Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Mozambique

29 Between Order and Chaos: Politics and the Challenge of Peace in Mozambique

Authors: Edmilson Nhambe, Belisario Machaieie

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Since the signing of the General Peace Agreement-GPA in 1992, Mozambique has seen successive setbacks in the search for effective peace, civil war, social conflicts, terrorism, and armed conflicts mix the reality of Mozambican democracy. The article seeks to understand the dynamics of conflict and peace in Mozambique. Specifically, it seeks to analyze the structural factors that lead to (violent) conflict situations and the factors that favor or promote peace. For this purpose, desk research was chosen to analyze studies of peace and conflict. This article develops the argument that the non-violation of the peace agreement, in particular the GPA in Rome, as it had a structuring effect on the Mozambican political system, no longer guarantees in itself the irreversibility of the pacification process. In fact, the country is currently stagnating in the category of a fragile peace process with the risk of slipping into a situation of war or open armed conflict.

Keywords: peace, conflict, GPA, instability

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28 Preventing Violent Extremism in Mozambique and Tanzania: A Survey to Measure Community Resilience

Authors: L. Freeman, D. Bax, V. K. Sapong

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Community-based, preventative approaches to violent extremism may be effective and yet remain an underutilised method. In a realm where security approaches dominate, with the focus on countering violence extremism and combatting radicalisation, community resilience programming remains sparse. This paper will present a survey tool that aims to measure the risk and protective factors that can lead to violent extremism in Mozambique and Tanzania. Conducted in four districts in the Cabo Delgado region of Mozambique and one district in Pwani, Tanzania, the survey uses a combination of BRAVE-14, Afrocentric and context-specific questions in order to more fully understand community resilience opportunities and challenges in preventing and countering violent extremism. Developed in Australia and Canada to measure radicalisation risks in individuals and communities, BRAVE-14 is a tool not yet applied in the African continent. Given the emerging threat of Islamic extremism in Northern Mozambique and Eastern Tanzania, which both experience a combination of socio-political exclusion, resource marginalisation and religious/ideological motivations, the development of the survey is timely and fills a much-needed information gap in these regions. Not only have these Islamist groups succeeded in tapping into the grievances of communities by radicalising and recruiting individuals, but their presence in these regions has been characterised by extreme forms of violence, leaving isolated communities vulnerable to attack. The expected result of these findings will facilitate the contextualisation and comparison of the protective and risk factors that inhibit or promote the radicalisation of the youth in these communities. In identifying sources of resilience and vulnerability, this study emphasises the implementation of context-specific intervention programming and provides a strong research tool for understanding youth and community resilience to violent extremism.

Keywords: community resilience, Mozambique, preventing violent extremism, radicalisation, Tanzania

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27 Comparison of Food Products Contaminated by DDTs in South Africa and Mozambique

Authors: Lesa A. Thompson, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Victor Wepener, Mayumi Ishizuka

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One method for controlling malaria in endemic regions is the killing of vector mosquitoes using pesticides such as DDT in indoor residual spraying (IRS). This study was carried out to investigate the presence of and human health risk due to DDT and its metabolites (collectively, DDTs) contaminating human food sources in areas where DDT is used for IRS. Free-range chicken products (meat and eggs) were collected from homesteads in KwaZulu-Natal Province in the northeast of South Africa, and fish meat samples from Maputo Bay in neighbouring Mozambique. Samples were analysed for DDTs (o,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDT, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDE) using a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). DDTs were detected in all food types, with the predominant congener being p,p’-DDE. The presence of p,p’-DDT confirmed recent release of DDT into the environment. By using concentration levels detected in foods and national consumption levels, the risk to human health through consumption of such food products was calculated. In order of risk level, these were: chicken eggs > chicken meat > fish meat. Human risk (carcinogenic) values greater than one suggest there is an increased health risk through consumption of these foods.

Keywords: DDT, food contamination, human health risk, Mozambique, South Africa

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26 Phylogenetic Relationships of Aproaerema Simplexella (Walker) and the Groundnut Leaf Miner Aproaerema Modicella (Deventer) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Collected from Australia, India, Mozambique, and South Africa

Authors: Makhosi Buthelezi

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Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene analyses linked the South African groundnut leaf miner (GLM) to the Australian soya bean moth Aproaerema simplexella (Walker) and Indian Aproaerema modicella (Deventer). Thus, the genetic relatedness of GLM, A. simplexela, and A. modicella was examined by performing mitochondrial and nuclear (COI, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII), mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB), nuclear ribosomal 28S (28S) and intergenic spacer elongation factor-1 alpha ( EF-1 ALPHA) on 44 specimens collected from South Africa, four from Mozambique, and three each from single locations in India and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Neighbour-Joining (NJ) methods. All of the datasets of the five DNA gene regions that were sequenced were also analyzed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to find the closest matches for inclusion in the phylogenetic trees as outgroups and for purposes of information. In the phylogenetic trees for COI, COII, cytb and EF-1 ALPHA, a similar pattern was observed in the way that the sequences assembled into different groups; i.e., some sequences of A. simplexella from Australia were grouped separately from the others, but some Australian sequences grouped with those of the GLM from South Africa, India, and Mozambique. In the phylogenetic tree for 28S, all sequences from South Africa, Australia, India, and Mozambique grouped together and formed one group. For COI, genetic pairwise distance ranged from 0.97 to 3.60 %, for COII it ranged from 0.19% to 2.32%, for cytb it ranged from 0.25 to 9.77% and for EF-1 ALPHA it ranged 0.48 to 6.99%. Results of this study indicate that these populations are genetically related and presumably constitute a single species. Thus, further molecular and morphological studies need to be undertaken in order to resolve this apparent conundrum on the taxonomy of these populations.

Keywords: aproaerema modicella, aproaerema simplexella, mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA

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25 Analysis of Fertilizer Effect in the Tilapia Growth of Mozambique (Oreochromis mossambicus)

Authors: Sérgio Afonso Mulema, Andrés Carrión García, Vicente Ernesto

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This paper analyses the effect of fertilizer (organic and inorganic) in the growth of tilapia. An experiment was implemented in the Aquapesca Company of Mozambique; there were considered four different treatments. Each type of fertilizer was applied in two of these treatments; a feed was supplied to the third treatment, and the fourth was taken as control. The weight and length of the tilapia were used as the growth parameters, and to measure the water quality, the physical-chemical parameters were registered. The results show that the weight and length were different for tilapias cultivated in different treatments. These differences were evidenced mainly by organic and feed treatments, where there was the largest and smallest value of these parameters, respectively. In order to prove that these differences were caused only by applied treatment without interference for the aquatic environment, a Fisher discriminant analysis was applied, which confirmed that the treatments were exposed to the same environment condition.

