Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: neuroticism

47 Quiet Ego and Its Predictors: Comparing Turkey and the US

Authors: Ece Akca, Nebi Sumer, Heidi A. Wayment, Meliksah Demir


This study compares a typical individualistic culture (the USA) and a relatively collectivist culture (Turkey) on the levels and personality predictors of the quiet ego. A total of 248 Turkish and 683 American university students completed the Quiet Ego Scale and the Big Five Personality Inventory. The moderating role of culture on the relationship between quiet ego and personality characteristics was investigated. Openness to experience was the strongest predictor of the quiet ego among both Turkish and the US samples. Whereas extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness significantly predicted quiet ego in the US, lower levels of neuroticism were related to the quiet ego in Turkey. Results revealed that the effect of personality characteristics on quiet ego varied across cultures. Agreeableness in the US and neuroticism in Turkey seemed to be the critical predictor of quite ego. Results were discussed considering cultural values in Turkish and the USA context.

Keywords: agreeableness, big five personality, culture, neuroticism, quiet ego

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46 Personal Characteristics and Personality Traits as Predictors of Compassion Fatigue among Counselors from Dominican Schools in the Philippines

Authors: Neil Jordan M. Uy, Fe Pelilia V. Hernandez


A counselor is always regarded as a professional who embodies the willingness to help others through the process of counseling. He is knowledgeable and skillful of the different theories, tools, and techniques that are useful in aiding the client to cope with their dilemmas. The negative experiences of the clients that are shared during the counseling session can affect the professional counselor. Compassion fatigue, a professional impairment, is characterized by the decline of one’s productivity and the feeling of anxiety and stress brought about as the counselor empathizes, listens, and cares for others. This descriptive type of research aimed to explore variables that are predictors of compassion fatigue utilizing three research instruments; Demographic Profile Sheet, Professional Quality of Life Scale, and Neo-Pi-R. The 52 respondents of this study were counselors from the different Dominican schools in the Philippines. Generally, the counselors have low level of compassion fatigue across personal characteristics (age, gender, years of service, highest educational attainment, and professional status) and personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism). ANOVA validated the findings of this that among the personal characteristics and personality traits, extraversion with f-value of 3.944 and p-value of 0.026, and conscientiousness, with f-value of 4.125 and p-value of 0.022 were found to have significant difference in the level of compassion fatigue. A very significant difference was observed with neuroticism with f-value of 6.878 and p-value 0.002. Among the personal characteristics and personal characteristics, only neuroticism was found to predict compassion fatigue. The computed r2 value of 0.204 using multiple regression analysis suggests that 20.4 percent of compassion fatigue can be predicted by neuroticism. The predicting power of neuroticism can be computed from the regression model Y=0.156x+26.464; where x is the number of neuroticism.

Keywords: big five personality traits, compassion fatigue, counselors, professional quality of life scale

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45 Relationship between Stress and Personality in Young Adults

Authors: Sneha Sadana


Human beings are unique and so are their reactions towards varied stimuli. This study focuses on the impact personality has on how one deals with stressful situations. It can be intriguing to know how big of an impact our personality has on the way we react and how it is wired in us to respond to things in a particular manner all because of our personality and the traits which make us who we are. The study was done on 150 college going students, 75 males and 75 females mainly from Ahmedabad, India pursuing a variety of different streams and subjects. The questionnaire consists of two standardized questionnaires which measure stress and personality. The Student Stress Scale by Manju Agarwal evaluates stress of subjects and the big five personality locator by Norman.
The findings showed that there exists a positive relationship between stress and neuroticism and an inverse relationship between stress and sociability, stress and openness, stress and agreeableness and stress and conscientiousness.
And on doing a further comparative analysis on personality types of the same sample it was found out that females were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, sociability, openness, and neuroticism. In males, however, it was observed that males were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, neuroticism, sociability, and openness

Keywords: college students, personality, stress, theories of personality

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44 Fibromyalgia and Personality: A Review of the Different Personality Types Identified

Authors: Lize Tibiriçá, Ronnie Lee, Samantha Behbahani


Fibromyalgia (FM) is a musculoskeletal disorder affecting men and women of different ages and cultures. The cause of this disorder is unknown; however, studies suggest an etiology that involves biological and psychosocial factors. Few studies have shown that a personality type such as neuroticism is associated with chronic pain conditions. Past research has explored whether patients with FM present with a specific personality trait. However, studies have used different methods (i.e. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS) and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire or Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Karolinska scale of personality, Big Five Inventory or NEO Personality Inventory) to explore the connection between FM and a personality type. They have identified personality types that present similar characteristics but vary in the name (i.e. high harm avoidance and low novelty seeking, psychasthenia/muscular tension/somatic anxiety, neuroticism). Although Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and the Big Five Inventory differ in terms of content and structure, both of them identify neuroticism as the personality type of FM patients, and the former also identifies these patients as having a low sociability personality trait. Previous research also shows a trend of sociotropic personality style with FM patients that also suffer from Major Depressive Disorder. Participants in these studies were, for the most part, adult female and researchers have recognized that as a limitation and whether their findings can be generalized to men and younger patients with FM. Furthermore, most studies reviewed were conducted in Europe (i.e. Spain) and had a cross-sectional design. Future research should replicate past studies in different countries and consider conducting a longitudinal study. Although it is suspected that FM course is modulated by FM patients’ personality, it is not known whether individuals with similar personalities will develop FM. This review sought to explain the differences and similarities between the personality types identified. Limitations in the studies reviewed were addressed, and considerations for future research and treatment were discussed.

Keywords: chronic pain, fibromyalgia, neuroticism, personality type

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43 The Relationship between the Personality Traits and Self-Compassion with Psychological Well-Being in Iranian College Students

Authors: Abdolamir Gatezadeh, Rezvan K. A. Mohamamdi, Arash Jelodari


It has been well established that personality traits and self-compassion are associated with psychological well-being. Thus, the current research aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms in a collectivist culture. Method: One hundred and fifty college students were chosen and filled out Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale, the NEO Personality Inventory, and Neff's Self-Compassion Scale. Results: The results of correlation analysis showed that there were significant relationships between the personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and self-compassion (self-kindness, isolation, mindfulness, and the total score of self-compassion) with psychological well-being. The regression analysis showed that neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness significantly predicted psychological well-being. Discussion and conclusion: The cultural implications and future orientations have been discussed.

