Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: recorder

28 A Short History of Recorder Education in Taiwan: A Qualitative Research about the Process of the Recorder Move into the Compulsory Schooling System

Authors: Jen-Fu Lee

Abstract:

From the 1980s, the ministry of education in Taiwan moves the instrument ‘Recorder’ into the 9-year compulsory schooling system. The recorder is widely popularized successfully in Taiwan. The research aims to document the history of how the recorder came into Taiwan, what the process of the recorder moving into the schooling system is; what the meaning for the recorder moving into the schooling system is by searching the papers about the recorder in Taiwan and interviewing the people who had participated the process. The research discovers that the recorder in Taiwan was popularized nongovernmental by Shang-Ren, Wang. Shang-Ren, Wang imported 200 recorders from Japan in 1982 and then founded a publishing house which publishes the books and sheets about the recorder in 1983. The reason of Shang-Ren, Wang committed to popularizing the recorder is to spread the Orff Approach in Taiwan. Except for the technique of playing the recorder, the knowledge of the history of the recorder and the role that it plays in Early Music is not available in school. The recorder only plays a ‘Cheap and Easy’ instrument which is suitable for the schooling system in Taiwan, cannot develop to a professional instrument.

Keywords: recorder, Taiwan, Shang-Ren, Wang, compulsory schooling system

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27 The Incidence of Cardiac Arrhythmias Using Trans-Telephonic, Portable Electrocardiography Recorder, in Out-Patients Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Urasri Imsomboon, Sopita Areerob, Kanchaporn Kongchauy, Tuchapong Ngarmukos

Abstract:

Objective: The Trans-telephonic Electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring is used to diagnose of infrequent cardiac arrhythmias and improve outcome of early detection and treatment on suspected cardiac patients. The objectives of this study were to explore incidence of cardiac arrhythmia using Trans-Telephonic and to explore time to first symptomatic episode and documented cardiac arrhythmia in outpatients. Methods: Descriptive research study was conducted between February 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016. A total of 117 patients who visited outpatient clinic were purposively selected. Research instruments in this study were the personal data questionnaire and the record form of incidence of cardiac arrhythmias using Trans-Telephonic ECG recorder. Results: A total of 117 patients aged between 15-92 years old (mean age 52.7 ±17.1 years), majority of studied sample was women (64.1%). The results revealed that 387 ECGs (Average 2.88 ECGs/person, SD = 3.55, Range 0 – 21) were sent to Cardiac Monitoring Center at Coronary Care Unit. Of these, normal sinus rhythm was found mostly 46%. Top 5 of cardiac arrhythmias were documented at the time of symptoms: sinus tachycardia 43.5%, premature atrial contraction 17.7%, premature ventricular contraction 14.3%, sinus bradycardia 11.5% and atrial fibrillation 8.6%. Presenting symptom were tachycardia 94%, palpitation 83.8%, dyspnea 51.3%, chest pain 19.6%, and syncope 14.5%. Mostly activities during symptom were no activity 64.8%, sleep 55.6% and work 25.6%.The mean time until the first symptomatic episode occurred on average after 6.88 ± 7.72 days (median 3 days). The first documented cardiac arrhythmia occurred on average after 9 ± 7.92 days (median 7 day). The treatments after patients known actual cardiac arrhythmias were observe themselves 68%, continue same medications 15%, got further investigations (7 patients), and corrected causes of cardiac arrhythmias via invasive cardiac procedures (5 patients). Conclusion: Trans-telephonic: portable ECGs recorder is effective in the diagnosis of suspected symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias in outpatient clinic.

Keywords: cardiac arrhythmias, diagnosis, outpatient clinic, trans-telephonic: portable ECG recorder

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26 Feasibility of Deployable Encasing for a CVDR (Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder) in Commercial Aircraft

Authors: Vishnu Nair, Rohan Kapoor

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Recent commercial aircraft crashes demand a paradigm shift in how the CVDRs are located and recovered, particularly if the aircraft crashes in the sea. CVDR (Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder) is most vital component out of the entire wreckage that can be obtained in order to investigate the sequence of events leading to the crash. It has been a taxing and exorbitantly expensive process locating and retrieving the same in the massive water bodies as it was seen in the air crashes in the recent past, taking the unfortunate Malaysia airlines MH-370 crash into account. The study aims to provide an aid to the persisting problem by improving the buoyant as-well-as the aerodynamic properties of the proposed CVDR encasing. Alongside this the placement of the deployable CVDR on the surface of the aircraft and floatability in case of water submersion are key factors which are taken into consideration for a better resolution to the problem. All of which results into the Deployable-CVDR emerging to the surface of the water-body. Also the whole system is designed such that it can be seamlessly integrated with the current crop of commercial aircraft. The work is supported by carrying out a computational study with the help Ansys-Fluent combination.

Keywords: encasing, buoyancy, deployable CVDR, floatability, water submersion

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25 Futuristic Black Box Design Considerations and Global Networking for Real Time Monitoring of Flight Performance Parameters

Authors: K. Parandhama Gowd

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The aim of this research paper is to conceptualize, discuss, analyze and propose alternate design methodologies for futuristic Black Box for flight safety. The proposal also includes global networking concepts for real time surveillance and monitoring of flight performance parameters including GPS parameters. It is expected that this proposal will serve as a failsafe real time diagnostic tool for accident investigation and location of debris in real time. In this paper, an attempt is made to improve the existing methods of flight data recording techniques and improve upon design considerations for futuristic FDR to overcome the trauma of not able to locate the block box. Since modern day communications and information technologies with large bandwidth are available coupled with faster computer processing techniques, the attempt made in this paper to develop a failsafe recording technique is feasible. Further data fusion/data warehousing technologies are available for exploitation.