Keywords: fertilizer, tilapia, growth, statistical methods

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24 Language Learning Motivation in Mozambique: A Quantitative Study of University Students

Authors: Simao E. Luis

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From the 1960s to the 1990s, the social-psychological framework of language attitudes that emerged from the Canadian research tradition was very influential. Integrativeness was one of the main variables in Gardner’s theory because refugees and immigrants were motivated to learn English and French to integrate into the Canadian community. Second language (L2) scholars have expressed concerns over integrativeness because it cannot explain the motivation of L2 learners in global contexts. This study aims to investigate student motivation to learn English as a foreign language in Mozambique, and to contribute to the ongoing validation of the L2 Motivational Self System theory in an under-researched country. One hundred thirty-seven (N=137) university students completed a well-established motivation questionnaire. The data were analyzed with SPSS, and descriptive statistics, correlations, multiple regressions, and MANOVA were conducted. Results show that many variables contribute to motivated learning behavior, particularly the L2 learning experience and attitudes towards the English language. Statistically significant differences were found between males and females, with males expressing more motivation to learn the English language for personal interests. Statistically significant differences were found between older and younger students, with older students reporting more vivid images of themselves as future English language users. These findings have pedagogical implications because motivational strategies are positively correlated with student motivated learning behavior. Therefore, teachers should design L2 tasks that can help students to develop their future L2 selves.

Keywords: English as a foreign language, L2 motivational self system, Mozambique, university students

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23 Photovoltaic System: An Alternative to Energy Efficiency in a Residence

Authors: Arsenio Jose Mindu

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The concern to carry out a study related to Energy Efficiency arose based on the various debates in international television networks and not only, but also in several forums of national debates. The concept of Energy Efficiency is not yet widely disseminated and /or taken into account in terms of energy consumption, not only at the domestic level but also at the industrial level in Mozambique. In the context of the energy audit, the time during which each of the appliances is connected to the voltage source, the time during which they are in standby mode was recorded on a spreadsheet basis. Based on these data, daily and monthly consumption was calculated. In order to have more accurate information on the daily levels of daily consumption, the electricity consumption was read every hour of the day (from 5:00 am to 11:00 pm), since after 23:00 the energy consumption remains constant. For ten days. Based on the daily energy consumption and the maximum consumption power, the design of the photovoltaic system for the residence was made. With the implementation of the photovoltaic system in order to guarantee energy efficiency, there was a significant reduction in the use of electricity from the public grid, increasing from approximately 17 kwh per day to around 11 kwh, thus achieving an energy efficiency of 67.4 %. That is to say, there was a reduction not only in terms of the amount of energy consumed but also of the monthly expenses with electricity, having increased from around 2,500,00Mt (2,500 meticais) to around 800Mt per month.

Keywords: energy efficiency, photovoltaic system, residential sector, Mozambique

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22 UNHCR and the International Refugee Protection: An Analysis of Its Actions in Protecting Mozambican Refugees in Malawi

Authors: Marcia Teresa Gildo

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The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is responsible to provide international protection and humanitarian assistance to refugees and to seek permanent solutions to their situation. To fulfil this mandate, the agency works in collaboration with its partners and governments. This paper aims to analyse the agency's actions to protect and provide assistance to Mozambican refugees in Malawi. Since July 2015, approximately 12.000 people have fled Mozambique to neighbouring Malawi due to the political-military conflict between the government of Mozambique and RENAMO (the country’s largest opposition party). This led to a series of military clashes between the two parties and the consequent flight of some Mozambicans to Malawi, in search of asylum. Most arrived from the province of Tete, in the central region of Mozambique, and, to a lesser extent, from the province of Zambezia. The asylum seekers arrived in small groups and settled in the village of Kapise in the Mwanza district of Thambani, as well as in Chikwawa and Nsanje districts in Malawi. UNHCR led an interinstitutional response action to manage the flow of Mozambican asylum seekers to Malawi. In view of these aspects and the ongoing challenge of protecting refugees and finding permanent solutions to their situation, UNHCR remains an indispensable international organization. However, there are significant gaps in the international refugee protection regime, and there have been many occasions when UNHCR has failed to fulfill its mandate. The analysis was carried out through qualitative research methods and techniques based essentially on consultation of books, newspapers and scientific articles, television and journalistic reports and interviews with the people who were involved in the process. From the data obtained, it was concluded that UNHCR worked in coordination with its partners and the government of Malawi to provide protection and emergency assistance to the refugees. However, existing funds covered only the immediate needs of refugees, more funds had to be allocated. That was made through an interinstitutional appeal. Although the funds allocated were not sufficient, they allowed the agency to protect and assist the refugees until a permanent solution was found. UNHCR also worked in coordination with the governments of Malawi and Mozambique so that a tripartite agreement was signed between the parties for the voluntary repatriation of Mozambican refugees, since security conditions were guaranteed and the refugees had expressed their willingness to return to their country of origin. UNHCR's actions to protect Mozambican refugees in Malawi have enabled humanitarian conditions to be respected and the rights of refugees to be guaranteed. Cooperation with the different actors involved in the response has allowed UNHCR to fulfil its mandate.

Keywords: assistance , cooperation, international protection, refugees

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21 Alternative Approaches to Community Involvement in Resettlement Schemes to Prevent Potential Conflicts: Case Study in Chibuto District, Mozambique

Authors: Constâncio Augusto Machanguana

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The world over, resettling communities, for whatever purpose (mining, dams, forestry and wildlife management, roads, or facilitating services delivery), often leads to tensions between those resettled, the investors, and the local and national governments involved in the process. Causes include unclear government legislation and regulations, confusing Corporate Social Responsibility policies and guidelines, and other social-economic policies leading to unrealistic expectations among those being resettled, causing frustrations within the community, shifting them to any imminent conflict against the investors (company). The exploitation of heavy mineral sands along Mozambique’s long coastline and hinterland has not been providing a benefit for the affected communities. A case in point is the exploration, since 2018, of heavy sands in Chibuto District in the Southern Province of Gaza. A likely contributing factor is the standard type of socio-economic surveys and community involvement processes that could smooth the relationship among the parties. This research aims to investigate alternative processes to plan, initiate and guide resettlement processes in such a way that tensions and conflicts are avoided. Based on the process already finished, compared to similar cases along with the country, mixed methods to collect primary data were adopted: three focus groups of 125 people, representing 324 resettled householders; five semi-structured interviews with relevant stakeholders such as the local government, NGO’s and local leaders to understand their role in all stages of the process. The preliminary results show that the community has limited or no understanding of the potential impacts of these large-scale explorations, and the apparent harmony between the parties (community and company) may hide the dissatisfaction of those resettled. So, rather than focusing on negative mining impacts, the research contributes to science by identifying the best resettlement approach that can be replicated in other contexts along with the country in the actual context of the new discovery of mineral resources.