Keywords: college students, personality traits, psychological well-being, self-compassion

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42 Marital Expectations, Marital Infidelity and Neuroticism as Predictors of Marital Conflict: Case Study of Igbo Spouses in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ann Ukachi Madukwe, Juliana Chinwendu Njoku


Marital conflict, conceptualized in this study as the ongoing lack of peace and satisfaction in a marital union which threatens marital stability, has become quite prevalent in modern Igbo communities. The frequent incidences of spousal battery, spousal sexual abuse, domestic violence, long term separation and in some cases outright divorce are worrisome indicators of the endemic challenge marital conflict poses in most Igbo communities. This study examined marital expectations, marital infidelity (self and spouse), and neuroticism as predictors of marital conflict. Marital expectation was described as a married person’s appraisal of how well their pre-marital desires were being met by their spouses and within the marriage relationship. It assessed different aspects of personal and interpersonal positive outcomes in a marital union. Marital infidelity referred to the likelihood that married individuals or their spouses could have indulged in intimate activities like passionate kisses and romantic dates with someone other than their spouses. Participants reported on themselves as well as their spouses. The last predictor variable neuroticism was measured as a personality trait that addresses issues of emotional instability especially as it relates to a person’s interactions. Neurotic persons were considered to have high emotional reactivity; they would have strong emotional response to issues that emotionally stable persons might overlook. Participants comprised of Igbo male and female spouses selected from Imo state using randomized cluster sampling method. The study utilized the cross sectional survey design and Stepwise linear multiple regression for data analyses. Findings showed that though marital infidelity by spouse was generally below average and spouses marital expectations were being fulfilled; marital expectations followed by marital infidelity – spouse proved to be significant predictors of marital conflict. Marital conflict reduced as marital expectations got fulfilled and increased as the level of likelihood of marital infidelity by the spouse increased. Spouses in this study also reported an increased level of neuroticism, with males being more neurotic than females. Neuroticism was found to be the least significant predictor of marital conflict compared to marital expectations and marital infidelity – spouse. Finally, the article made recommendations to spouses and marital counsellors regarding especially the need to manage the neurotic tendencies of Igbo spouses.

Keywords: Igbo spouses, marital conflict, marital expectations, Nigeria

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41 Exploring the Psychosocial Brain: A Retrospective Analysis of Personality, Social Networks, and Dementia Outcomes

Authors: Felicia N. Obialo, Aliza Wingo, Thomas Wingo


Psychosocial factors such as personality traits and social networks influence cognitive aging and dementia outcomes both positively and negatively. The inherent complexity of these factors makes defining the underlying mechanisms of their influence difficult; however, exploring their interactions affords promise in the field of cognitive aging. The objective of this study was to elucidate some of these interactions by determining the relationship between social network size and dementia outcomes and by determining whether personality traits mediate this relationship. The longitudinal Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) database provided by Rush University’s Religious Orders Study/Memory and Aging Project was utilized to perform retrospective regression and mediation analyses on 3,591 participants. Participants who were cognitively impaired at baseline were excluded, and analyses were adjusted for age, sex, common chronic diseases, and vascular risk factors. Dementia outcome measures included cognitive trajectory, clinical dementia diagnosis, and postmortem beta-amyloid plaque (AB), and neurofibrillary tangle (NT) accumulation. Personality traits included agreeableness (A), conscientiousness (C), extraversion (E), neuroticism (N), and openness (O). The results show a positive correlation between social network size and cognitive trajectory (p-value = 0.004) and a negative relationship between social network size and odds of dementia diagnosis (p = 0.024/ Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.974). Only neuroticism mediates the positive relationship between social network size and cognitive trajectory (p < 2e-16). Agreeableness, extraversion, and neuroticism all mediate the negative relationship between social network size and dementia diagnosis (p=0.098, p=0.054, and p < 2e-16, respectively). All personality traits are independently associated with dementia diagnosis (A: p = 0.016/ OR = 0.959; C: p = 0.000007/ OR = 0.945; E: p = 0.028/ OR = 0.961; N: p = 0.000019/ OR = 1.036; O: p = 0.027/ OR = 0.972). Only conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with postmortem AD pathologies; specifically, conscientiousness is negatively associated (AB: p = 0.001, NT: p = 0.025) and neuroticism is positively associated with pathologies (AB: p = 0.002, NT: p = 0.002). These results support the study’s objectives, demonstrating that social network size and personality traits are strongly associated with dementia outcomes, particularly the odds of receiving a clinical diagnosis of dementia. Personality traits interact significantly and beneficially with social network size to influence the cognitive trajectory and future dementia diagnosis. These results reinforce previous literature linking social network size to dementia risk and provide novel insight into the differential roles of individual personality traits in cognitive protection.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive trajectory, personality traits, social network size

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40 Connections among Personality, Teacher-Student Relationship, Belief in a Just World for Others and Teacher Bullying

Authors: Hui-Yu Peng, Hsiu-I Hsueh, Li-Ming Chen


Most studies focused on bullying behaviors among students, however few research concerns about teachers’ bullying behaviors against students. In order to have more understandings and reduce teacher bullying, it is important to examine what factors may affect teachers’ bullying behaviors. This study aimed to explore the connections between different psychological variables and teacher bullying. Four variables, neuroticism, extraversion, teacher-student relationship, and belief in a just world for others (BJW-others), were selected in this study. Four hundred and five elementary and secondary school teachers in Taiwan endorsed the self-reported surveys. Multiple regression method was used to analyze data. Results revealed that teachers’ BJW-others and extraversion did not have significant correlations with teacher bullying scores. However, closed teacher-student relationship and neuroticism can negatively and positively predict teachers’ bullying behaviors against students, respectively. Implications for preventing teacher bullying were discussed at the end of this study.