Keywords: flight data recorder (FDR), black box, diagnostic tool, global networking, cockpit voice and data recorder (CVDR), air traffic control (ATC), air traffic, telemetry, tracking and control centers ATTTCC)

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24 Investigation of Verbal Feedback and Learning Process for Oral Presentation

Authors: Nattawadee Sinpattanawong

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Oral presentation has been used mostly in business communication. The business presentation is carrying out through an audio and visual presentation material such as statistical documents, projectors, etc. Common examples of business presentation are intra-organization and sales presentations. The study aims at investigating functions, strategies and contents of assessors’ verbal feedback on presenters’ oral presentations and exploring presenters’ learning process and specific views and expectations concerning assessors’ verbal feedback related to the delivery of the oral presentation. This study is designed as a descriptive qualitative research; four master students and one teacher in English for Business and Industry Presentation Techniques class of public university will be selected. The researcher hopes that any understanding how assessors’ verbal feedback on oral presentations and learning process may illuminate issues for other people. The data from this research may help to expand and facilitate the readers’ understanding of assessors’ verbal feedback on oral presentations and learning process in their own situations. The research instruments include an audio recorder, video recorder and an interview. The students will be interviewing in order to ask for their views and expectations concerning assessors’ verbal feedback related to the delivery of the oral presentation. After finishing data collection, the data will be analyzed and transcribed. The findings of this study are significant because it can provide presenters knowledge to enhance their learning process and provide teachers knowledge about providing verbal feedback on student’s oral presentations on a business context.

Keywords: business context, learning process, oral presentation, verbal feedback

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23 Musical Notation Reading versus Alphabet Reading-Comparison and Implications for Teaching Music Reading to Students with Dyslexia

Authors: Ora Geiger

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Reading is a cognitive process of deciphering visual signs to produce meaning. During the reading process, written information of symbols and signs is received in the person’s eye and processed in the brain. This definition is relevant to both the reading of letters and the reading of musical notation. But while the letters of the alphabet are signs determined arbitrarily, notes are recorded systematically on a staff, with the location of each note on the staff indicating its relative pitch. In this paper, the researcher specifies the characteristics of alphabet reading in comparison to musical notation reading, and discusses the question whether a person diagnosed with dyslexia will necessarily have difficulty in reading musical notes. Dyslexia is a learning disorder that makes it difficult to acquire alphabet-reading skills due to difficulties expressed in the identification of letters, spelling, and other language deciphering skills. In order to read, one must be able to connect a symbol with a sound and to join the sounds into words. A person who has dyslexia finds it difficult to translate a graphic symbol into the sound that it represents. When teaching reading to children diagnosed with dyslexia, the multi-sensory approach, supporting the activation and involvement of most of the senses in the learning process, has been found to be particularly effective. According to this approach, when most senses participate in the reading learning process, it becomes more effective. During years of experience, the researcher, who is a music specialist, has been following the music reading learning process of elementary school age students, some of them diagnosed with Dyslexia, while studying to play soprano (descant) recorder. She argues that learning music reading while studying to play a musical instrument is a multi-sensory experience by its nature. The senses involved are: sight, hearing, touch, and the kinesthetic sense (motion), which provides the brain with information on the relative positions of the body. In this way, the learner experiences simultaneously visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic impressions. The researcher concludes that there should be no contra-indication for teaching standard music reading to children with dyslexia if an appropriate process is offered. This conclusion is based on two main characteristics of music reading: (1) musical notation system is a systematic, logical, relative set of symbols written on a staff; and (2) music reading learning connected with playing a musical instrument is by its nature a multi-sensory activity since it combines sight, hearing, touch, and movement. This paper describes music reading teaching procedures and provides unique teaching methods that have been found to be effective for students who were diagnosed with Dyslexia. It provides theoretical explanations in addition to guidelines for music education practices.

Keywords: alphabet reading, dyslexia, multisensory teaching method, music reading, recorder playing

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22 The Impact on the Network Deflectometry

Authors: Djamel–Eddine Yassine Boutiba

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In this present memory, we present the various impacts deflectometer leading to the sizing by strengthening of existing roadways. It reminds that the road network in Algeria plays a major role with regard to drainage in major strategic areas and especially in the fringe northern Algeria. Heavy traffic passing through the northern fringe (between 25% and 30% heavy vehicles) causes substantial degradations at both the surface layer and base layer. The work on site by means within the laboratory CTTP such as deflectographe Lacroix, allowed us to record a large number of deflection localized bending on RN19A (Carrefour CW73-Ain- Merane), whose analysis of the results led us to opt for a building throughout the band's project . By the recorder against HWD (Heavy Weight déflectometer) allowed us to learn about the behavior of the pavement on the banks. In addition, the Software Alize III has been essential in the verification of the increase in the thickness dimensioned.

Keywords: capacity, deflection, deflectograph lacroix, degradation, hwd

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21 Application of Sensory Thermography on Workers of a Wireless Industry in Mexico

Authors: Claudia Camargo Wilson, Enrique Javier de la Vega Bustillos, Jesús Everardo Olguín Tiznado, Juan Andrés López Barreras, Sandra K. Enriquez

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This study focuses on the application of sensory thermography, as a non-invasive method to evaluate the musculoskeletal injuries that industry workers performing Highly Repetitive Movements (HRM) may acquire. It was made at a wireless company having the target of analyze temperatures in worker’s wrists, elbows and shoulders in workstations during their activities, this thru sensorial thermography with the goal of detecting maximum temperatures (Tmax) that could indicate possible injuries. The tests were applied during 3 hours for only 2 workers that work in workstations where there’s been the highest index of injuries and accidents. We were made comparisons for each part of the body that were study for both because of the similitude between the activities of the workstations; they were requiring both an immediate evaluation. The Tmax was recorder during the test of the worker 2, in the left wrist, reaching a temperature of 35.088ºC and with a maximum increase of 1.856°C.