Keywords: conflict mitigation, resettlement, mining, Mozambique

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20 Levels and Determinants of Experiencing Violence during Pregnancy among Adolescent Women - The Case of Southern Africa

Authors: Sibusiso Mkwananzi

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The health of mother and child remain at risk among pregnant adolescents. Nevertheless, these are placed in even greater jeopardy when an expectant adolescent experiences violence. This paper sought to explore the levels and determinants of expecting adolescents in five Southern African countries. The study used the most recent (2010/2015) nationally representative demographic health survey (DHS) data from Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The highest levels of violence during pregnancy occurred amongst adolescent females living in Zimbabwe at 11.4%, followed by Zambia (8.3%) and Namibia (7.7%). Lowest levels were seen in Mozambique at 3.6%. Additionally, the determinants of experiencing violence during pregnancy included educational attainment, marital status, wealth and place of residence. Expectant adolescents that had a higher likelihood of experiencing violence were married and lived predominantly in rural settings. Higher risk was also associated with lower acquisition of education and poverty. These results show a very similar pattern to the risk factors associated with early pregnancy in the region. The predictors point to issues of possible lowered empowerment amongst younger women in their relationships and the structural challenges faced by this fledgling group. Nevertheless, addressing these dynamics could go a long way in not only decreasing the likelihood of unwanted motherhood at this early stage of the life course, but indeed even ensuring the prevention of violence during wanted early pregnancy. This would lead to improved levels of maternal and child health despite younger maternal age and aid in achieving a number of sustainable development goals.

Keywords: adolescents, determinants, Southern Africa, violence during pregnancy

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19 Challenges for Competency-Based Learning Design in Primary School Mathematics in Mozambique

Authors: Satoshi Kusaka

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The term ‘competency’ is attracting considerable scholarly attention worldwide with the advance of globalization in the 21st century and with the arrival of a knowledge-based society. In the current world environment, familiarity with varied disciplines is regarded to be vital for personal success. The idea of a competency-based educational system was mooted by the ‘Definition and Selection of Competencies (DeSeCo)’ project that was conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Further, attention to this topic is not limited to developed countries; it can also be observed in developing countries. For instance, the importance of a competency-based curriculum was mentioned in the ‘2013 Harmonized Curriculum Framework for the East African Community’, which recommends key competencies that should be developed in primary schools. The introduction of such curricula and the reviews of programs are actively being executed, primarily in the East African Community but also in neighboring nations. Taking Mozambique as a case in point, the present paper examines the conception of ‘competency’ as a target of frontline education in developing countries. It also aims to discover the manner in which the syllabus, textbooks and lessons, among other things, in primary-level math education are developed and to determine the challenges faced in the process. This study employs the perspective of competency-based education design to analyze how the term ‘competency’ is defined in the primary-level math syllabus, how it is reflected in the textbooks, and how the lessons are actually developed. ‘Practical competency’ is mentioned in the syllabus, and the description of the term lays emphasis on learners' ability to interactively apply socio-cultural and technical tools, which is one of the key competencies that are advocated in OECD's ‘Definition and Selection of Competencies’ project. However, most of the content of the textbooks pertains to ‘basic academic ability’, and in actual classroom practice, teachers often impart lessons straight from the textbooks. It is clear that the aptitude of teachers and their classroom routines are greatly dependent on the cultivation of their own ‘practical competency’ as it is defined in the syllabus. In other words, there is great divergence between the ‘syllabus’, which is the intended curriculum, and the content of the ‘textbooks’. In fact, the material in the textbooks should serve as the bridge between the syllabus, which forms the guideline, and the lessons, which represent the ‘implemented curriculum’. Moreover, the results obtained from this investigation reveal that the problem can only be resolved through the cultivation of ‘practical competency’ in teachers, which is currently not sufficient.

Keywords: competency, curriculum, mathematics education, Mozambique

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18 Rebuilding Health Post-Conflict: Case Studies from Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique

Authors: Spencer Rutherford, Shadi Saleh

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War and conflict negatively impact all facets of a health system; services cease to function, resources become depleted, and any semblance of governance is lost. Following cessation of conflict, the rebuilding process includes a wide array of international and local actors. During this period, stakeholders must contend with various trade-offs, including balancing sustainable outcomes with immediate health needs, introducing health reform measures while also increasing local capacity, and reconciling external assistance with local legitimacy. Compounding these factors are additional challenges, including coordination amongst stakeholders, the re-occurrence of conflict, and ulterior motives from donors and governments, to name a few. Therefore, the present paper evaluated health system development in three post-conflict countries over a 12-year timeline. Specifically, health policies, health inputs (such infrastructure and human resources), and measures of governance, from the post-conflict periods of Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique, were assessed against health outputs and other measures. All post-conflict countries experienced similar challenges when rebuilding the health sector, including; division and competition between donors, NGOs, and local institutions; urban and rural health inequalities; and the re-occurrence of conflict. However, countries also employed unique and effective mechanisms for reconstructing their health systems, including; government engagement of the NGO and private sector; integration of competing factions into the same workforce; and collaborative planning for health policy. Based on these findings, best-practice development strategies were determined and compiled into a 12-year framework. Briefly, during the initial stage of the post-conflict period, primary stakeholders should work quickly to draft a national health strategy in collaboration with the government, and focus on managing and coordinating NGOs through performance-based partnership agreements. With this scaffolding in place, the development community can then prioritize the reconstruction of primary health care centers, increasing and retaining health workers, and horizontal integration of immunization services. The final stages should then concentrate on transferring ownership of the health system national institutions, implementing sustainable financing mechanisms, and phasing-out NGO services. Overall, these findings contribute post-conflict health system development by evaluating the process holistically and along a timeline and can be of further use by healthcare managers, policy-makers, and other health professionals.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Cambodia, health system development, health system reconstruction, Mozambique, post-conflict, state-building