Keywords: belief in a just world for others, big five personality traits, teacher bullying, teacher-student relationship

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39 Association between Maternal Personality and Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Bonding

Authors: Tessa Sellis, Marike A. Wierda, Elke Tichelman, Mirjam T. Van Lohuizen, Marjolein Berger, François Schellevis, Claudi Bockting, Lilian Peters, Huib Burger


Introduction: Most women develop a healthy bond with their children, however, adequate mother-to-infant bonding cannot be taken for granted. Mother-to-infant bonding refers to the feelings and emotions experienced by the mother towards her child. It is an ongoing process that starts during pregnancy and develops during the first year postpartum and likely throughout early childhood. The prevalence of inadequate bonding ranges from 7 to 11% in the first weeks postpartum. An impaired mother-to-infant bond can cause long-term complications for both mother and child. Very little research has been conducted on the direct relationship between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. This study explores the associations between maternal personality and postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. The main hypothesis is that there is a relationship between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding. Methods: Data for this study were used from the Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression Study (2010-2014), which examined symptoms of and risk factors for anxiety or depression during pregnancy and the first year postpartum of 6220 pregnant women who received primary, secondary or tertiary care in the Netherlands. The study was expanded in 2015 to investigate postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. For the current research 3836 participants were included. During the first trimester of gestation, baseline characteristics, as well as personality, were measured through online questionnaires. Personality was measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which covers the big five of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, altruism and conscientiousness). Mother-to-infant bonding was measured postpartum by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations. Results: 5% of the PBQ-respondents reported impaired bonding. A statistically significant association was found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding (p < .001): mothers scoring higher on neuroticism, reported a lower score on mother-to-infant bonding. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the personality traits extraversion (b: -.081), openness (b: -.014), altruism (b: -.067), conscientiousness (b: -.060) and mother-to-infant bonding. Discussion: This study is one of the first to demonstrate a direct association between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. A statistically significant relationship has been found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding, however, the percentage of variance predictable by a personality dimension is very small. This study has examined one part of the multi-factorial topic of mother-to-infant bonding and offers more insight into the rarely investigated and complex matter of mother-to-infant bonding. For midwives, it is important recognize the risks for impaired bonding and subsequently improve policy for women at risk.

Keywords: mother-to-infant bonding, personality, postpartum, pregnancy

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38 The Big Five Personality Traits and Environmental Factors as Predictors of the Antisocial Behaviours among Juveniles

Authors: Karol Konaszewski


Background: The article is an analysis of the results of the studies conducted among juveniles (boys and girls) in the case of whom the family court applied the educational means of placing them in the youth educational centers. The aim of the study was to find out the correlations between antisocial behaviors, personality traits and the environmental determinants (support factors and risk factors) among juveniles (boys and girls). Methods: The total of 481 juveniles staying in youth educational centers participated in the study. Applied research tools: The Antisocial Behaviors Scale by L. Pytka, NEO-FFI by P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae was used to diagnose personality traits included in a popular five-factor model (it has been adapted into Polish by B. Zawadzki, J. Strelau, P. Szczepaniak, and M. Śliwińska) and a questionnaire concerning support factors and risk factors was constructed to measure environmental determinants. The data was analysed in a regression model. Findings: The analysis model showed that the significant predictors of antisocial behaviors were neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and negative relations at school. In girls group, the significant predictors of antisocial behaviors were neuroticism, conscientiousness, family support and negative relations at school, while in boys group the significant predictors of antisocial behaviors were neuroticism, extraversion and negative relations at family. Discussion: The results of this study have important implications. They allow for a better understanding of the factors that contribute to antisocial behaviors among juveniles. Future interventions could be based on the creation of personality traits, strengthening of support factors and correction of risk factors.

Keywords: antisocial behaviours, juveniles, personality, youth

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37 Addictive Use Due to Personality: Focused on Big Five Personality Traits and Game Addiction

Authors: Eui Jun Jeong, Hye Rim Lee, Ji Hye Yoo


Recent studies have verified the significant relationship of user personality with Internet use. However, in game studies, little research has emphasized on the effects of personality traits on game addiction. This study examined whether big five personality traits affect game addiction with control of psychological, social, and demographic factors. Specifically, using data from a survey of 789 game users in Korea, we conducted a regression analysis to see the associations of psychological (loneliness/depression), social (activities with family/friends), self-efficacy (game/general), gaming (daily gaming time/perception), demographic (age/gender), and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism conscientiousness, agreeableness, & openness) with the degree of game addiction. Results showed that neuroticism increase game addiction with no effect of extraversion on the addiction. General self-efficacy negatively affected game addiction, whereas game self-efficacy increased the degree of game addiction. Loneliness enhanced game addiction while depression showed a negative effect on the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.

Keywords: game addiction, big five personality, social activities, self-efficacy, loneliness, depression

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36 Probability Model Accidents of Motorcyclist Based on Driver's Personality

Authors: Margareth E. Bolla, Ludfi Djakfar, Achmad Wicaksono


The increase in the number of motorcycle users in Indonesia is in line with the increase in accidents involving motorcycles. Several previous studies have shown that humans are the biggest factor causing accidents, and the driver's personality factor will affect his behavior on the road. This study was conducted to see how a person's personality traits will affect the probability of having an accident while driving. The Big Five Inventory (BFI) questionnaire and the Honda Riding Trainer (HRT) simulator were used as measuring tools, while the analysis carried out was logistic regression analysis. The results of the descriptive analysis of the respondent's personality based on the BFI show that the majority of drivers have the dominant character of neuroticism (34%), while the smallest group is the driver with the dominant type of openness character (6%). The percentage of motorists who were not involved in an accident was 54%. The results of the logistic regression analysis form a mathematical model as follows Y = -3.852 - 0.288 X1 + 0.596 X2 + 0.429 X3 - 0.386 X4 - 0.094 X5 + 0.436 X6 + 0.162 X7, where the results of hypothesis testing indicate that the variables openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, history of traffic accidents and age at starting driving did not have a significant effect on the probability of a motorcyclist being involved in an accident.