Keywords: thermography, maximum temperaturas (Tmax), highly repetitive movements (HRM), operator

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20 Low Cost Real Time Robust Identification of Impulsive Signals

Authors: R. Biondi, G. Dys, G. Ferone, T. Renard, M. Zysman

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This paper describes an automated implementable system for impulsive signals detection and recognition. The system uses a Digital Signal Processing device for the detection and identification process. Here the system analyses the signals in real time in order to produce a particular response if needed. The system analyses the signals in real time in order to produce a specific output if needed. Detection is achieved through normalizing the inputs and comparing the read signals to a dynamic threshold and thus avoiding detections linked to loud or fluctuating environing noise. Identification is done through neuronal network algorithms. As a setup our system can receive signals to “learn” certain patterns. Through “learning” the system can recognize signals faster, inducing flexibility to new patterns similar to those known. Sound is captured through a simple jack input, and could be changed for an enhanced recording surface such as a wide-area recorder. Furthermore a communication module can be added to the apparatus to send alerts to another interface if needed.

Keywords: sound detection, impulsive signal, background noise, neural network

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19 A Comparative Analysis of the Lexicostatics of Usen, Edo and Yoruba

Authors: Mercy Itohan Aruya

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This paper focuses on Usen, a speech form enclaved by the Edo communities in Ovia South West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Usen lies at the border between Edo and the Osun state in Nigeria and has a population size of about a hundred and eighty thousand native speakers (2006 population census of Nigeria). Usen, as it is spoken today is highly endangered and it is serious struggling for survival. The aim, therefore, is to ascertain the linguistics status of Usen using a lexicostatical approach. Lexicostatics is a linguistic technique employed in accessing the degree of linguistic divergence or relatedness between two or more languages based on the proportion of cognates. Data for this study were collected from competent native speakers whose ages fall within the range of 40-65. The instrument for this study is the Ibadan 400 word-list of basic items which are collected with of a digital voice recorder. Our major finding in this paper reveals and establishes the facts that Usen speech form is not a dialect but a language of its own. However, Usen is more related to Yoruba than Edo as the degree of relatedness between Usen and Yoruba is 56.14% while that between Usen and Edo is about 21.4% as shown in this research effort.

Keywords: Usen, lexicostatistics, cognate words, language status

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18 The Effect of Acute Creatine Supplementation on Physiological Variables of Continuous and Intermittent Soccer Activities of Men Soccer Players

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo

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The aim of this study was studying the effect of acute creatine supplementation on physiological variables of continuous and intermittent soccer activities of men soccer players. 32 soccer players from Tarbiat Moalem University aged (22/3+-1/6) volunteered for this research and were divided into two groups randomly. Both experimental and control groups after 6 days taking supplementation were tested. For measuring height and weight meter and balance were used. Questionnaire for health background, lactate electro, heart beat measuring polar electro, continuous and intermittent training program and time recorder were used for data collection. For data analysis descriptive statistical techniques, two-way ANOVA and F test were used. The result of this study showed increased significantly in heart rate in control group. For control group heart beat was (71/6 +- 3/5) and for experimental group it was (75/3 +- 4/9). No significant differences were observed in players weight after taking creatine.

Keywords: heartbeat, lactate Blood, creatine, soccer players of Tarbiat Moalem University

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17 Factors Leading to Teenage Pregnancy in the Selected Villages of Mopani District, in Limpopo Province

Authors: Z. N. Salim, R. T. Lebese, M. S. Maputle

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Background: The international community has been concerned about population growth for more than a century. Teenagers in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at high risk of HIV infection, and this is exacerbated by poverty, whereby many teenagers in Africa come from disadvantaged families/background, which leads them to engage in sexual activities at an early age for survival hence leading to increased rate of teenage pregnancy. Purpose: The study sought to explore, describe and to identify the factors that lead to teenage pregnancy in the selected villages in Mopani District. Design: The study was conducted using a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual approach. A non-probability purposive sampling approach was used. Researcher collected the data with the assistance of research assistant. Participants were interviewed and information was captured on a tape recorder and analysed using open coding and thereafter collected into main themes, themes and sub-themes. The researcher conducted four focus groups, Participants aged between 10-19 years of age. Results: The finding of the study revealed that there are several factors that is contributing to teenagers falling pregnant. Personal, intuitional, and cultural were identified to be the factors leading to teenage pregnancy.

Keywords: factors, leading, pregnancy, teenage

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16 A Study of the Use of English by Thai: A Case Study of English in Thai songs

Authors: Jutharat Nawarungreung

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As an international language, English is used as a medium in formal and informal settings including all kinds of entertainment. As it were, the use of English in such an arena is of no less importance and interest, and indeed it becomes a valuable tool for EFL learners to learn and improve their language. In addition, it is a social perspective in the way that English is incorporated in other nationalities’ music, as well as the attitudes of listeners toward it. This research principally aimed to find out the level of comprehensibility of English inserted in Thai pop music. There were three groups of participants, namely Thais, non-native speakers who are non-Thai and native speakers, 35 each group. The research tools comprised song lyrics, interviews, questionnaires, and video recorder. The participants listened to Thai songs and wrote down the English words and their meanings they heard. They were video-recorded when listening to the songs, and then asked on particular actions and facial expressions. Afterwards, they were interviewed to account for their attitudes toward the incorporation of English into Thai songs. Finally, the participants completed a questionnaire. Data was analysed by the way of comparison of all the participants’ pronunciation. In doing so, the number of correct and incorrect answers was revealed. The study has shown that those who attained the highest level of understanding the English words in Thai music were Thais, native speakers, and non-native speakers who are non-Thai respectively.

