heritage was stressed on revitalization of historical city centers in communities. The main goals the proses was to attract finance and activities to the historical city centers through the citizens and municipalities participation while cities expanded their boundaries toward suburban areas. Todays the main problems which facing to the most historical city centers, is loss of their centrality through effect of urbanization on any point of the cities which is the most important issue on neglect and abandonment of the historical central area by decentralizing living, commerce and public areas. This article evaluate the ways in which city center revitalization can be effect on vitality and viability of the central area in case of Naghshe Jahan square which situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran. Constructed between 1598 and 1629, it is now an important historical site, and one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

Keywords: urban development, revitalization, city centers, vitality and viability

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63 Parallel Transformation Processes of Historical Centres: The Cases of Sevilla and Valparaiso

Authors: Jorge Ferrada Herrera, Pablo M. Millán-Millán

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The delimitation in the cities of heritage areas implicit in strong processes of transformation, both social and material. The study shows how two cities, seemingly different as Seville (Spain) and Valparaiso (Chile), share the same transformation process from its declaration as heritage cities. The metdología used in research has been on the one hand the analytic-criticism has shown us all processes and the level of involvement of these. On the other hand the direct observation methodology has allowed us to ratify all studied. Faced with these processes research shows social resources that people have developed to address each of them. The study concludes the need to strengthen the social and associative fabric in heritage areas as a resource to ensure the survival of heritage, not only material but also social and cultural. As examples, we have chosen Seville and Valparaiso: the gentrification of Seville prior to the universal exhibition of ‘92 –with pretty specific plans-- is paralleled by Valparaiso’s plan to revitalize its port and its protected (UNESCO) area. The whole of our theoretical discourse will be based thereupon.

Keywords: historical centers, tourism, heritage, social processes

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62 Rainwater Management: A Case Study of Residential Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage Buildings in Russia

Authors: V. Vsevolozhskaia

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Since 1990, energy-efficient development concepts have constituted both a turning point in civil engineering and a challenge for an environmentally friendly future. Energy and water currently play an essential role in the sustainable economic growth of the world in general and Russia in particular: the efficiency of the water supply system is the second most important parameter for energy consumption according to the British assessment method, while the water-energy nexus has been identified as a focus for accelerating sustainable growth and developing effective, innovative solutions. The activities considered in this study were aimed at organizing and executing the renovation of the property in residential buildings located in St. Petersburg, specifically buildings with local or federal historical heritage status under the control of the St. Petersburg Committee for the State Inspection and Protection of Historic and Cultural Monuments (KGIOP) and UNESCO. Even after reconstruction, these buildings still fall into energy efficiency class D. Russian Government Resolution No. 87 on the structure and required content of project documentation contains a section entitled ‘Measures to ensure compliance with energy efficiency and equipment requirements for buildings, structures, and constructions with energy metering devices’. Mention is made of the need to install collectors and meters, which only calculate energy, neglecting the main purpose: to make buildings more energy-efficient, potentially even energy efficiency class A. The least-explored aspects of energy-efficient technology in the Russian Federation remain the water balance and the possibility of implementing rain and meltwater collection systems. These modern technologies are used exclusively for new buildings due to a lack of government directive to create project documentation during the planning of major renovations and reconstruction that would include the collection and reuse of rainwater. Energy-efficient technology for rain and meltwater collection is currently applied only to new buildings, even though research has proved that using rainwater is safe and offers a huge step forward in terms of eco-efficiency analysis and water innovation. Where conservation is mandatory, making changes to protected sites is prohibited. In most cases, the protected site is the cultural heritage building itself, including the main walls and roof. However, the installation of a second water supply system and collection of rainwater would not affect the protected building itself. Water efficiency in St. Petersburg is currently considered only from the point of view of the installation that regulates the flow of the pipeline shutoff valves. The development of technical guidelines for the use of grey- and/or rainwater to meet the needs of residential buildings during reconstruction or renovation is not yet complete. The ideas for water treatment, collection and distribution systems presented in this study should be taken into consideration during the reconstruction or renovation of residential cultural heritage buildings under the protection of KGIOP and UNESCO. The methodology applied also has the potential to be extended to other cultural heritage sites in northern countries and lands with an average annual rainfall of over 600 mm to cover average toilet-flush needs.