Keywords: accidents, BFI, probability, simulator

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35 The Effects of Affections and of Personality on Metacognition

Authors: Patricia Silva, Iolanda Costa Galinha, Cristina Costa-Lobo


The present research aims to evaluate, in the context of formal learning, the influence of affections, through subjective well-being, as well as the influence of personality, in the metacognition levels. There are few studies that analyze the influence of affection and personality on metacognition. The sample of this study consists of 300 Portuguese adolescents, male and female, aged between 15 and 17 years. The main variables of this study are affections, personality, ascertained through neuroticism and extraversion, and metacognition, namely the knowledge of cognition and the regulation of cognition. Initially, the sociodemographic questionnaire was constructed and administered to characterize the sample in its variables. To evaluate the affective experience in adolescents was administered PANAS-N, that is a measure of self-assessment of positive and negative affectivity in children and adolescents. To evaluate the personality, in its variables extroversion and neuroticism, the NEO-FFI was applied. The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, MAI, was used to assess knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The data analysis was performed using the statistical software IBM SPSS 22.0. After analyzing and discussing the results, a set of theoretical interdisciplinary reflection, between the sciences of education and psychology, is concretized, contributing to the reflection on psychoeducational intervention, opening the way for future studies.

Keywords: affections, personality, metacognition, psychoeducational intervention

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34 The Effect of "Trait" Variance of Personality on Depression: Application of the Trait-State-Occasion Modeling

Authors: Pei-Chen Wu


Both preexisting cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of personality-depression relationship have suffered from one main limitation: they ignored the stability of the construct of interest (e.g., personality and depression) can be expected to influence the estimate of the association between personality and depression. To address this limitation, the Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) modeling was adopted to analyze the sources of variance of the focused constructs. A TSO modeling was operated by partitioning a state variance into time-invariant (trait) and time-variant (occasion) components. Within a TSO framework, it is possible to predict change on the part of construct that really changes (i.e., time-variant variance), when controlling the trait variances. 750 high school students were followed for 4 waves over six-month intervals. The baseline data (T1) were collected from the senior high schools (aged 14 to 15 years). Participants were given Beck Depression Inventory and Big Five Inventory at each assessment. TSO modeling revealed that 70~78% of the variance in personality (five constructs) was stable over follow-up period; however, 57~61% of the variance in depression was stable. For personality construct, there were 7.6% to 8.4% of the total variance from the autoregressive occasion factors; for depression construct there were 15.2% to 18.1% of the total variance from the autoregressive occasion factors. Additionally, results showed that when controlling initial symptom severity, the time-invariant components of all five dimensions of personality were predictive of change in depression (Extraversion: B= .32, Openness: B = -.21, Agreeableness: B = -.27, Conscientious: B = -.36, Neuroticism: B = .39). Because five dimensions of personality shared some variance, the models in which all five dimensions of personality were simultaneous to predict change in depression were investigated. The time-invariant components of five dimensions were still significant predictors for change in depression (Extraversion: B = .30, Openness: B = -.24, Agreeableness: B = -.28, Conscientious: B = -.35, Neuroticism: B = .42). In sum, the majority of the variability of personality was stable over 2 years. Individuals with the greater tendency of Extraversion and Neuroticism have higher degrees of depression; individuals with the greater tendency of Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientious have lower degrees of depression.

Keywords: assessment, depression, personality, trait-state-occasion model

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33 A Possible Determinant of Musical Preference in Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Peter S. Kim


The increasing availability of music facilitated by new technology and open sourcing has eliminated many traditional limiting factors in musical taste, creating a culture of choice. This study tested 191 international subjects, mostly young adults more decisively shaped by emerging technologies like Facebook, the platform for the study. Using an aggregated Big Five personality test, subjects were asked to self-report on questions related to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Subsequently, subjects listened to five pairs of musical works reflecting opposite extremes of one of five musical qualities: tempo (fast/slow), complexity (simple/complex), degree of dissonance (tonal/atonal), familiarity (familiar/unfamiliar), and extra-musical significance (significant/not significant). Subjects were then asked to record listening times and preferences among the selections. Strikingly, this study shows a relatively high positive correlation between agreeableness and musical preferences (predicting preferences for simple, familiar, and fast music), as compared to extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Thus, this research suggests that the not yet well-understood relationship between personality traits and musical qualities merits further study.

Keywords: music perception, psychology, cognition, musical preference

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32 Family Income and Parental Behavior: Maternal Personality as a Moderator

Authors: Robert H. Bradley, Robert F. Corwyn


There is abundant research showing that socio-economic status is implicated in parenting. However, additional factors such as family context, parent personality, parenting history and child behavior also help determine how parents enact the role of caregiver. Each of these factors not only helps determine how a parent will act in a given situation, but each can serve to moderate the influence of the other factors. Personality has long been studied as a factor that influences parental behavior, but it has almost never been considered as a moderator of family contextual factors. For this study, relations between three maternal personality characteristics (agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism) and four aspects of parenting (harshness, sensitivity, stimulation, learning materials) were examined when children were 6 months, 36 months, and 54 months old and again at 5th grade. Relations between these three aspects of personality and the overall home environment were also examined. A key concern was whether maternal personality characteristics moderated relations between household income and the four aspects of parenting and between household income and the overall home environment. The data for this study were taken from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD). The total sample consisted of 1364 families living in ten different sites in the United States. However, the samples analyzed included only those with complete data on all four parenting outcomes (i.e., sensitivity, harshness, stimulation, and provision of learning materials), income, maternal education and all three measures of personality (i.e., agreeableness, neuroticism, extraversion) at each age examined. Results from hierarchical regression analysis showed that mothers high in agreeableness were more likely to demonstrate sensitivity and stimulation as well as provide more learning materials to their children but were less likely to manifest harshness. Maternal agreeableness also consistently moderated the effects of low income on parental behavior. Mothers high in extraversion were more likely to provide stimulation and learning materials, with extraversion serving as a moderator of low income on both. By contrast, mothers high in neuroticism were less likely to demonstrate positive aspects of parenting and more likely to manifest negative aspects (e.g., harshness). Neuroticism also served to moderate the influence of low income on parenting, especially for stimulation and learning materials. The most consistent effects of parent personality were on the overall home environment, with significant main and interaction effects observed in 11 of the 12 models tested. These findings suggest that it may behoove professional who work with parents living in adverse circumstances to consider parental personality in helping to better target prevention or intervention efforts aimed at supporting parental efforts to act in ways that benefit children.