Keywords: English throughout the world, varieties of English, English in Thai songs, intelligibility, attitudes

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15 Trends of Code-Mixing in a Bilingual Nigerian Child: An Investigation of a Three-Year-Old Child

Authors: Salamatu Sani

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This study is an investigation of how code-mixing manifests in the language development of a Nigerian child, especially in the Hausa speaking environment. It is hinged on the fact that the environment influences the first language acquired by a child regardless of the cultural and/or linguistic background of the parents. The child under investigation has been subjected to close monitoring on her speech hitherto. It is a longitudinal study covering a period of twelve months (January 2018 to December 2018); that was when the subject was between twenty-four and thirty months of age. The speeches have been recorded by means of a tape recorder, video, and a diary. The study employs as a theoretical framework, emergentism, which is an eclectic of the behaviourist and the mentalist theories to the study of language development, for analysis. This is in agreement with the positions of Skinner and Watson. Sequel to this investigation, it was discovered the environment is a major factor that influences the exposure of a child to a language more than the other factors and that, if a child is exposed to more than one language, there is a great tendency for such a child to code-mix and code-switch in her speech production. The child under investigation, in spite of the linguistic background of her parents, speaks the Hausa Language much better than the other languages around her though with remarkable code-mixing with other languages around her such as English and Ebira languages. The study concludes that although a child is born with the innate ability to acquire a particular language, the environment plays a key role to trigger the innate ability and consequently, the child is exposed to the acquisition of the dominant language around her at a particular given time.

Keywords: bilingual, code-mixing, emergentism, environment, Hausa

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14 Error Analysis of Pronunciation of French by Sinhala Speaking Learners

Authors: Chandeera Gunawardena

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The present research analyzes the pronunciation errors encountered by thirty Sinhala speaking learners of French on the assumption that the pronunciation errors were systematic and they reflect the interference of the native language of the learners. The thirty participants were selected using random sampling method. By the time of the study, the subjects were studying French as a foreign language for their Bachelor of Arts Degree at University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The participants were from a homogenous linguistics background. All participants speak the same native language (Sinhala) thus they had completed their secondary education in Sinhala medium and during which they had also learnt French as a foreign language. A battery operated audio tape recorder and a 120-minute blank cassettes were used for recording. A list comprised of 60 words representing all French phonemes was used to diagnose pronunciation difficulties. Before the recording process commenced, the subjects were requested to familiarize themselves with the words through reading them several times. The recording was conducted individually in a quiet classroom and each recording approximately took fifteen minutes. Each subject was required to read at a normal speed. After the completion of recording, the recordings were replayed to identify common errors which were immediately transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Results show that Sinhala speaking learners face problems with French nasal vowels and French initial consonants clusters. The learners also exhibit errors which occur because of their second language (English) interference.

Keywords: error analysis, pronunciation difficulties, pronunciation errors, Sinhala speaking learners of French

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13 Exploring Mtb-Mle Practices in Selected Schools in Benguet, Philippines

Authors: Jocelyn L. Alimondo, Juna O. Sabelo

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This study explored the MTB-MLE implementation practices of teachers in one monolingual elementary school and one multilingual elementary school in Benguet, Philippines. It used phenomenological approach employing participant-observation, focus group discussion and individual interview. Data were gathered using a video camera, an audio recorder, and an FGD guide and were treated through triangulation and coding. From the data collected, varied ways in implementing the MTB-MLE program were noted. These are: Teaching using a hybrid first language, teaching using a foreign LOI, using translation and multilingual instruction, and using L2/L3 to unlock L1. However, these practices come with challenges such as the a conflict between the mandated LOI and what pupils need, lack of proficiency of teachers in the mandated LOI, facing unreceptive parents, stagnation of knowledge resulting from over-familiarity of input, and zero learning resulting from an incomprehensible language input. From the practices and challenges experienced by the teachers, a model of MTB-MLE approach, the 3L-in-one approach, to teaching was created to illustrate the practice which teachers claimed to be the best way to address the challenges besetting them while at the same time satisfying the academic needs of their pupils. From the findings, this paper concludes that despite the challenges besetting the teachers, they still displayed creativity in coming up with relevant teaching practices, the unreceptiveness of some teachers and parents sprung from the fact that they do not understand the real concept of MTB-MLE, greater challenges are being faced by teachers in multilingual school due to the diverse linguistic background of their clients, and the most effective approach in implementing MTB-MLE is the multilingual approach, allowing the use of the pupils’ mother tongue, L2 (Filipino), L3 (English), and other languages familiar to the students.

Keywords: MTB-MLE Philippines, MTB-MLE model, first language, multilingual instruction

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12 Coping Mechanisms for Families in Raising a Child with Disability in Bangladesh: Family Members' Perspectives

Authors: Reshma P. Nuri, Ebenezer Dassah

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Introduction: Raising a child with a disability can affect family members in different ways. However, this can be determined by the way in which a family member copes with the situation. There is little research that explores how families develop coping strategies to overcome barriers in raising CWDs. Objective: This study explored family members’ coping mechanism in raising a child with disability in Bangladesh. Method: A qualitative approach that involved 20 interviews with family members of CWDs. A purposive sampling procedure was used in selecting the study participants. A digital recorder was used to record all the interviews. Transcriptions were done in Bengali, translated into English, and then imported to NVivo software 12 for analysis. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: The study revealed that family members adopted different coping strategies for their CWDs, including seeking support from formal (e.g., service providers) and informal sources (family members and friends); relying on religious beliefs; accepting the situation. Additionally, to cope with extra cost in raising CWDs, family members strategies included relying on overtime work; borrowing money from financial institutions; selling or mortgaging assets; and replying on donations from community members. Finally, some families had to reduce spending on food and buying toys for their CWDs. Conclusion: This qualitative study highlighted a range of coping mechanism adopted by family members in Bangladesh. The information provided in this study is potentially important to policy makers and service providers as it presents evidence on the coping mechanism of families in raising their CWDs. This underscores the need for policy design and service delivery in government support system in Bangladesh and potentially in other low- and middle-income contexts.

