Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1396

Search results for: naturalistic environments

1396 A Multimodal Measurement Approach Using Narratives and Eye Tracking to Investigate Visual Behaviour in Perceiving Naturalistic and Urban Environments

Authors: Khizar Z. Choudhrya, Richard Coles, Salman Qureshi, Robert Ashford, Salim Khan, Rabia R. Mir

Abstract:

Abstract: The majority of existing landscape research has been derived by conducting heuristic evaluations, without having empirical insight of real participant visual response. In this research, a modern multimodal measurement approach (using narratives and eye tracking) was applied to investigate visual behaviour in perceiving naturalistic and urban environments. This research is unique in exploring gaze behaviour on environmental images possessing different levels of saliency. Eye behaviour is predominantly attracted by salient locations. The concept of methodology of this research on naturalistic and urban environments is drawn from the approaches in market research. Borrowing methodologies from market research that examine visual responses and qualities provided a critical and hitherto unexplored approach. This research has been conducted by using mixed methodological quantitative and qualitative approaches. On the whole, the results of this research corroborated existing landscape research findings, but they also identified potential refinements. The research contributes both methodologically and empirically to human-environment interaction (HEI). This study focused on initial impressions of environmental images with the help of eye tracking. Taking under consideration the importance of the image, this study explored the factors that influence initial fixations in relation to expectations and preferences. In terms of key findings of this research it is noticed that each participant has his own unique navigation style while surfing through different elements of landscape images. This individual navigation style is given the name of ‘visual signature’. This study adds the necessary clarity that would complete the picture and bring an insight for future landscape researchers.

Keywords: human-environment interaction (HEI), multimodal measurement, narratives, eye tracking

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1395 A Comprehensive Methodology for Voice Segmentation of Large Sets of Speech Files Recorded in Naturalistic Environments

Authors: Ana Londral, Burcu Demiray, Marcus Cheetham

Abstract:

Speech recording is a methodology used in many different studies related to cognitive and behaviour research. Modern advances in digital equipment brought the possibility of continuously recording hours of speech in naturalistic environments and building rich sets of sound files. Speech analysis can then extract from these files multiple features for different scopes of research in Language and Communication. However, tools for analysing a large set of sound files and automatically extract relevant features from these files are often inaccessible to researchers that are not familiar with programming languages. Manual analysis is a common alternative, with a high time and efficiency cost. In the analysis of long sound files, the first step is the voice segmentation, i.e. to detect and label segments containing speech. We present a comprehensive methodology aiming to support researchers on voice segmentation, as the first step for data analysis of a big set of sound files. Praat, an open source software, is suggested as a tool to run a voice detection algorithm, label segments and files and extract other quantitative features on a structure of folders containing a large number of sound files. We present the validation of our methodology with a set of 5000 sound files that were collected in the daily life of a group of voluntary participants with age over 65. A smartphone device was used to collect sound using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR): an app programmed to record 30-second sound samples that were randomly distributed throughout the day. Results demonstrated that automatic segmentation and labelling of files containing speech segments was 74% faster when compared to a manual analysis performed with two independent coders. Furthermore, the methodology presented allows manual adjustments of voiced segments with visualisation of the sound signal and the automatic extraction of quantitative information on speech. In conclusion, we propose a comprehensive methodology for voice segmentation, to be used by researchers that have to work with large sets of sound files and are not familiar with programming tools.

Keywords: automatic speech analysis, behavior analysis, naturalistic environments, voice segmentation

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1394 Hanna Arendt and Al-Farabi’s Non-Naturalistic Political Philosophy