Keywords: home environment, household income, learning materials, personality, sensitivity, stimulation

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31 Study of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Life-Orientation in Convicts and Under-Trials

Authors: Sneh Laller, Kamini C. Tanwar


Human beings are social animals. The scenario is changing and people become angry towards petty things and this may lead to committing a crime. Objective: The aim of the present research is: 1. To find out the difference between convicts and under-trials on different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation; 2. To find out the difference between male and female jail inmates on different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation; 3. To find out the relationship between different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation in convicts and under-trials; 4. To find out the relationship between different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation in male and female jail inmates. Method: The study was conducted on 100 participants (consisting of 50 convicts- 25 males and 25 females, and 50 under-trials- 25 males and 25 females); age range was 20-60 years. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 by McCrae, Costa (2010), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale- II by Leary (1983) and Life Orientation Test-R by Scheier et al. (1994) was used and purposive sampling technique was done for data collection. The t-test was applied to find out the comparison and Pearson correlation was applied to determine the relationship between personality, FNE and life-orientation in both the groups. Results: There is a significant difference in the dimension of personality that is neuroticism and life-orientation in convicts and under-trials and also, in the dimensions of personality such as neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness, and FNE in male and female jail inmates. In convicts the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with life-orientation (r = 0.430**) whereas, in under-trials the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with FNE (r = 0.315*) and another dimension of personality, extraversion shows significant negative correlation with life-orientation (r = -0.409**). In male jail inmates, the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with FNE (r = 0.474**) whereas in female jail inmates, the dimension of personality, openness to experience shows significant negative correlation with FNE (r = -0.356*) and significant positive correlation of neuroticism with life-orientation (r = 0.292*). Conclusion: It was found that under-trials are neurotic and life-oriented than convicts, and female jail inmates are also neurotic and exhibit fear of negative evaluation whereas male jail inmates are extravert and agreeable.

Keywords: convicts, fear of negative evaluation, life-orientation, personality, under-trials

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30 Relationship between Personality Traits and Postural Stability among Czech Military Combat Troops

Authors: K. Rusnakova, D. Gerych, M. Stehlik


Postural stability is a complex process involving actions of biomechanical, motor, sensory and central nervous system components. Numerous joint systems, muscles involved, the complexity of sporting movements and situations require perfect coordination of the body's movement patterns. To adapt to a constantly changing situation in such a dynamic environment as physical performance, optimal input of information from visual, vestibular and somatosensory sensors are needed. Combat soldiers are required to perform physically and mentally demanding tasks in adverse conditions, and poor postural stability has been identified as a risk factor for lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether some personality traits are related to the performance of static postural stability among soldiers of combat troops. NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to identify personality traits and the Nintendo Wii Balance Board was used to assess static postural stability of soldiers. Postural stability performance was assessed by changes in center of pressure (CoP) and center of gravity (CoG). A posturographic test was performed for 60 s with eyes opened during quiet upright standing. The results showed that facets of neuroticism and conscientiousness personality traits were significantly correlated with measured parameters of CoP and CoG. This study can help for better understanding the relationship between personality traits and static postural stability. The results can be used to optimize the training process at the individual level.

Keywords: neuroticism, conscientiousness, postural stability, combat troops

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29 Perceiving Interpersonal Conflict and the Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Emily Rivera, Toni DiDona


The Big Five personality traits is a hierarchical classification of personality traits that applies factor analysis to a personality survey data in order to describe human personality using five broad dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness (Fetvadjiev & Van de Vijer, 2015). Research shows that personality constructs underline individual differences in processing conflict and interpersonal relations. (Graziano et al., 1996). This research explores the understudied correlation between the Big Five personality traits and perceived interpersonal conflict in the workplace. It revises social psychological literature on Big Five personality traits within a social context and discusses organizational development journal articles on the perceived efficacy of conflict tactics and approach to interpersonal relationships. The study also presents research undertaken on a survey group of 867 subjects over the age of 18 that were recruited by means of convenience sampling through social media, email, and text messaging. The central finding of this study is that only two of the Big Five personality traits had a significant correlation with perceiving interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Individuals who score higher on agreeableness and neuroticism, perceive more interpersonal conflict in the workplace compared to those that score lower on each dimension. The relationship between both constructs is worthy of research due to its everyday frequency and unique individual psycho-social consequences. This multimethod research associated the Big Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict. Its findings that can be utilized to further understand social cognition, person perception, complex social behavior and social relationships in the work environment.

Keywords: five-factor model, interpersonal conflict, personality, The Big Five personality traits

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28 Association between Appearance Schemas and Personality