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17 Participatory Approach: A Tool for Improving Food Security and Empowering a Local Community in Chitima, Mozambique

Authors: Matias Hargreaves, Martin Del Valle, Diego Rodriguez, Riveros Jose Luis

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Trough years, all kind of social development projects have tried to solve social problems such as hunger, poverty, malnutrition, food insecurity, among others, with poor success. Both private and state initiatives have invested resources in several countries and communities. Nevertheless, most of these initiatives are scientific or external developers-centered, with a lack of local participation. This compromises the sustainability of any intervention and also leads to a poor empowerment of local community. The participatory approach aims to rescue and enhance the local knowledge since it recognizes that this kind of problems are better known by native actors. The objective of the study was to describe the role played by the community empowerment on food security improvement in the NGO “O Viveiro” (15°43'37.77"S; 32°46'27.53"E) and Barrio Broma village (15°43'58.78"S; 32°46'7.27"E) in Chitima, Mozambique. A center for training in goat livestock and orchard was build. A community orchard was co-constructed between foreign technicians and local actors. The prototype was installed in February, 2016 by the technician team and local community with 16 m2 as a nursery garden. Two orchard workshops were conducted in order to design a sustainable productive model which mixes both local and technological approaches. Two goat meat workshops were conducted in order to describe local methods and train the community to conduce their own techniques with high sanitary and productive standards. Technician team stayed in Mozambique until May, 2016. The quorum for the orchard workshops was 20 and 14 persons respectively, which represents 100% and 70%of the total requested quorum (20). For the goat meat workshops were 4 and 5 persons, which representa80% and 100% of the total requested quorum (5). Until August, 2016, the orchard is 3.219 m2 and it grows several vegetables as beans, chili pepper, garlic, onion, tomatoes, lettuce, sweet potato, yuca potato, cabbage, eggplant, papaya trees, mango, and cassava. The process of increasing in size and diversification of vegetables grown was led entirely by the local community. In connection with this, the local community started to harvest and began to sell the vegetable products at the local market. At the meat goat workshops, local participants rescued a local knowledge by describing and practicing a traditional way to process goat meat by drying it outdoors and then doing a smoked treatment. This information might contribute to describe the level of empowerment of this community, and thus give evidence of acceptance of foreign intervention for improving their own proceedings and traditions.

Keywords: children malnutrition, food security, Local community, participatory approach

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16 Role of Different Land Use Types on Ecosystem Services Provision in Moribane Forest Reserve - Mozambique

Authors: Francisco Domingos Francisco

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Tropical forests are key providers of many Ecosystem Services (ES), contributing to human wellbeing on a global and local scale. Communities around and within Moribane Forest Reserve (MFR), Manica Province - Mozambique, benefit from ES through the exploitation of non-wood and wood forest products. The objective was to assess the provisioning capacity of the MFR in woody forest products in species and profiles of interest to local communities in the main sources of extraction. Social data relating to the basic needs of local communities for these products were captured through an exploratory study before this one. From that study, it became known about the most collected wood species, the sources of collection, and their availability in the profiles of greatest interest to them. A field survey through 39 rectangular 50mx20m plots was conducted with 13 plots established in each of the three land-use types (LUT), namely Restricted Forest, Unrestricted Forest, and Disturbed areas. The results show that 89 species were identified, of which 28 (31.4%) are assumed to be the most used by the communities. The number of species of local interest does not vary across the LUT (p>0.05). The most used species (MUS) is distributed in 82% in Restricted Forest, 75% in Unrestricted, and also 75% in Disturbed. Most individuals of both general and MUS found in Unrestricted Forest, and Degraded areas have lower end profiles (5-7 cm), representing 0.77 and 0.26%, respectively. The profile of individuals of species of local interest varies by LUT (p<0.05), and their greatest proportion (0.51%) outside the lower end is found in Restricted Forest. There were no similarities between the LUT for the species in general (JCI <0.5) but between the MUS (JCI >0.5). Conclusion, the areas authorized for the exploitation of wood forest products in the MFR tend to reduce their ability to provide local communities with forest products in species and profiles of their interest. This reduction item is a serious threat to the biodiversity of the Restricted Forest. The study can help the academic community in future studies by replicating the methodology used for monitoring purposes or conducting studies in other similar areas, and the results may support decision-makers in designing better strategies for sustainability.

Keywords: ecosystem services, land-use types, local communities, species profile, wellbeing, wood forest product

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15 Transforming Gender Norms through Play: Qualitative Findings from Primary Schools in Rwanda, Ghana, and Mozambique

Authors: Geetanjali Gill

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International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and development assistance donors have been implementing education projects in Sub-Saharan Africa and the global South that respond to gender-based inequities and that attempt to transform socio-cultural norms for greater gender equality in schools and communities. These efforts are in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal number four, quality education, and goal number five, gender equality. Some INGOs and donors have also championed the use of play-based pedagogies for improved and more gender equal education outcomes. The study used the qualitative methods of life history interviews and focus groups to gauge social norm change amongst male and female adolescents, families, and teachers in primary schools that have been using gender-responsive play-based pedagogies in Rwanda, Ghana, and Mozambique. School administrators and project managers from the INGO Right to Play International were consulted in the selection of two primary schools per country (in both rural and urban contexts), as well as the selection of ten male and ten female students in grades four to six in each school, using specific parameters of social norm adherence. The parents (or guardians) and grandparents of four male and four female students in each school who were determined to be ‘outliers’ in their adherence to social norms were also interviewed. Additionally, sex-specific focus groups were held with thirty-six teachers. The study found that gender-responsive play-based pedagogies positively impactedsocio-cultural norms that shape gender relations amongst adolescents, their families, and teachers. Female and male students who spoke about their beliefs about gender equality in the roles and educational and career aspirations of men/boys and women/girls made linkages to the play-based pedagogies and approaches used by their teachers. Also, the parents and grandparents of these students were aware of generational differences in gender norms, and many were accepting of changed gender norms. Teachers who were effectively implementing gender-responsive play-based pedagogies in their classrooms spoke about changes to their own gender norms and how they were able to influence the gender norms of parents and community members. Life history interviews were found to be well-suited for the examination of changes to socio-cultural norms and gender relations. However, an appropriate framing of questions and topics specific to each target group was instrumental for the collection of data on socio-cultural norms and gender. The findings of this study can spur further academic inquiry of linkages between gender norms and education outcomes. The findings are also relevant for the work of INGOs and donors in the global South and for the development of gender-responsive education policies and programs.