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Badamchi

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As Leo Strauss demonstrates in his works, Political Philosophy in the western tradition is an epistemic-naturalistic tradition insofar Hanna Arendt mentioning the deep conflict between philosophy and politics, opposed to be named “political philosopher” prefer the title “political thinker” for herself. In fact, the Western political philosophy’s tendency to derive politics from natural law and epistemic argumentations makes a paradox between the actual “the political” and the theoretical “natural politics” in the western tradition. In this paper, we want to show that Hanna Arendt, in her exploration to find a new realm of the non-naturalistic way of thinking about the political is walking on a completely different tradition of political philosophy which was first established by Al-Farabi, the founder of Islamic political philosophy around thousand years after Greek Philosophy. Despite Aristotelian Polis which is a Natural community based on true natural rationality to reach the natural purposes of mankind, Al-Farabi’s Madine (his reconstructed concept of Aristotelian Polis) is completely constructed against natural cities, which are formulated by necessity logic of natural arguments and natural deception of humanity. In fact, Farabi considers the natural understanding of politics as Ignorant ideologies used by governments to suppress people. Madine in Farabi’s work is not a natural institution but is a collaborative constitution founded by citizens. So despite Aristotelian thinking, here we don’t have just A Polis that is the one true polis, but we have various multiple Madines among one, is virtuous not by definition but by real action of citizens and civil relations. Al-Farabi’s political philosophy is not a Naturalistic-epistemic Political Philosophy but is a Phronetic Political Philosophy which Hanna Arendt wants to establish outside of western contemplative anti-active political philosophy tradition.

Keywords: al-farabi, hanna arendt, natural politics, the political, political philosophy

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1393 Holistic and Naturalistic Traditions of British Hygiene and Medicine, Reflected in E. W. Lane's Hygienic Medicine, 1859

Authors: Min Bae

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Hygiene had traditionally meant ways of healthy and right living. However, the nineteenth century was the time when a gradual shift in medical and hygienic paradigms took place from holism to reductionism. Against this medical and social background, E. W. Lane (MD, Edinburgh, 1853) formulated his own medical philosophies in his book Hydropathy: Or Hygienic Medicine (1859). Until the 1880s when he published his last book on the hygienic medicine, he consistently intended to raise the importance of hygienic holism in medicine, while adopting hydropathy as his main therapeutic measure. Lane’s case reflects the mid-nineteenth century trend in which since the 1840s, the rational and holistic facets in medicine had significantly transferred to hydropathy, which was the most naturalistic healing system in the medical market. Hygiene for Lane was no longer the ancient form of ‘six non-naturals’. He emphasised physiology as the rational grounds for his project of the medicalisation of hygiene. His medical philosophy was profoundly naturalistic and holistic against the opposite trend of the contemporary hygiene and medicine. Conflicting aspects may often be best embodied in persons who stood on the boundaries between inside and outside. Lane’s theories on hygienic medicine did not develop into a new medical system which he believed would reconciliate orthodox medicine and hydropathy of his time had also adopted increasingly reductionist approaches since 1860s. Nevertheless, the naturalistic philosophies and approaches in Lane’s hygienic medicine demonstrates a continuous effort for a theoretical reformulation of hydropathy during its stagnant and declining period to constantly fit into the holistic paradigm of medicine and hygiene. Considering the fact that the nature cure concept in hydropathy and its individualistic approach were succeeded by naturopathy at the end of the century, analysis of Lane’s medical thoughts reveals part of a ‘thin red line’ of naturalism in the battleground between reductionism and holism during the nineteenth century in the history of medicine and hygiene.

Keywords: E. W. Lane, hygienic medicine, hydropathy, naturopath

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1392 Frank Norris’ McTeague: An Entropic Melodrama