Authors: Berta Rodrigues Maia, Mariana Marques, Frederica Carvalho


Introduction: Personality traits play is related to many forms of psychological distress, such as body dissatisfaction. Aim: To explore the associations between appearance schemas and personality traits. Method: 494 Portuguese university students (80.2% females, and 99.2% single), with a mean age of 20.17 years old (SD = 1.77; range: 18-20), filled in the appearance schemas inventory-revised, the NEO personality inventory (a Portuguese short version), and the composite multidimensional perfectionism scale. Results: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the scores in appearance schemas by sex, with a significant difference being found in self-evaluation salience scores [females (M = 37.99, SD = 7.82); males (M = 35.36, SD = 6.60); t (489) = -3.052, p = .002]. Finally, there was no significant difference in motivational salience scores, by sex [females (M = 27.67, SD = 4.84); males (M = 26.70, SD = 4.99); t (489) = -1.748, p = .081]. Having conducted correlations separately, by sex, self-evaluation salience was positively correlated with concern over mistakes (r = .27), doubts about actions (r = .35), and socially prescribed perfectionism (r = .23). moreover, for females, self-evaluation salience was positively correlated with concern over mistakes (r = .34), personal standards (r = .25), doubts about actions (r = .33), parental expectations (r = .24), parental criticism (r = .24), organization (r = .11), socially prescribed perfectionism (r = .31), self-oriented perfectionism (r = .32), and neuroticism (r = .33). concerning motivational salience, in the total sample (not separately, by sex), this scale/dimension significantly correlated with conscientiousness (r = . 18), personal standards (r = .23), socially prescribed perfectionism (r = . 10), and self-oriented perfectionism (r = .29). All correlations were significant at a level of significance of 0.01 (2-tailed), except for socially prescribed perfectionism. All the other correlations (with neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, parental expectations, and parental criticism) were not significant. Conclusions: Females seem to value more their self-appearance than males, and, in females, the salience of appearance in life seems to be associated with maladaptive perfectionism, as well as with adaptive perfectionism. In males, the salience of appearance was only related to adaptive perfectionism. These results seem to show that males are more concerned with their own standards regarding appearance, while for females, other's standards are also relevant. In females, the level of the salience of appearance in life seems to relate to the experience of feelings, such as anxiety and depression (neuroticism). The motivation to improve appearance seemed to be particularly related, in both sexes, to adaptive perfectionism (in a general way concerning more the personal standards). Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the causality of the results. Acknowledgment: This study was carried out under the strategic project of the Centre for Philosophical and Humanistic Studies (CEFH) UID/FIL/00683/2019, funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT).

Keywords: appearance schemas, personality traits, university students, sex

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27 Stress, Coping, and Substance Use Among College Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Eli Goldstein, David Moore


The COVID-19 pandemic has brought substantial changes to the lives of college students, impacting them negatively. A consequence of these impacts has led to a significant increase in the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as substance use. The present study investigated the relationship between substance use (alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, benzodiazepines, psychedelics, and opioids) among college students from March 2020 to March 2021 and the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the relationship between certain personality traits and substance use. Participants (N = 85) answered three questionnaires that measured their expressed symptoms of each negative emotional state, their frequency of substance use, and their levels of five specific personality traits. Investigators predicted that individuals experiencing symptoms of stress and anxiety from the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as individuals showing higher levels of neuroticism and low levels of conscientiousness, would use more depressants (alcohol and benzodiazepines) and opioids to cope with their negative emotional states. Investigators also predicted that individuals who expressed high levels of openness to experience would be more likely to use psychedelics and cannabis to cope with symptoms of depression. Significant correlations showed that individuals primarily used depressants to cope with symptoms of anxiety, as well as cannabis and psychedelics to cope with symptoms of depression. It was also revealed that individuals with higher levels of openness to experience used cannabis and psychedelics, and those with high levels of neuroticism were more likely to use depressants. Two unexpected outcomes appeared for alcohol and depression and depressants and extraversion. Possible explanations for these outcomes are later discussed.

Keywords: substance use, mental health, personality traits, coping strategies

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26 Factor Structure of the Korean Version of Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ)

Authors: Juyeon Lee, Sungeun You


Experiential avoidance is one’s tendency to avoid painful internal experience, unwanted adverse thoughts, emotions, and physical sensations. The Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) is a measure of experiential avoidance, and the original scale consisted of 62 items with six subfactors including behavioral avoidance, distress aversion, procrastination, distraction/suppression, repression/denial, and distress endurance. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the MEAQ in a Korean sample. Three hundred community adults and university students aged 18 to 35 participated in an online survey assessing experiential avoidance (MEAQ and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II; AAQ-II), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disoder-7; GAD-7), negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Scale; PANAS), neuroticism (Big Five Inventory; BFI), and quality of life (Satisfaction with Life Scale; SWLS). Factor analysis with principal axis with direct oblimin rotation was conducted to examine subfactors of the MEAQ. Results indicated that the six-factor structure of the original scale was adequate. Eight items out of 62 items were removed due to insufficient factor loading. These items included 3 items of behavior avoidance (e.g., “When I am hurting, I would do anything to feel better”), 2 items of repression/denial (e.g., “I work hard to keep out upsetting feelings”), and 3 items of distress aversion (e.g., “I prefer to stick to what I am comfortable with, rather than try new activities”). The MEAQ was positively associated with the AAQ-II (r = .47, p < .001), PHQ-9 (r = .37, p < .001), GAD-7 (r = .34, p < .001), PANAS (r = .35, p < .001), and neuroticism (r = .24, p < .001), and negatively correlated with the SWLS (r = -.38, p < .001). Internal consistency was good for the MEAQ total (Cronbach’s α = .90) as well as all six subfactors (Cronbach’s α = .83 to .87). The findings of the study support the multidimensional feature of experiential avoidance and validity of the MEAQ in a sample of Korean adults.

Keywords: avoidance, experiential avoidance, factor structure, MEAQ

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25 Personality Profiles, Emotional Disturbance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Epilepsy

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ruhollah Heydari Sheikh Ahmad, Sara Alaie Khoraem


Introduction: The association of epilepsy with several psychological disorders and reduced quality of life has long been recognized. The present study aimed at comparing the personality profiles, quality of life and symptomatology of anxiety and depression in patients with epilepsy and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty seven patients (29 men and 18 women) with diagnosed epilepsy participated in this study. Forty seven healthy controls who matched the patients in age and gender were also recruited. The participants’ personality and psychological profiles were assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI). Scoring algorithms were applied to the SF-36 produce the physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS). Results: There were statistically significant differences in the total SF-36 score, anxiety, depression and stress scores of the DASS-21 between patients and controls. Anxiety, stress and depression scores significantly correlated inversely with the PCS and MCS. Data analysis showed that females had higher depression scores than males in both patients and controls, while males in both groups scored higher on stress. Patients’ personality scores were also different from those reported by controls on emotional, agreeableness and extroversion. Patients scored higher on emotionality, and lower on agreeableness and extraversion. Patients also scored lower on indices of quality of life. Regression analysis revealed that emotionality, anxiety, stress and MCS accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in severity of epileptic seizures. Conclusion: Stressful situations and psychological conditions as well as the personality trait of neuroticism were related to the occurrence of recurrent epileptic seizures.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, epilepsy, neuroticism, personality, quality of life, stress