Keywords: education, gender equality, ghana, international development, life histories, mozambique, rwanda, socio-cultural norms, sub-saharan africa, qualitative research

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14 Mobile Technology as a Catalyst for Creative Teaching: A Developmental Based Research Study in a Large Public School in Mozambique

Authors: L. O'Sullivan, C. Murphy

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This study examined the impact, if any, of mobile technology on the achievement of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 4: Quality Education for All. It focused specifically on teachers and their practice, in a school with large class sizes and limited teaching resources. Teachers in third grade in a large public school in Mozambique were provided with an iPad connected to a projector, powered by a mobile solar-panel. Teachers also participated in ten days of professional development workshops over thirteen months. Teacher discussions, micro-teaching sessions and classes in the school were video-recorded, and data was triangulated using surveys and additional documents including class plans, digital artifacts created by teachers, workshop notes and researcher field notes. The catalyst for teachers’ creativity development was to use the photographic capabilities of the iPad to capture the local context and make lessons relevant to the lived experience of the students. In the transition stage, teachers worked with lesson plans and support from the professional development workshops to make small incremental changes to their practice, which scaffolded their growing competence in the creative use of the technology as a tool for teaching and developing new teaching resources. Over the full period of the study, these small changes in practice resulted in a cultural shift in how teachers approached all lessons, even those in which they were not using the technology. They developed into working as a community of practice. The digital lessons created were re-used and further developed by other teachers, providing a relevant and valuable bank of content in a context lacking in books and other teaching resources. This study demonstrated that mobile technology proved to be a successful catalyst for impacting creative teaching practice in this context, and supports the Quality Education for All Sustainable Development Goal.

Keywords: mobile technology, creative teaching, sub-Saharan Africa, quality education for all

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13 Dynamic Reliability for a Complex System and Process: Application on Offshore Platform in Mozambique

Authors: Raed KOUTA, José-Alcebiades-Ernesto HLUNGUANE, Eric Châtele

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The search for and exploitation of new fossil energy resources is taking place in the context of the gradual depletion of existing deposits. Despite the adoption of international targets to combat global warming, the demand for fuels continues to grow, contradicting the movement towards an energy-efficient society. The increase in the share of offshore in global hydrocarbon production tends to compensate for the depletion of terrestrial reserves, thus constituting a major challenge for the players in the sector. Through the economic potential it represents, and the energy independence it provides, offshore exploitation is also a challenge for States such as Mozambique, which have large maritime areas and whose environmental wealth must be considered. The exploitation of new reserves on economically viable terms depends on available technologies. The development of deep and ultra-deep offshore requires significant research and development efforts. Progress has also been made in managing the multiple risks inherent in this activity. Our study proposes a reliability approach to develop products and processes designed to live at sea. Indeed, the context of an offshore platform requires highly reliable solutions to overcome the difficulties of access to the system for regular maintenance and quick repairs and which must resist deterioration and degradation processes. One of the characteristics of failures that we consider is the actual conditions of use that are considered 'extreme.' These conditions depend on time and the interactions between the different causes. These are the two factors that give the degradation process its dynamic character, hence the need to develop dynamic reliability models. Our work highlights mathematical models that can explicitly manage interactions between components and process variables. These models are accompanied by numerical resolution methods that help to structure a dynamic reliability approach in a physical and probabilistic context. The application developed makes it possible to evaluate the reliability, availability, and maintainability of a floating storage and unloading platform for liquefied natural gas production.

Keywords: dynamic reliability, offshore plateform, stochastic process, uncertainties

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12 Dietary Diversification and Nutritional Education: A Strategy to Improve Child Food Security Status in the Rural Mozambique

Authors: Rodriguez Diego, Del Valle Martin, Hargreaves Matias, Riveros Jose Luis

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Nutrient deficiencies due to a diet low in quantitative and qualitative terms, are prevalent throughout the developing world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Children and women of childbearing age are especially vulnerable. Limited availability, access and intake of animal foods at home and lack of knowledge about their value in the diet and the role they play in health, contribute to poor diet quality. Poor bioavailability of micronutrients in diets based on foods high in fiber and phytates, the low content of some micronutrients in these foods are further factors to consider. Goats are deeply embedded in almost every Sub-Saharan African rural culture, generally kept for their milk, meat, hair or leather. Goats have played an important role in African social life, especially in food security. Goat meat has good properties for human wellbeing, with a special role in lower income households. It has a high-quality protein (20 protein g/100 meat g) including all essential amino acids, good unsaturated/satured fatty acids relationship, and it is an important B-vitamin source with high micronutrients bioavailability. Mozambique has major food security problems, with poor food access and utilization, undiversified diets, chronic poverty and child malnutrition. Our objective was to design a nutritional intervention based on a dietary diversification, nutritional education, cultural beliefs and local resources, aimed to strengthen food security of children at Barrio Broma village (15°43'58.78"S; 32°46'7.27"E) in Chitima, Mozambique. Two surveys were conducted first of socio-productive local databases and then to 100 rural households about livelihoods, food diversity and anthropometric measurements in children under 5 years. Our results indicate that the main economic activity is goat production, based on a native breed with two deliveries per year in the absence of any management. Adult goats weighted 27.2±10.5 kg and raised a height of 63.5±3.8 cm. Data showed high levels of poverty, with a food diversity score of 2.3 (0-12 points), where only 30% of households consume protein and 13% iron, zinc, and B12 vitamin. The main constraints to food security were poor access to water and low income to buy food. Our dietary intervention was based on improving diet quality by increasing the access to dried goat meat, fresh vegetables, and legumes, and its utilization by a nutritional education program. This proposal was based on local culture and living conditions characterized by the absence of electricity power and drinkable water. The drying process proposed would secure the food maintenance under local conditions guaranteeing food safety for a longer period. Additionally, an ancient local drying technique was rescued and used. Moreover, this kind of dietary intervention would be the most efficient way to improve the infant nutrition by delivering macro and micronutrients on time to these vulnerable populations.