Keywords: cultural heritage, energy efficiency, renovation, rainwater collection, reconstruction, water management, water supply

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61 'Ebru', the Art of Marbling in Fashion Design between the Functional and Beauty Purpose of the Designs

Authors: Nessreen Elmelegy

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Fashion is all about being fun, stylish and looking beautiful in your own way, whether it is with clothes, accessories, hairstyles, and even furniture. There are never ending ways and sources when wanting to seek inspiration. Fashion designers can get inspired by anything and everything that encompasses them in their everyday lives. When getting inspired, there are no boundaries or limits to when it comes to exploring one's originality and fashion sense. All designers focus on being unique, original and trendy when taking inspiration and transforming that into fashionable and wearable garments. Ebru is a Turkish art. The actual word 'Ebru' in Turkish means marbling. Marbling is the art which help designers to create innovative and rich and colorful patterns in fashion designs. By using this technique we will have countless unique designs in fashion because each design can never be repeated. It is a traditional Turkish art which is designated as one of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2014. Ebru art has spread from the East to the West by way of Silk Road and other trade routes. So this research is focused on studying the history and the techniques of Ebru art in fashion as an amazing trend of fashion, which is still stranger to the Egyptian Fashion industry; also how we can benefit from the incorporation of Ebru art as into the garments designs while still maintaining the functional and beauty purpose of the design.

Keywords: Ebru Art, Ebru techniques, fashion inspiration, fashion trends

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60 Weathering of a Calcarenite Stone in the Archaeological Site of Volubilis – Morocco

Authors: Issam Aalil, Kevin Beck, Khalid Cherkaoui, Xavier Brunetaud, Ali Chaaba, Muzahim Al-Mukhtar

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Volubilis is the most important archaeological site in Morocco. It was founded in the 3rd century B.C about thirty kilometres north of Meknes and has been registered on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1997. The site is located in a region where reigns the semi-arid continental climate, characterized by strong thermal amplitudes. A beige-yellowish calcarenite limestone is the most largely used on Volubilis site, representing about 60% of the total volume of building stones. This limestone is mainly affected by scaling and sanding according to field observations. In order to preserve monuments of this site, characterization of calcarenite weathering is essential. This work aims at investigating the nature of the dominant weathering. For this goal, mineralogical compositions of deteriorated and fresh samples are compared. Besides, the risk of damage by thermal stresses is estimated. The results of this study show that there is no major difference observed between the mineralogy of the fresh and weathered calcarenite samples. Otherwise, thermal stresses may have an important role in the weathering of calcarenite limestone by fatigue.

Keywords: characterisation, stone, thermal stresses, Volubilis, weathering

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59 Observation on the Performance of Heritage Structures in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal during the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

Authors: K. C. Apil, Keshab Sharma, Bigul Pokharel

Abstract:

Kathmandu Valley, capital city of Nepal houses numerous historical monuments as well as religious structures which are as old as from the 4th century A.D. The city alone is home to seven UNESCO’s world heritage sites including various public squares and religious sanctums which are often regarded as living heritages by various historians and archeological explorers. Recently on April 25, 2015, the capital city including other nearby locations was struck with Gorkha earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8, followed by the strongest aftershock of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.3 on May 12. This study reports structural failures and collapse of heritage structures in Kathmandu Valley during the earthquake and presents preliminary findings as to the causes of failures and collapses. Field reconnaissance was carried immediately after the main shock and the aftershock, in major heritage sites: UNESCO world heritage sites, a number of temples and historic buildings in Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, and Bhaktapur Durbar Square. Despite such catastrophe, a significant number of heritage structures stood high, performing very well during the earthquake. Preliminary reports from archeological department suggest that 721 of such structures were severely affected, whereas numbers within the valley only were 444 including 76 structures which were completely collapsed. This study presents recorded accelerograms and geology of Kathmandu Valley. Structural typology and architecture of the heritage structures in Kathmandu Valley are briefly described. Case histories of damaged heritage structures, the patterns, and the failure mechanisms are also discussed in this paper. It was observed that performance of heritage structures was influenced by the multiple factors such as structural and architecture typology, configuration, and structural deficiency, local ground site effects and ground motion characteristics, age and maintenance level, material quality etc. Most of such heritage structures are of masonry type using bricks and earth-mortar as a bonding agent. The walls' resistance is mainly compressive, thus capable of withstanding vertical static gravitational load but not horizontal dynamic seismic load. There was no definitive pattern of damage to heritage structures as most of them behaved as a composite structure. Some structures were extensively damaged in some locations, while structures with similar configuration at nearby location had little or no damage. Out of major heritage structures, Dome, Pagoda (2, 3 or 5 tiered temples) and Shikhara structures were studied with similar variables. Studying varying degrees of damages in such structures, it was found that Shikhara structures were most vulnerable one where Dome structures were found to be the most stable one, followed by Pagoda structures. The seismic performance of the masonry-timber and stone masonry structures were slightly better than that of the masonry structures. Regular maintenance and periodic seismic retrofitting seems to have played pivotal role in strengthening seismic performance of the structure. The study also recommends some key functions to strengthen the seismic performance of such structures through study based on structural analysis, building material behavior and retrofitting details. The result also recognises the importance of documentation of traditional knowledge and its revised transformation in modern technology.

Keywords: Gorkha earthquake, field observation, heritage structure, seismic performance, masonry building

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58 Teacher Education: Exploring the Challenges of the Teaching Profession in Nigeria for Sustainable National Development

Authors: Ugabi John Ibak, Odey Boniface Ugbem

Abstract:

Education is considered the bedrock of any meaningful developments and teacher education plays a critical role in this direction. Teacher education is the master keys that can alleviate poverty, promote peace, conserve the environment, improve the quality of life for all and help achieve all round sustain enable development in Nigeria and the world over. This paper X-rays the nature and character of the teaching profession, historical background to teacher education in Nigeria, national policy on education, problems of teacher education in Nigeria and prospects of teacher education for sustainable national development. The study shows that the misfortunes of the teacher education owes much to it historical antecedent. Also majorly, is the failure of government to adequately fund education at the various levels in the country. It was discovered that in the history of the nation no government has budgeted 13% of its annual budget (half of 26% UNESCO minimum) to education. This has resulted to poor infrastructure, inadequate equipment and poorly motivated personnel in all the nations public schools at all levels. Hence, the paper concludes that in spite of these overwhelming challenges, teachers have a lot of prospects both in the teaching profession and outside teaching.

Keywords: teacher education, teaching profession, sustainable national development, education, development

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57 Challenges in Adopting 3R Concept in the Heritage Building Restoration

Authors: H. H. Goh, K. C. Goh, T. W. Seow, N. S. Said, S. E. P. Ang

Abstract:

Malaysia is rich with historic buildings, particularly in Penang and Malacca states. Restoration activities are increasingly important as these states are recognized under UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Restoration activities help to maintain the uniqueness and value of a heritage building. However, increasing in restoration activities has resulted in large quantities of waste. To cope with this problem, the 3R concept (reduce, reuse and recycle) is introduced. The 3R concept is one of the waste management hierarchies. This concept is still yet to apply in the building restoration industry compared to the construction industry. Therefore, this study aims to promote the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study aims to examine the importance of 3R concept and to identify challenges in applying the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study focused on contractors and consultants who are involved in heritage restoration projects in Penang. Literature review and interviews helps to reach the research objective. Data that obtained is analyzed by using content analysis. For the research, application of 3R concept is important to conserve natural resources and reduce pollution problems. However, limited space to organise waste is the obstruction during the implementation of this concept. In conclusion, the 3R concept plays an important role in promoting environmental conservation and helping in reducing the construction waste