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24 A Profile of an Exercise Addict: The Relationship between Exercise Addiction and Personality

Authors: Klary Geisler, Dalit Lev-Arey, Yael Hacohen


It is a well-known fact that exercise has favorable effects on people's physical health, as well as mental well-being. However, as for as excessive exercise, it may likely elevate negative consequences (e.g., physical injuries, negligence of everyday responsibilities such as work, family life). Lately, there is a growing interest in exercise addiction, sometimes referred to as exercise dependence, which is defined as a craving for physical activity that results in extreme work-out sessions and generates negative physiological and psychological symptoms (e.g., withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, social conflict). Exercise addiction is considered a behavioral addiction, yet it was not included in the latest editions of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV), due to lack of significant research. Specifically, there is scarce research on the relationship between exercise addiction and personality dimensions. The purpose of the current research was to examine the relationship between primary exercise addiction symptoms and the big five dimensions, perfectionism (high performance expectations and self-critical performance evaluations) and subjective affect. participants were 152 trainees on a variety of aerobic sports activities (running, cycling, swimming) that were recruited through sports groups and trainers. 88% of participants trained for at least 5 hours per week, 24% of the participants trained above 10 hours per week. To test the predictive ability of the IVs a hierarchical linear regression with forced block entry was performed. It was found that Neuroticism significantly predicted exercise addiction symptoms (20% of the variance, p<0.001), while consciousness was negatively correlated with exercise addiction symptoms (14% of variance p<0.05); both had a unique contribution. Other dimensions of the big five (agreeableness, openness and extraversion) did not have any contribution to the dependent. Moreover, maladaptive perfectionism (self-critical performance evaluations) significantly predicted exercise addiction symptoms as well (10% of the variance P < 0.05). The overall regression model explained 54% of variance.

Keywords: big five, consciousness, excessive exercise, exercise addiction, neuroticism, perfectionism, personality

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23 Using Structural Equation Modeling to Measure the Impact of Young Adult-Dog Personality Characteristics on Dog Walking Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Renata Roma, Christine Tardif-Williams


Engaging in daily walks with a dog (f.e. Canis lupus familiaris) during the COVID-19 pandemic may be linked to feelings of greater social-connectedness and global self-worth, and lower stress after controlling for mental health issues, lack of physical contact with others, and other stressors associated with the current pandemic. Therefore, maintaining a routine of dog walking might mitigate the effects of stressors experienced during the pandemic and promote well-being. However, many dog owners do not walk their dogs for many reasons, which are related to the owner’s and the dog’s personalities. Note that the consistency of certain personality characteristics among dogs demonstrates that it is possible to accurately measure different dimensions of personality in both dogs and their human counterparts. In addition, behavioural ratings (e.g., the dog personality questionnaire - DPQ) are reliable tools to assess the dog’s personality. Clarifying the relevance of personality factors in the context of young adult-dog relationships can shed light on interactional aspects that can potentially foster protective behaviours and promote well-being among young adults during the pandemic. This study examines if and how nine combinations of dog- and young adult-related personality characteristics (e.g., neuroticism-fearfulness) can amplify the influence of personality factors in the context of dog walking during the COVID-19 pandemic. Responses to an online large-scale survey among 440 (389 females; 47 males; 4 nonbinaries, Mage=20.7, SD= 2.13 range=17-25) young adults living with a dog in Canada were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). As extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism, measured through the five-factor model (FFM) inventory, are related to maintaining a routine of physical activities, these dimensions were selected for this analysis. Following an approach successfully adopted in the field of dog-human interactions, the FFM was used as the organizing framework to measure and compare the human’s and the dog’s personality in the context of dog walking. The dog-related personality dimensions activity/excitability, responsiveness to training, and fearful were correlated dimensions captured through DPQ and were added to the analysis. Two questions were used to assess dog walking. The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to check if the young adult’s responses about the dog were biased; no significant bias was observed. Activity/excitability and responsiveness to training in dogs were greatly associated with dog walking. For young adults, high scores in conscientiousness and extraversion predicted more walks with the dog. Conversely, higher scores in neuroticism predicted less engagement in dog walking. For participants high in conscientiousness, the dog’s responsiveness to training (standardized=0.14, p=0.02) and the dog’s activity/excitability (standardized=0.15, p=0.00) levels moderated dog walking behaviours by promoting more daily walks. These results suggest that some combinations in young adult and dog personality characteristics are associated with greater synergy in the young adult-dog dyad that might amplify the impact of personality factors on young adults’ dog-walking routines. These results can inform programs designed to promote the mental and physical health of young adults during the Covid-19 pandemic by highlighting the impact of synergy and reciprocity in personality characteristics between young adults and dogs.

Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, dog walking, personality, structural equation modeling, well-being

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22 A Survey of Mental and Personality Profiles of Malingerer Clients of an Iranian Forensic Medicine Center Based on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Questionnaires

Authors: Morteza Rahbar Taramsari, Arya Mahdavi Baramchi, Mercedeh Enshaei, Ghazaleh Keshavarzi Baramchi