Keywords: child malnutrition, dietary diversification, food security, goat meat

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11 The Use of Non-Parametric Bootstrap in Computing of Microbial Risk Assessment from Lettuce Consumption Irrigated with Contaminated Water by Sanitary Sewage in Infulene Valley

Authors: Mario Tauzene Afonso Matangue, Ivan Andres Sanchez Ortiz

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The Metropolitan area of Maputo (Mozambique Capital City) is located in semi-arid zone (800 mm annual rainfall) with 1101170 million inhabitants. On the west side, there are the flatlands of Infulene where the Mulauze River flows towards to the Indian Ocean, receiving at this site, the storm water contaminated with sanitary sewage from Maputo, transported through a concrete open channel. In Infulene, local communities grow salads crops such as tomato, onion, garlic, lettuce, and cabbage, which are then commercialized and consumed in several markets in Maputo City. Lettuce is the most daily consumed salad crop in different meals, generally in fast-foods, breakfasts, lunches, and dinners. However, the risk of infection by several pathogens due to the consumption of lettuce, using the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) tools, is still unknown since there are few studies or publications concerning to this matter in Mozambique. This work is aimed at determining the annual risk arising from the consumption of lettuce grown in Infulene valley, in Maputo, using QMRA tools. The exposure model was constructed upon the volume of contaminated water remaining in the lettuce leaves, the empirical relations between the number of pathogens and the indicator of microorganisms (E. coli), the consumption of lettuce (g) and reduction of pathogens (days). The reference pathogens were Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium, norovirus, and Ascaris. The water quality samples (E. coli) were collected in the storm water channel from January 2016 to December 2018, comprising 65 samples, and the urban lettuce consumption data were collected through inquiry in Maputo Metropolis covering 350 persons. A non-parametric bootstrap was performed involving 10,000 iterations over the collected dataset, namely, water quality (E. coli) and lettuce consumption. The dose-response models were: Exponential for Cryptosporidium, Kummer Confluent hypergeomtric function (1F1) for Vibrio and Ascaris Gaussian hypergeometric function (2F1-(a,b;c;z) for norovirus. The annual infection risk estimates were performed using R 3.6.0 (CoreTeam) software by Monte Carlo (Latin hypercubes), a sampling technique involving 10,000 iterations. The annual infection risks values expressed by Median and the 95th percentile, per person per year (pppy) arising from the consumption of lettuce are as follows: Vibrio cholerae (1.00, 1.00), Cryptosporidium (3.91x10⁻³, 9.72x 10⁻³), nororvirus (5.22x10⁻¹, 9.99x10⁻¹) and Ascaris (2.59x10⁻¹, 9.65x10⁻¹). Thus, the consumption of the lettuce would result in greater risks than the tolerable levels ( < 10⁻³ pppy or 10⁻⁶ DALY) for all pathogens, and the Vibrio cholerae is the most virulent pathogens, according to the hit-single models followed by the Ascaris lumbricoides and norovirus. The sensitivity analysis carried out in this work pointed out that in the whole QMRA, the most important input variable was the reduction of pathogens (Spearman rank value was 0.69) between harvest and consumption followed by water quality (Spearman rank value was 0.69). The decision-makers (Mozambique Government) must strengthen the prevention measures related to pathogens reduction in lettuce (i.e., washing) and engage in wastewater treatment engineering.

Keywords: annual infections risk, lettuce, non-parametric bootstrapping, quantitative microbial risk assessment tools

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10 Defence Diplomacy and Collective Security in Africa: Case of Rwanda Defence Forces

Authors: Emmanuel Mugiraneza

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Rwanda uses defence diplomacy to pursue international collective security through different mechanisms. This paper shows that with an intent of promoting international collective security, Rwanda has constituted its defense diplomacy policy in three standpoints. First, Rwanda has formed strategic cooperation alliances with state actors, regional and international Organizations that enables her to participate in and promote international collective peace, security and cooperation. Secondary, Rwanda uses defence diplomacy to foster cooperation in to pre-empt, minimize and neutralize potential triggers that would lead to the outbreak of international conflict. Thirdly, Rwanda implements defence diplomacy policy strategy through internationally recognized operational and tactical standards while dispelling hostilities, assisting the friendly nation’s forces and or building and maintaining public confidence and trust in the areas where Rwanda Defence Force deploys for peacekeeping missions in Sudan, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Mozambique for a counterterrorism mission.

Keywords: defence diplomacy, collective security, Rwanda, Peacekeeping

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9 An Evaluation of Edible Plants for Remediation of Contaminated Soil- Can Edible Plants Be Used to Remove Heavy Metals on Soil?

Authors: Celia Marilia Martins, Sonia I. V. Guilundo, Iris M. Victorino, Antonio O. Quilambo

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In Mozambique rapid industrialization (mining, aluminium and cement activities) and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of heavy metals on soil, thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting plants, animals and human healthy. Several methods have been used to remediate contaminated soils, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up a contamination from soils, sediments, and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. The present investigation summarised the potential of edible vegetable to grow under the high level of heavy metals such as lead and zinc. The plants used in these studies include Tomatoes, lettuce and Soya beans. The studies have shown that edible plants can be grown under the high level of heavy metals on the soil. Further investigations are identifying mechanisms used by plants to ensure a safe and sustainable use for remediation of contaminated soils by heavy metals.

Keywords: contaminated soil, edible plants, heavy metals, phytoremediation

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8 Socioeconomic Impact of Capture and Sale of Scylla serrata in Metuge Community

Authors: Siran Offman, TeóFilo Nhamuhuco, EzíDio Cuamba

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Scylla serrata is important for livelihood in coastal communities in Metuge District, Northern Mozambique, where the study was conducted from June to August 2014. The aim was to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mangrove crabs captures in Metuge communities. Data was collected based on semi-structured questionnaire in the landing sites and in local crab markets. In total were inquired 26 crab collectors and 6 traders, this activity is practiced only by men, with ages ranging from 15 to 68 years old. To capture the crab the collectors use a long iron hook with 1.5-2 meters, during 5-7 times per week, spending about 5-8 hours a day. The captured varied from 2-20 kg per day. In the village 1 kg costs 1-1.5 USD and 3 USD applied by traders who sell along the streets, for tourists and specific customers from Asia, where the traders can sell until 50 kg.The incomes vary from 11-174USD per month. The value chain between the collectors and trader is unreasonable, as the second makes less effort and earns more, thereby the socio-economic impact is observed, however not high for the collectors, as the money is intended to purchase food and agricultural instruments. In another hand, 90% of collectors dropped out the school, and the money does not have a great impact as they still have precarious housing, rely on community wells to access water, do not have electric power and possess high number of family members.