Keywords: 3R Concept, heritage building, restoration activities, building science

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56 Rural Tourism as a Development Strategy in Communities of the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro

Authors: Eduardo Ruiz-Corzo, Luis Rodrigo Valencia Perez, Jorge Francisco Barragan Lopez

Abstract:

The article shows the pressing conditions of marginalization prevailing in the Sierra Gorda, in the northern state of Queretaro, so it is essential to identify business options that generate a complementary source of income in a sustainable manner, in accordance with the fact that the area is a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. In this sense, the study identifies the enormous scenic richness of the area, the growing demand for leisure activities of the urban centers and the multifunctionality that adds, in a complementary way, the traditional activities that up to now have achieved the quality of life levels. From the application of the 43 interviews and 183 surveys, confirms the fact that the post-visit perception exceeds the expectations of the visitors emerges and affirms that the image that has been projected is attractive and timely. In order to understand how the current model of tourism promoted in the region is working, there is a need to evaluate it in a theoretical-methodological framework considering sustainable development assumptions. In order to determine the degree of contribution to business development, strengthening of social capital, and enjoyment and appreciation of cultural and natural heritage in the region.

Keywords: marginalization, rural tourism, multifunctionality, sustainability, revenue

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55 Timescape-Based Panoramic View for Historic Landmarks

Authors: H. Ali, A. Whitehead

Abstract:

Providing a panoramic view of famous landmarks around the world offers artistic and historic value for historians, tourists, and researchers. Exploring the history of famous landmarks by presenting a comprehensive view of a temporal panorama merged with geographical and historical information presents a unique challenge of dealing with images that span a long period, from the 1800’s up to the present. This work presents the concept of temporal panorama through a timeline display of aligned historic and modern images for many famous landmarks. Utilization of this panorama requires a collection of hundreds of thousands of landmark images from the Internet comprised of historic images and modern images of the digital age. These images have to be classified for subset selection to keep the more suitable images that chronologically document a landmark’s history. Processing of historic images captured using older analog technology under various different capturing conditions represents a big challenge when they have to be used with modern digital images. Successful processing of historic images to prepare them for next steps of temporal panorama creation represents an active contribution in cultural heritage preservation through the fulfillment of one of UNESCO goals in preservation and displaying famous worldwide landmarks.

Keywords: cultural heritage, image registration, image subset selection, registered image similarity, temporal panorama, timescapes

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54 The Ancient Oasis Architecture of Ghadames

Authors: Amer Rghei

Abstract:

The Sahara region potentially is one of the most attractive heritage areas in the world. Yet presently, the heritage of the Sahara is currently facing serious planning challenges of underdeveloped and neglected economic and physical potentials. Deterioration of heritage resources has been observed by the author during his several field tours for historic sites has discovered special heritage values such as in Ghadames which combines historic oasis, natural environment along with its exceptional urban fabric and architectural character. Despite the richness of Ghadames with historic significance, it is found that at the present time, Ghadames city, the UNESCO World Heritage site, is facing serious challenges including the abandonment by its tenants and inclusive negligence by its officials. The author believes that Ghadames can illustrate an excellent heritage example in North Africa with cultural pride and socio-economic opportunities that can contribute to overall economic development in the Sahara region. However, the paper deals with the case of Ghadames ‘The World Heritage Site’ in Libya and discusses the current challenges and possible planning for its heritage conservation strategy. The momentous resources in Ghadames with their historical, environmental, economic, social, cultural, and aesthetic values would benefit from a careful heritage planning and management program for its significant values. In this paper an attempt is made to investigate this issue seriously towards building a model of a strategy for heritage conservation planning for Ghadames is proposed.

Keywords: Ghadames, Oasis architecture, Sahara region, heritage environment

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