Introduction: Malingering is one of the most challenging issues in the forensic psychology and imposes a heavy financial burden on health care and legal systems. It seems that some mental and personality abnormalities might have a crucial role in developing this condition. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess 100 malingering clients of Gilan province general office of forensic medicine, all filled the related questionnaires. The data about some psychometric characteristics were collected through the 71-items version- short form- of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire and the personality traits were assessed by NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) - including 240 items- as a reliable and accurate measure of the five domains of personality. Results: The 100 malingering clients (55 males and 45 females) ranged from 23 to 45 (32+/- 5.6) years old. Regarding marital status, 36% were single, 57% were married and 7% were divorced. Almost two-thirds of the participants (64%) were unemployed, 21% were self-employed and the rest of them were employed. The data of MMPI clinical scales revealed that the mean (SD) T score of Hypochondrias (Hs) was 67(9.2), Depression (D) was 87(7.9), Hysteria (Hy) was 74(5.8), Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) was 62(8.5), Masculinity-Feminity (MF) was 76(8.4), Paranoia (Pa) was 62(4.5), Psychasthenia (Pt) was 80(7.9), Schizophrenia (Sc) was 69(6.8), Hypomania (Ma) was 64(5.9)and Social Introversion (Si) was 58(4.3). NEO PI-R test showed five domains of personality. The mean (SD) T score of Neuroticism was 65(9.2), Extraversion was 51(7.9), Openness was 43(5.8), Agreeableness was 35(3.4) and Conscientiousness was 42(4.9). Conclusion: According to MMPI test in our malingering clients, Hypochondriasis (Hs), depression (D), Hysteria (Hy), Muscularity-Feminity (MF), Psychasthenia (Pt) and Schizophrenia (Sc) had high scores (T >= 65) which means pathological range and psychological significance. Based on NEO PI-R test Neuroticism was in high range, on the other hand, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were in low range. Extroversion was in average range. So it seems that malingerers require basic evaluations of different psychological fields. Additional research in this area is needed to provide stronger evidence of the possible positive effects of the mentioned factors on malingering.

Keywords: malingerers, mental profile, MMPI, NEO PI-R, personality profile

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21 Burnout and Personality Characteristics of University Students

Authors: Tazvin Ijaz, Rabia Khan


The current study was conducted to identify the predictors of burnout among university students. The sample for the study was collected through simple random sampling. The tools to measure burnout and personality characteristics included Indigenous burnout scale and Eysenck personality inventory respectively. Results indicated that neurotic personality traits significantly predicts burnout among university students while extraversion does not lead to burnout. Results also indicated female students experience more burnout than male students. It was also found that family size and birth order did not affected the level of burnout. Results of the study are discussed to explain association between etiological factors and burnout with in Pakistani cultural context.

Keywords: burnout, students, neuroticism, extraversion

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20 Personality Characteristics Managerial Skills and Career Preference

Authors: Dinesh Kumar Srivastava


After liberalization of the economy, technical education has seen rapid growth in India. A large number of institutions are offering various engineering and management programmes. Every year, a number of students complete B. Tech/M. Tech and MBA programmes of different institutes, universities in India and search for jobs in the industry. A large number of companies visit educational institutes for campus placements. These companies are interested in hiring competent managers. Most students show preference for jobs from reputed companies and jobs having high compensation. In this context, this study was conducted to understand career preference of postgraduate students and junior executives. Personality characteristics influence work life as well as personal life. In the last two decades, five factor model of personality has been found to be a valid predictor of job performance and job satisfaction. This approach has received support from studies conducted in different countries. It includes neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Similarly three social needs, namely, achievement, affiliation and power influence motivation and performance in certain job functions. Both approaches have been considered in the study. The objective of the study was first, to analyse the relationship between personality characteristics and career preference of students and executives. Secondly, the study analysed the relationship between personality characteristics and skills of students. Three managerial skills namely, conceptual, human and technical have been considered in the study. The sample size of the study was 266 including postgraduate students and junior executives. Respondents have completed BE/B. Tech/MBA programme. Three dimensions of career preference namely, identity, variety and security and three managerial skills were considered as dependent variables. The results indicated that neuroticism was not related to any dimension of career preference. Extraversion was not related to identity, variety and security. It was positively related to three skills. Openness to experience was positively related to skills. Conscientiousness was positively related to variety. It was positively related to three skills. Similarly, the relationship between social needs and career preference was examined using correlation. The results indicated that need for achievement was positively related to variety, identity and security. Need for achievement was positively related to managerial skills Need for affiliation was positively related to three dimensions of career preference as well as managerial skills Need for power was positively related to three dimensions of career preference and managerial skills Social needs appear to be stronger predictor of career preference and managerial skills than big five traits. Findings have implications for selection process in industry.

Keywords: big five traits, career preference, personality, social needs

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19 The Effects of Ethnicity, Personality and Religiosity on Desire for Personal Space

Authors: Ioanna Skoura


Past research shows that personal space has been investigated since the 1950s. Also, personality traits have been found to have a significant relationship with personal space. However, some of these studies have been criticized for being ethically inappropriate. In an attempt to avoid ethical issues, a new scale measuring desire for personal space has been created. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of ethnicity on desire for personal space. Additionally, extraversion and neuroticism are expected to predict significantly desire for personal space. Furthermore, the study is looking for any impact of religiosity on desire for personal space. In order to test the previous hypotheses, 115 participants from three cultural groups (English, Greeks in Greece and Greeks in the UK) are recruited online. Results indicate that only extraversion and religiosity are significant predictors of desire for personal space. Implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

Keywords: ethnicity, religiosity, personality, personal space

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18 Effect of Personality Traits on Classification of Political Orientation

Authors: Vesile Evrim, Aliyu Awwal


Today as in the other domains, there are an enormous number of political transcripts available in the Web which is waiting to be mined and used for various purposes such as statistics and recommendations. Therefore, automatically determining the political orientation on these transcripts becomes crucial. The methodologies used by machine learning algorithms to do the automatic classification are based on different features such as Linguistic. Considering the ideology differences between Liberals and Conservatives, in this paper, the effect of Personality Traits on political orientation classification is studied. This is done by considering the correlation between LIWC features and the BIG Five Personality Traits. Several experiments are conducted on Convote U.S. Congressional-Speech dataset with seven benchmark classification algorithms. The different methodologies are applied on selecting different feature sets that constituted by 8 to 64 varying number of features. While Neuroticism is obtained to be the most differentiating personality trait on classification of political polarity, when its top 10 representative features are combined with several classification algorithms, it outperformed the results presented in previous research.

Keywords: politics, personality traits, LIWC, machine learning

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