Keywords: Bangladesh, children with disabilities, coping mechanism, family members

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11 Sound Analysis of Young Broilers Reared under Different Stocking Densities in Intensive Poultry Farming

Authors: Xiaoyang Zhao, Kaiying Wang

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The choice of stocking density in poultry farming is a potential way for determining welfare level of poultry. However, it is difficult to measure stocking densities in poultry farming because of a lot of variables such as species, age and weight, feeding way, house structure and geographical location in different broiler houses. A method was proposed in this paper to measure the differences of young broilers reared under different stocking densities by sound analysis. Vocalisations of broilers were recorded and analysed under different stocking densities to identify the relationship between sounds and stocking densities. Recordings were made continuously for three-week-old chickens in order to evaluate the variation of sounds emitted by the animals at the beginning. The experimental trial was carried out in an indoor reared broiler farm; the audio recording procedures lasted for 5 days. Broilers were divided into 5 groups, stocking density treatments were 8/m², 10/m², 12/m² (96birds/pen), 14/m² and 16/m², all conditions including ventilation and feed conditions were kept same except from stocking densities in every group. The recordings and analysis of sounds of chickens were made noninvasively. Sound recordings were manually analysed and labelled using sound analysis software: GoldWave Digital Audio Editor. After sound acquisition process, the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC) was extracted from sound data, and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used as an early detector and classifier. This preliminary study, conducted in an indoor reared broiler farm shows that this method can be used to classify sounds of chickens under different densities economically (only a cheap microphone and recorder can be used), the classification accuracy is 85.7%. This method can predict the optimum stocking density of broilers with the complement of animal welfare indicators, animal productive indicators and so on.

Keywords: broiler, stocking density, poultry farming, sound monitoring, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC), Support Vector Machine (SVM)

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10 Provision of Different Layers of Activities for Different Iranian Intermediate English as a Foreign Language Learners for the Beneficial Use of Films within Speaking Classes

Authors: Zahra Ebrahimi, Abbas Moradan

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This study investigated the effect of applying different layers of activity for different Iranian intermediate EFL learner’s oral proficiency and two of its components (fluency and accura-cy) for the beneficial use of films within speaking classes. For this purpose, thirty Iranian EFL intermediate learners were selected based on availability sampling, they were divided into one experimental group and one control group, each consisting of 15 participants, who were proved to be homogeneous based on the results obtained from IELTS oral proficien-cy test prior to the treatment. Experimental Group received the treatment which was apply-ing different layers of speaking tasks according to learners’ level of fluency and accuracy. Control group received ordinal treatment of speaking classrooms. The materials for this study consisted of 11 English movies for each session, voice-recorder device, and IELTS oral proficiency tests as well as two interviews based on Ur’s oral scale for measuring fluen-cy and accuracy. The treatment was run for 12 sessions in six weeks. At the end of the treatment, all the students both in experimental and control group were given a post-test interview based on Ur’s scale. To compare and contrast the amount of progress of the learners in different groups the results of the pre-test and post-test of speaking were analysed by using T-tests. Moreover, Multivariate analysis of variance was also used to check the hypotheses. Results showed that application of different layers of activity with regard to students’ level, led to a significantly superior performance in experimental group. Thus, this study verified the positive effect of implementation of different layers of activity and tasks to achieve progress in speaking skill. It can also help to create a less stressful at-mosphere of learning in which all the students will be given specific time to speak and lead them to be autonomous learners.

Keywords: differentiated instruction, learners’ style, multiple intelligence, speaking skill, task-based activities

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9 A Comprehensive Methodology for Voice Segmentation of Large Sets of Speech Files Recorded in Naturalistic Environments

Authors: Ana Londral, Burcu Demiray, Marcus Cheetham

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Speech recording is a methodology used in many different studies related to cognitive and behaviour research. Modern advances in digital equipment brought the possibility of continuously recording hours of speech in naturalistic environments and building rich sets of sound files. Speech analysis can then extract from these files multiple features for different scopes of research in Language and Communication. However, tools for analysing a large set of sound files and automatically extract relevant features from these files are often inaccessible to researchers that are not familiar with programming languages. Manual analysis is a common alternative, with a high time and efficiency cost. In the analysis of long sound files, the first step is the voice segmentation, i.e. to detect and label segments containing speech. We present a comprehensive methodology aiming to support researchers on voice segmentation, as the first step for data analysis of a big set of sound files. Praat, an open source software, is suggested as a tool to run a voice detection algorithm, label segments and files and extract other quantitative features on a structure of folders containing a large number of sound files. We present the validation of our methodology with a set of 5000 sound files that were collected in the daily life of a group of voluntary participants with age over 65. A smartphone device was used to collect sound using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR): an app programmed to record 30-second sound samples that were randomly distributed throughout the day. Results demonstrated that automatic segmentation and labelling of files containing speech segments was 74% faster when compared to a manual analysis performed with two independent coders. Furthermore, the methodology presented allows manual adjustments of voiced segments with visualisation of the sound signal and the automatic extraction of quantitative information on speech. In conclusion, we propose a comprehensive methodology for voice segmentation, to be used by researchers that have to work with large sets of sound files and are not familiar with programming tools.