Keywords: socio-economic and of, impacts, capture, sale, Scylla serrata

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7 African Traders Beyond China: Delving Into Their Entrepreneurial Activities Following COVID-19

Authors: Phillip Thebe

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African traders in China have generated magnanimous attention from scholars because of their choices to take short-term trips to Guangzhou and other places in search of cheaper products taking advantage of the status of China as a "global manufacturing hub". Nevertheless, their activities only gained traction at the turn of the millennium, with their presence in China incrementally dwindling over the next two decades. Now, with the devastating effects of COVID-19, their journeys have had to be totally cut short by unending lockdowns and stiff migration rules due to China's zero-tolerance of COVID-19 policy. This unfortunate yet untimely occurrence has left many scholars wondering if this marks the end of African traders in China and, indeed, the end of their business careers. Between March and September 2022, 20 traders were followed back to Africa, Zimbabwe, to find out what they are doing after having been shut out of China. Data was collected through ethnographic immersion and purposive in-depth interviewing in and around the city of Bulawayo. Snowballing was employed to reach out to the traders until a saturation point was reached and interview transcripts were filed for analysis. The findings revealed that some still trading online in China, report different opinions and feelings about doing business during COVID-19. Others have left the Chinese marketplace, now pursuing European industries in Turkey and other places. Others are still getting Chinese goods but in African countries such as Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa, and Botswana. Some are now into the second-hand clothing trade, whereas others have stopped doing business to pursue other life-course interests. These and other issues are addressed in this paper from the anthropology of migration and globalization perspectives.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, African traders, China, COVID-19, Africans in China

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6 Second-Generation Mozambican Migrant Youth’s Identity and Sense of Belonging in South Africa: The Case of Rural Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga

Authors: Betty Chiyangwa

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This paper explores the complexities surrounding second-generation Mozambican migrant youth’s identity and sense of belonging in post-apartheid South Africa, Bushbuckridge. Established in 1884, Bushbuckridge is one of the earliest districts to accommodate first-generation Mozambicans who migrated to South Africa in the 1970s. This is a single case study informed by data from 24 semi-structured interviews and narratives with migrant youth (18-34 years) born and raised in South Africa to Mozambican parent(s) living in Bushbuckridge. Drawing from Sen’s Capability and Crenshaw’s Intersectionality approaches, this paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge on South to South migration by demonstrating how the role of participants’ identity status influences their agency and capability. The subject of youth migrants is often under-researched in the context of migration in South African thus, their opinions and views have often been marginalized in sociology. Through exploring participants’ experiences, this paper reveals that lack of identity status was described to be a huge hindrance to participants to identify as South Africans and they explained that is a constant distortion of their sense of belonging. Un-documentation status restricts participants and threatens their mobility and hinders their agency to access human rights and perpetuates social inequalities as well as hampering future aspirations. This paper concludes there is a strong association between identity status and levels of social integration. The development of a multi-layered comprehensive model in enhancing participants’ identity is recommended. This model encourages a collaborative effort from multiple stakeholders in enhancing and harnessing migrant youth capabilities in host societies.

Keywords: migrant youth, mozambique, second-generation, south africa

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5 Determining Sources of Sediments at Nkula Dam in the Middle Shire River, Malawi, Using Mineral Magnetic Approach

Authors: M. K. Mzuza, W. Zhang, L. S. Chapola, M. Tembo

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Shire River is the largest and longest river in Malawi emptying its water into the Zambezi River in Mozambique. Siltation is now a major problem in the Shire River due to catchment degradation. This study analysed soil samples from tributaries of the Shire River to determine sources of sediments that cause siltation using the mineral magnetic approach. Bulk sediments and separated particle size fractions of representative samples were collected from tributaries on the western and eastern sides of the Shire River, and Nkula Dam. Eastern tributaries showed relatively higher ferrimagnetic mineral contents and ferrimagnetic to anti ferromagnetic ratios than western tributaries. Sediments from both sides of the Shire River were distinguished by χARM, SIRM versus χlf and S-100 versus SIRM. Findings in this study showed that most of the sediments originated from the western part of the Shire River. Tributaries on the eastern side of the Shire River had higher values for concentration related parameters (χlf, χfd, χARM, SIRM, HIRM, S-100, and χARM/SIRM) than tributaries on the western side. Bulky and detailed magnetic measurements carried out on particle size fractions provided additional confirmation of magnetic contrasts between the two sides of the river suggesting differences in lithology, topography, climate and weather regimes in the catchments. This study demonstrated that the magnetic approach can provide a reliable means of understanding major sediment sources of Nkula Dam and similar situations. It can also help to assess future variations in sediment composition resulting from catchment changes

Keywords: ferrimagnetic minerals, Shire River, tributaries rivers, particle size , topography

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4 The Relationship between Central Bank Independence and Inflation: Evidence from Africa

Authors: R. Bhattu Babajee, Marie Sandrine Estelle Benoit

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The past decades have witnessed a considerable institutional shift towards Central Bank Independence across economies of the world. The motivation behind such a change is the acceptance that increased central bank autonomy has the power of alleviating inflation bias. Hence, studying whether Central Bank Independence acts as a significant factor behind the price stability in the African economies or whether this macroeconomic aim in these countries result from other economic, political or social factors is a pertinent issue. The main research objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between central bank autonomy and inflation in African economies where inflation has proved to be a serious problem. In this optic, we shall measure the degree of CBI in Africa by computing the turnover rates of central banks governors thereby studying whether decisions made by African central banks are affected by external forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically the association between Central Bank Independence (CBI) and inflation for 10 African economies over a period of 17 years, from 1995 to 2012. The sample includes Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. In contrast to empirical research, we have not been using the usual static panel model for it is associated with potential mis specification arising from the absence of dynamics. To this issue a dynamic panel data model which integrates several control variables has been used. Firstly, the analysis includes dynamic terms to explain the tenacity of inflation. Given the confirmation of inflation inertia, that is very likely in African countries there exists the need for including lagged inflation in the empirical model. Secondly, due to known reverse causality between Central Bank Independence and inflation, the system generalized method of moments (GMM) is employed. With GMM estimators, the presence of unknown forms of heteroskedasticity is admissible as well as auto correlation in the error term. Thirdly, control variables have been used to enhance the efficiency of the model. The main finding of this paper is that central bank independence is negatively associated with inflation even after including control variables.