Keywords: automatic speech analysis, behavior analysis, naturalistic environments, voice segmentation

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8 Detection of Phoneme [S] Mispronounciation for Sigmatism Diagnosis in Adults

Authors: Michal Krecichwost, Zauzanna Miodonska, Pawel Badura

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The diagnosis of sigmatism is mostly based on the observation of articulatory organs. It is, however, not always possible to precisely observe the vocal apparatus, in particular in the oral cavity of the patient. Speech processing can allow to objectify the therapy and simplify the verification of its progress. In the described study the methodology for classification of incorrectly pronounced phoneme [s] is proposed. The recordings come from adults. They were registered with the speech recorder at the sampling rate of 44.1 kHz and the resolution of 16 bit. The database of pathological and normative speech has been collected for the study including reference assessments provided by the speech therapy experts. Ten adult subjects were asked to simulate a certain type of stigmatism under the speech therapy expert supervision. In the recordings, the analyzed phone [s] was surrounded by vowels, viz: ASA, ESE, ISI, SPA, USU, YSY. Thirteen MFCC (mel-frequency cepstral coefficients) and RMS (root mean square) values are calculated within each frame being a part of the analyzed phoneme. Additionally, 3 fricative formants along with corresponding amplitudes are determined for the entire segment. In order to aggregate the information within the segment, the average value of each MFCC coefficient is calculated. All features of other types are aggregated by means of their 75th percentile. The proposed method of features aggregation reduces the size of the feature vector used in the classification. Binary SVM (support vector machine) classifier is employed at the phoneme recognition stage. The first group consists of pathological phones, while the other of the normative ones. The proposed feature vector yields classification sensitivity and specificity measures above 90% level in case of individual logo phones. The employment of a fricative formants-based information improves the sole-MFCC classification results average of 5 percentage points. The study shows that the employment of specific parameters for the selected phones improves the efficiency of pathology detection referred to the traditional methods of speech signal parameterization.

Keywords: computer-aided pronunciation evaluation, sibilants, sigmatism diagnosis, speech processing

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7 Speaking Anxiety: Sources, Coping Mechanisms and Teacher Management

Authors: Mylene T. Caytap-Milan

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This study was materialized with the purpose of determining the anxieties of students towards spoken English, sources of the specified anxiety, coping mechanisms to counter the apprehensions, and teacher management to reduce the anxiety within the classroom. Being qualitative in nature, interview as the data gathering tool was utilized with an audio-recorder. Participants of the study included thirteen teachers and students of speech classes in a state university in Region I, Philippines. Data elicited were transcribed in verbatim, confirmed by the participants, coded and categorized, and themed accordingly. A triangulation method was applied to establish the stronger validity of the data. Findings confirmed teachers’ and students’ awareness of the existence of Anxiety in speaking English (ASE). Based on the data gathered from the teachers, the following themes on students’ ASE were identified: (1) No Brain and Mouth Coordination, (2) Center of Attention, and (3) Acting Out Loud. However, the following themes were formulated based on the responses made by the students themselves: (1) The Common Feeling, (2) The Incompetent Me, and (3) The Limelight. With regard the sources of students’ ASE according to teachers are the following: (1) It Began at Home, (2) It Continued in School, (3) It’s not for me at all. On the other hand, the sources of students’ ASE according to students themselves are: (1) It Comes from Within, (2) It wasn’t Nursed Well, and (3) They’re Looking for Errors. In terms of coping with ASE, students identified the following mechanisms, which were themed into: (1) Acceptance, (2) Application, and (3) Apathy. Moreover, to reduce the ASE phenomenon within the classroom, the teachers demonstrate the following roles according to themes: (1) The Compass, (2) The Counselor, (3) The Referee, (4) The Polyglot, and (5) The English Nazi. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) ASE can both serve positive and negative influences to the English speaking skills of students, (2) ASE can be reduced with teachers’ provision of more English speaking opportunities and with students’ initiative of personal training, (3) ASE can be reduced when English is introduced and practiced by children at an early age, and (4) ASE is inevitable in the affective domain thus teachers are encouraged to apply psychological positivism in the classroom. Studies related to the present undertaking may refer to the succeeding recommendations: (1) experiment on activities that will reduce anxiety ASE, (2) involve a psychologist for more critical but reliable results and recommendations, and (3) conduct the study among high school and primary students.

Keywords: coping mechanisms, sources, speaking anxiety, teacher management

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6 African Traditional Method of Social Control Mechanism: A Sociological Review of Native Charms in Farm Security in Ayetoro Community, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebisi A. Sunday, Babajide Adeokin

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The persistent rise in farm theft in rural region of Nigeria is attributed to the lack of adequate and effective policing in the regions; thus, this brought about the inevitable introduction of native charms on farmlands as a means of fortification of harvests against theft in Ayetoro community. The use of charm by farmers as security on farmlands is a traditional crime control mechanism that is largely based on unwritten laws which greatly influenced the lives of people, and their attitudes toward the society. This research presents a qualitative sociological study on how native charms are deployed by farmers for protection against theft. The study investigated the various types of charms that are employed as security measures among farmers in Ayetoro community and the rationale behind the use of these mechanisms as farm security. The study utilized qualitative method to gather data in the research process. Under the qualitative method, in-depth interview method was adopted to generate a robust and detailed data from the respondents. Also the data generated were analysed qualitatively using thematic content analysis and simple description which was preceded by transcription of data from the recorder. It was revealed that amidst numerous charms known, two major charms are used on farmlands as a measure of social control in Ayetoro community, Ogun state South West Nigeria. Furthermore, the result of this study showed that, the desire for safekeeping of harvest from pilferers and the heavy punishments dispense on offenders by native charms are the reasons why farmers deploy charms on their farms. In addition, findings revealed that the adoption of these charms for protection has improved yields among farmers in the community because the safety of harvest has been made possible by virtue of the presence of various charms in the farm lands. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that such measures should be recognized in mainstream social control mechanisms in the fight against crime in Nigeria and the rest of the world. Lastly, native charms could be installed in all social and cooperate organisation and position of authority to prevent theft of valuables and things hold with utmost importance.

Keywords: Ayetoro, farm theft, mechanism, native charms, Pilferer

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5 An Experimental Investigation of the Cognitive Noise Influence on the Bistable Visual Perception

Authors: Alexander E. Hramov, Vadim V. Grubov, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Maria K. Kurovskaуa, Anastasija E. Runnova

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The perception of visual signals in the brain was among the first issues discussed in terms of multistability which has been introduced to provide mechanisms for information processing in biological neural systems. In this work the influence of the cognitive noise on the visual perception of multistable pictures has been investigated. The study includes an experiment with the bistable Necker cube illusion and the theoretical background explaining the obtained experimental results. In our experiments Necker cubes with different wireframe contrast were demonstrated repeatedly to different people and the probability of the choice of one of the cubes projection was calculated for each picture. The Necker cube was placed at the middle of a computer screen as black lines on a white background. The contrast of the three middle lines centered in the left middle corner was used as one of the control parameter. Between two successive demonstrations of Necker cubes another picture was shown to distract attention and to make a perception of next Necker cube more independent from the previous one. Eleven subjects, male and female, of the ages 20 through 45 were studied. The choice of the Necker cube projection was detected with the Electroencephalograph-recorder Encephalan-EEGR-19/26, Medicom MTD. To treat the experimental results we carried out theoretical consideration using the simplest double-well potential model with the presence of noise that led to the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of the stochastic process. At the first time an analytical solution for the probability of the selection of one of the Necker cube projection for different values of wireframe contrast have been obtained. Furthermore, having used the results of the experimental measurements with the help of the method of least squares we have calculated the value of the parameter corresponding to the cognitive noise of the person being studied. The range of cognitive noise parameter values for studied subjects turned to be [0.08; 0.55]. It should be noted, that experimental results have a good reproducibility, the same person being studied repeatedly another day produces very similar data with very close levels of cognitive noise. We found an excellent agreement between analytically deduced probability and the results obtained in the experiment. A good qualitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results indicates that even such a simple model allows simulating brain cognitive dynamics and estimating important cognitive characteristic of the brain, such as brain noise.

Keywords: bistability, brain, noise, perception, stochastic processes

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4 Medication Side Effects: Implications on the Mental Health and Adherence Behaviour of Patients with Hypertension

Authors: Irene Kretchy, Frances Owusu-Daaku, Samuel Danquah

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Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and a major cause of death and disability worldwide. This study examined whether psychosocial variables influenced patients’ perception and experience of side effects of their medicines, how they coped with these experiences and the impact on mental health and medication adherence to conventional hypertension therapies. Methods: A hospital-based mixed methods study, using quantitative and qualitative approaches was conducted on hypertensive patients. Participants were asked about side effects, medication adherence, common psychological symptoms, and coping mechanisms with the aid of standard questionnaires. Information from the quantitative phase was analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The interviews from the qualitative study were audio-taped with a digital audio recorder, manually transcribed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The themes originated from participant interviews a posteriori. Results: The experiences of side effects – such as palpitations, frequent urination, recurrent bouts of hunger, erectile dysfunction, dizziness, cough, physical exhaustion - were categorized as no/low (39.75%), moderate (53.0%) and high (7.25%). Significant relationships between depression (x 2 = 24.21, P < 0.0001), anxiety (x 2 = 42.33, P < 0.0001), stress (x 2 = 39.73, P < 0.0001) and side effects were observed. A logistic regression model using the adjusted results for this association are reported – depression [OR = 1.9 (1.03 – 3.57), p = 0.04], anxiety [OR = 1.5 (1.22 – 1.77), p = < 0.001], and stress [OR = 1.3 (1.02 – 1.71), p = 0.04]. Side effects significantly increased the probability of individuals to be non-adherent [OR = 4.84 (95% CI 1.07 – 1.85), p = 0.04] with social factors, media influences and attitudes of primary caregivers further explaining this relationship. The personal adoption of medication modifying strategies, espousing the use of complementary and alternative treatments, and interventions made by clinicians were the main forms of coping with side effects. Conclusions: Results from this study show that contrary to a biomedical approach, the experience of side effects has biological, social and psychological interrelations. The result offers more support for the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to healthcare where all forms of expertise are incorporated into health provision and patient care. Additionally, medication side effects should be considered as a possible cause of non-adherence among hypertensive patients, thus addressing this problem from a Biopsychosocial perspective in any intervention may improve adherence and invariably control blood pressure.

Keywords: biopsychosocial, hypertension, medication adherence, psychological disorders

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3 Real-Time Working Environment Risk Analysis with Smart Textiles

Authors: Jose A. Diaz-Olivares, Nafise Mahdavian, Farhad Abtahi, Kaj Lindecrantz, Abdelakram Hafid, Fernando Seoane

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Despite new recommendations and guidelines for the evaluation of occupational risk assessments and their prevention, work-related musculoskeletal disorders are still one of the biggest causes of work activity disruption, productivity loss, sick leave and chronic work disability. It affects millions of workers throughout Europe, with a large-scale economic and social burden. These specific efforts have failed to produce significant results yet, probably due to the limited availability and high costs of occupational risk assessment at work, especially when the methods are complex, consume excessive resources or depend on self-evaluations and observations of poor accuracy. To overcome these limitations, a pervasive system of risk assessment tools in real time has been developed, which has the characteristics of a systematic approach, with good precision, usability and resource efficiency, essential to facilitate the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in the long term. The system allows the combination of different wearable sensors, placed on different limbs, to be used for data collection and evaluation by a software solution, according to the needs and requirements in each individual working environment. This is done in a non-disruptive manner for both the occupational health expert and the workers. The creation of this solution allows us to attend different research activities that require, as an essential starting point, the recording of data with ergonomic value of very diverse origin, especially in real work environments. The software platform is here presented with a complimentary smart clothing system for data acquisition, comprised of a T-shirt containing inertial measurement units (IMU), a vest sensorized with textile electronics, a wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) and thoracic electrical bio-impedance (TEB) recorder and a glove sensorized with variable resistors, dependent on the angular position of the wrist. The collected data is processed in real-time through a mobile application software solution, implemented in commercially available Android-based smartphones and tablet platforms. Based on the collection of this information and its analysis, real-time risk assessment and feedback about postural improvement is possible, adapted to different contexts. The result is a tool which provides added value to ergonomists and occupational health agents, as in situ analysis of postural behavior can assist in a quantitative manner in the evaluation of work techniques and the occupational environment.