Keywords: central bank independence, inflation, macroeconomic variables, price stability

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3 Department of Social Development/Japan International Cooperation Agency's Journey from South African Community to Southern African Region

Authors: Daisuke Sagiya, Ren Kamioka

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South Africa has ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) on 30th November 2007. In line with this, the Department of Social Development (DSD) revised the White Paper on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (WPRPD), and the Cabinet approved it on 9th December 2015. The South African government is striving towards the elimination of poverty and inequality in line with UNCRPD and WPRPD. However, there are minimal programmes and services that have been provided to persons with disabilities in the rural community. In order to address current discriminative practices, disunity and limited self-representation in rural community, DSD in cooperation with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is implementing the 'Project for the Promotion of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities and Disability Mainstreaming' from May 2016 to May 2020. The project is targeting rural community as the project sites, namely 1) Collins Chabane municipality, Vhembe district, Limpopo and 2) Maluti-a-Phofung municipality, Thabo Mofutsanyana district, Free State. The project aims at developing good practices on Community-Based Inclusive Development (CBID) at the project sites which will be documented as a guideline and applied in other provinces in South Africa and neighbouring countries (Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique). In cooperation with provincial and district DSD and local government, the project is currently implementing various community activities, for example: Establishment of Self-Help Group (SHG) of persons with disabilities and Peer Counselling in the villages, and will conduct Disability Equality Training (DET) and accessibility workshop in order to enhance the CBID in the project sites. In order to universalise good practices on CBID, the authors will explain lessons learned from the project by utilising the theories of disability and development studies and community psychology such as social model of disability, twin-track approach, empowerment theory, sense of community, helper therapy principle, etc. And the authors conclude that in order to realise social participation of persons with disabilities in rural community, CBID is a strong tool and persons with disabilities must play central roles in all spheres of CBID activities.

Keywords: community-based inclusive development, disability mainstreaming, empowerment of persons with disabilities, self-help group

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2 On Panel Data Analysis of Factors on Economic Advances in Some African Countries

Authors: Ayoola Femi J., Kayode Balogun

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In some African Countries, increase in Gross Domestic Products (GDP) has not translated to real development as expected by common-man in his household. For decades, a lot of contests on economic growth and development has been a nagging issues. The focus of this study is to analysing the effects of economic determinants/factors on economic advances in some African Countries by employing panel data analysis. The yearly (1990-2013) data were obtained from the world economic outlook database of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), for probing the effects of these variables on growth rate in some selected African countries which include: Nigeria, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cape-Verde, Cameroun, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic Of Congo, Cote di’ Voire, Egypt, Equatorial-Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, and Uganda. The effects of 6 macroeconomic variables on GDP were critically examined. We used 37 Countries GDP as our dependent variable and 6 independent variables used in this study include: Total Investment (totinv), Inflation (inf), Population (popl), current account balance (cab), volume of imports of goods and services (vimgs), and volume of exports of goods and services (vexgs). The results of our analysis shows that total investment, population and volume of exports of goods and services strongly affect the economic growth. We noticed that population of these selected countries positively affect the GDP while total investment and volume of exports negatively affect GDP. On the contrary, inflation, current account balance and volume of imports of goods and services’ contribution to the GDP are insignificant. The results of our analysis shows that total investment, population and volume of exports of goods and services strongly affect the economic growth. We noticed that population of these selected countries positively affect the GDP while total investment and volume of exports negatively affect GDP. On the contrary, inflation, current account balance and volume of imports of goods and services’ contribution to the GDP are insignificant. The results of this study would be useful for individual African governments for developing a suitable and appropriate economic policies and strategies. It will also help investors to understand the economic nature and viability of Africa as a continent as well as its individual countries.

Keywords: African countries, economic growth and development, gross domestic products, static panel data models

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1 Exploration Tools for Tantalum-Bearing Pegmatites along Kibara Belt, Central and Southwestern Uganda

Authors: Sadat Sembatya

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Tantalum metal is used in addressing capacitance challenge in the 21st-century technology growth. Tantalum is rarely found in its elemental form. Hence it’s often found with niobium and the radioactive elements of thorium and uranium. Industrial processes are required to extract pure tantalum. Its deposits are mainly oxide associated and exist in Ta-Nb oxides such as tapiolite, wodginite, ixiolite, rutile and pyrochlore-supergroup minerals are of minor importance. The stability and chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum. Each period of Tantalum ore formation is characterized by specific mineralogical and geochemical features. Compositions of Columbite-Group Minerals (CGM) are variable: Fe-rich types predominate in the Man Shield (Sierra Leone), the Congo Craton (DR Congo), the Kamativi Belt (Zimbabwe) and the Jos Plateau (Nigeria). Mn-rich columbite-tantalite is typical of the Alto Ligonha Province (Mozambique), the Arabian-Nubian Shield (Egypt, Ethiopia) and the Tantalite Valley pegmatites (southern Namibia). There are large compositional variations through Fe-Mn fractionation, followed by Nb-Ta fractionation. These are typical for pegmatites usually associated with very coarse quartz-feldspar-mica granites. They are young granitic systems of the Kibara Belt of Central Africa and the Older Granites of Nigeria. Unlike ‘simple’ Be-pegmatites, most Ta-Nb rich pegmatites have the most complex zoning. Hence we need systematic exploration tools to find and rapidly assess the potential of different pegmatites. The pegmatites exist as known deposits (e.g., abandoned mines) and the exposed or buried pegmatites. We investigate rocks and minerals to trace for the possibility of the effect of hydrothermal alteration mainly for exposed pegmatites, do mineralogical study to prove evidence of gradual replacement and geochemistry to report the availability of trace elements which are good indicators of mineralisation. Pegmatites are not good geophysical responders resulting to the exclusion of the geophysics option. As for more advanced prospecting, we bulk samples from different zones first to establish their grades and characteristics, then make a pilot test plant because of big samples to aid in the quantitative characterization of zones, and then drill to reveal distribution and extent of different zones but not necessarily grade due to nugget effect. Rapid assessment tools are needed to assess grade and degree of fractionation in order to ‘rule in’ or ‘rule out’ a given pegmatite for future work. Pegmatite exploration is also unique, high risk and expensive hence right traceability system and certification for 3Ts are highly needed.

Keywords: exploration, mineralogy, pegmatites, tantalum

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