Keywords: ergonomics, mobile technologies, risk assessment, smart textiles

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2 Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy among HIV Patients in a University Teaching Hospital in South-Western Nigeria

Authors: Okunola Oluseye Ademola

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The study investigated various socio-cultural factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral drugs among people living with HIV in a University Teaching Hospital in South-western Nigeria. The objectives are to examine the perception of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, investigate the influence of socio-cultural factors on adherence of PLWHA to treatment regimen in the study area and assess the prevalence of adherence to ART among PLWHA in the study area. It was a cross-sectional where both qualitative and quantitative research methods were adopted. The participants were HIV diagnosed patients attending clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex in Ile-Ife between the ages of 18 and 60 years. Also three healthcare delivery personnel working in the clinic were interviewed. Out of the 3007 patients receiving treatment, using Fischer’s formula of sampling technique, 336 patients living with HIV/AIDS were selected for the study. These participants had been on antiretroviral drugs for more than six months prior to the study and were selected using simple random sampling technique. Two focus group discussion sessions comprising of 10 male and 10 female living with HIV and currently on ART were conducted. These groups were purposively selected based on their being on ART for more than one year. Also in-depth interviews were conducted among three purposively selected healthcare givers (an experienced nurse, a doctor and a pharmacist) who are working in this clinic. All the participants were interviewed at the clinic on the various clinic days. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, an interview guide and tape-recorder. The quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Content analysis was employed to analyse responses from IDI and FGD sessions. The findings from the study revealed a very positive perception to ART among PLWHA which was about 86.3% while the level of adherence to ART was 89.0% among the respondents. There was a very strong relationship between social and family supports and the degree of adherence to ART in the PLWHA. Nutrition, polygamy, difficulty in financing transportation fare to the clinic, unemployment, drug hawkers, religion, excuse duty from work and waking up very early were highlighted as socio-cultural barriers to adherence to ART. Fear of death, strong family support, religion belief, not seeking alternative treatment, absence of rituals and perceived improved health status were identified as very strong facilitators to adherence. The study concluded that to achieve a very optimal outcome in the management of HIV among PLWHA, various social and cultural contexts should be taken into consideration as this study was able to ascertain the influence of various socio-cultural factors militating and facilitating adherence to ART.

Keywords: ART, HIV, PLWHA, socio-cultural

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1 Optimized Processing of Neural Sensory Information with Unwanted Artifacts

Authors: John Lachapelle

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Introduction: Neural stimulation is increasingly targeted toward treatment of back pain, PTSD, Parkinson’s disease, and for sensory perception. Sensory recording during stimulation is important in order to examine neural response to stimulation. Most neural amplifiers (headstages) focus on noise efficiency factor (NEF). Conversely, neural headstages need to handle artifacts from several sources including power lines, movement (EMG), and neural stimulation itself. In this work a layered approach to artifact rejection is used to reduce corruption of the neural ENG signal by 60dBv, resulting in recovery of sensory signals in rats and primates that would previously not be possible. Methods: The approach combines analog techniques to reduce and handle unwanted signal amplitudes. The methods include optimized (1) sensory electrode placement, (2) amplifier configuration, and (3) artifact blanking when necessary. The techniques together are like concentric moats protecting a castle; only the wanted neural signal can penetrate. There are two conditions in which the headstage operates: unwanted artifact < 50mV, linear operation, and artifact > 50mV, fast-settle gain reduction signal limiting (covered in more detail in a separate paper). Unwanted Signals at the headstage input: Consider: (a) EMG signals are by nature < 10mV. (b) 60 Hz power line signals may be > 50mV with poor electrode cable conditions; with careful routing much of the signal is common to both reference and active electrode and rejected in the differential amplifier with <50mV remaining. (c) An unwanted (to the neural recorder) stimulation signal is attenuated from stimulation to sensory electrode. The voltage seen at the sensory electrode can be modeled Φ_m=I_o/4πσr. For a 1 mA stimulation signal, with 1 cm spacing between electrodes, the signal is <20mV at the headstage. Headstage ASIC design: The front end ASIC design is designed to produce < 1% THD at 50mV input; 50 times higher than typical headstage ASICs, with no increase in noise floor. This requires careful balance of amplifier stages in the headstage ASIC, as well as consideration of the electrodes effect on noise. The ASIC is designed to allow extremely small signal extraction on low impedance (< 10kohm) electrodes with configuration of the headstage ASIC noise floor to < 700nV/rt-Hz. Smaller high impedance electrodes (> 100kohm) are typically located closer to neural sources and transduce higher amplitude signals (> 10uV); the ASIC low-power mode conserves power with 2uV/rt-Hz noise. Findings: The enhanced neural processing ASIC has been compared with a commercial neural recording amplifier IC. Chronically implanted primates at MGH demonstrated the presence of commercial neural amplifier saturation as a result of large environmental artifacts. The enhanced artifact suppression headstage ASIC, in the same setup, was able to recover and process the wanted neural signal separately from the suppressed unwanted artifacts. Separately, the enhanced artifact suppression headstage ASIC was able to separate sensory neural signals from unwanted artifacts in mouse-implanted peripheral intrafascicular electrodes. Conclusion: Optimizing headstage ASICs allow observation of neural signals in the presence of large artifacts that will be present in real-life implanted applications, and are targeted toward human implantation in the DARPA HAPTIX program.

Keywords: ASIC, biosensors, biomedical signal processing, biomedical sensors

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