Authors: Mohsen Masoomi, Fazel Asadi Amjad, Monireh Arvin

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According to Naturalistic principles, human destiny in the form of blind chance and determinism, entraps the individual, so man is a defenceless creature unable to escape from the ruthless paws of a stoical universe. In Naturalism; nonetheless, melodrama mirrors a conscious alternative with a peculiar function. A typical American Naturalistic character thus cannot be a subject for social criticism of American society since they are not victims of the ongoing virtual slavery, capitalist system, nor of a ruined milieu, but of their own volition, and more importantly, their character frailty. Through a Postmodern viewpoint, each Naturalistic work can encompass some entropic trends and changes culminating in an entire failure and devastation. Frank Norris in McTeague displays the futile struggles of ordinary men and how they end up brutes. McTeague encompasses intoxication, abuse, violation, and ruthless homicides. Norris’ depictions of the falling individual as a demon represent the entropic dimension of Naturalistic novels. McTeague’s defeat is somewhat his own fault, the result of his own blunders and resolution, not the result of sheer accident. Throughout the novel, each character is a kind of insane quester indicating McTeague’s decadence and, by inference, the decadence of Western civilisation. McTeague seems to designate Norris’ solicitude for a community fabricated by the elements of human negative demeanours and conducts hauling acute symptoms of infectious dehumanisation. The aim of this article is to illustrate how one specific negative human disposition gradually, like a running fire, can spread everywhere and burn everything in itself. The author applies the concept of entropy metaphorically to describe the individual devolutions that necessarily comprise community entropy in McTeague, a dying universe.

Keywords: animal imagery, entropy, Gypsy, melodrama

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1391 Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based on ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

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In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: frequency offset estimation, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise environment, OFDM, training symbol

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1390 Automotive Emotions: An Investigation of Their Natures, Frequencies of Occurrence and Causes

Authors: Marlene Weber, Joseph Giacomin, Alessio Malizia, Lee Skrypchuk, Voula Gkatzidou

Abstract:

Technological and sociological developments in the automotive sector are shifting the focus of design towards developing a better understanding of driver needs, desires and emotions. Human centred design methods are being more frequently applied to automotive research, including the use of systems to detect human emotions in real-time. One method for a non-contact measurement of emotion with low intrusiveness is Facial-Expression Analysis (FEA). This paper describes a research study investigating emotional responses of 22 participants in a naturalistic driving environment by applying a multi-method approach. The research explored the possibility to investigate emotional responses and their frequencies during naturalistic driving through real-time FEA. Observational analysis was conducted to assign causes to the collected emotional responses. In total, 730 emotional responses were measured in the collective study time of 440 minutes. Causes were assigned to 92% of the measured emotional responses. This research establishes and validates a methodology for the study of emotions and their causes in the driving environment through which systems and factors causing positive and negative emotional effects can be identified.

Keywords: affective computing, case study, emotion recognition, human computer interaction

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1389 Comparing Two Interventions for Teaching Math to Pre-School Students with Autism

Authors: Hui Fang Huang Su, Jia Borror

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This study compared two interventions for teaching math to preschool-aged students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The first is considered the business as usual (BAU) intervention, which uses the Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research (STAR) curriculum and discrete trial teaching as the instructional methodology. The second is the Math is Not Difficult (Project MIND) activity-embedded, naturalistic intervention. These interventions were randomly assigned to four preschool students with ASD classrooms and implemented over three months for Project Mind. We used measurement gained during the same three months for the STAR intervention. In addition, we used A quasi-experimental, pre-test/post-test design to compare the effectiveness of these two interventions in building mathematical knowledge and skills. The pre-post measures include three standardized instruments: the Test of Early Math Ability-3, the Problem Solving and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement IV, and the Bracken Test of Basic Concepts-3 Receptive. The STAR curriculum-based assessment is administered to all Baudhuin students three times per year, and we used the results in this study. We anticipated that implementing these two approaches would improve the mathematical knowledge and skills of children with ASD. Still, it is crucial to see whether a behavioral or naturalistic teaching approach leads to more significant results.

Keywords: early learning, autism, math for pre-schoolers, special education, teaching strategies

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1388 A Typology System to Diagnose and Evaluate Environmental Affordances

Authors: Falntina Ahmad Alata, Natheer Abu Obeid

Abstract:

This paper is a research report of an experimental study on a proposed typology system to diagnose and evaluate the affordances of varying architectural environments. The study focused on architectural environments which have been developed with a shift in their use of adaptive reuse. The novelty in the newly developed environments was tested in terms of human responsiveness and interaction using a variety of selected cases. The study is a follow-up on previous research by the same authors, in which a typology of 16 categories of environmental affordances was developed and introduced. The current study introduced other new categories, which together with the previous ones establish what could be considered a basic language of affordance typology. The experiment was conducted on ten architectural environments while adopting two processes: 1. Diagnostic process, in which the environments were interpreted in terms of their affordances using the previously developed affordance typology, 2. The evaluation process, in which the diagnosed environments were evaluated using measures of emotional experience and architectural evaluation criteria of beauty, economy and function. The experimental study demonstrated that the typology system was capable of diagnosing different environments in terms of their affordances. It also introduced new categories of human interaction: “multiple affordances,” “conflict affordances,” and “mix affordances.” The different possible combinations and mixtures of categories demonstrated to be capable of producing huge numbers of other newly developed categories. This research is an attempt to draw a roadmap for designers to diagnose and evaluate the affordances within different architectural environments. It is hoped to provide future guidance for developing the best possible adaptive reuse according to the best affordance category within their proposed designs.

Keywords: affordance theory, affordance categories, architectural environments, architectural evaluation criteria, adaptive reuse environment, emotional experience, shift in use environment

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1387 Ubiquitous Learning Environments in Higher Education: A Scoping Literature Review

Authors: Mari A. Virtanen, Elina Haavisto, Eeva Liikanen, Maria Kääriäinen

Abstract:

Ubiquitous learning and the use of ubiquitous learning environments herald a new era in higher education. Ubiquitous environments fuse together authentic learning situations and digital learning spaces where students can seamlessly immerse themselves into the learning process. Definitions of ubiquitous learning are wide and vary in the previous literature and learning environments are not systemically described. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the criteria and the use of ubiquitous learning environments in higher education contexts. The objective was to provide a clear scope and a wide view for this research area. The original studies were collected from nine electronic databases. Seven publications in total were defined as eligible and included in the final review. An inductive content analysis was used for the data analysis. The reviewed publications described the use of ubiquitous learning environments (ULE) in higher education. Components, contents and outcomes varied between studies, but there were also many similarities. In these studies, the concept of ubiquitousness was defined as context-awareness, embeddedness, content-personalization, location-based, interactivity and flexibility and these were supported by using smart devices, wireless networks and sensing technologies. Contents varied between studies and were customized to specific uses. Measured outcomes in these studies were focused on multiple aspects as learning effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, satisfaction, and usefulness. This study provides a clear scope for ULE used in higher education. It also raises the need for transparent development and publication processes, and for practical implications of ubiquitous learning environments.

Keywords: higher education, learning environment, scoping review, ubiquitous learning, u-learning

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1386 Effect of Clinical Depression on Automatic Speaker Verification

Authors: Sheeraz Memon, Namunu C. Maddage, Margaret Lech, Nicholas Allen

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The effect of a clinical environment on the accuracy of the speaker verification was tested. The speaker verification tests were performed within homogeneous environments containing clinically depressed speakers only, and non-depresses speakers only, as well as within mixed environments containing different mixtures of both climatically depressed and non-depressed speakers. The speaker verification framework included the MFCCs features and the GMM modeling and classification method. The speaker verification experiments within homogeneous environments showed 5.1% increase of the EER within the clinically depressed environment when compared to the non-depressed environment. It indicated that the clinical depression increases the intra-speaker variability and makes the speaker verification task more challenging. Experiments with mixed environments indicated that the increase of the percentage of the depressed individuals within a mixed environment increases the speaker verification equal error rates.

Keywords: speaker verification, GMM, EM, clinical environment, clinical depression

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1385 Performance Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks in Areas for Sports Activities and Environmental Preservation

Authors: Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Ítalo de Pontes Oliveira

Abstract:

This paper presents a analysis of performance the Received Strength Signal Indicator (RSSI) to Wireless Sensor Networks, with a finality of investigate a behavior of ZigBee devices operating into real environments. The test of performance was realize using two Series 1 ZigBee Module and two modules of development Arduino Uno R3, evaluating in this form a measurements of RSSI into environments like places of sports, preservation forests and water reservoir.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, RSSI, Arduino, environments

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1384 Automatic Verification Technology of Virtual Machine Software Patch on IaaS Cloud

Authors: Yoji Yamato

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an automatic verification technology of software patches for user virtual environments on IaaS Cloud to decrease verification costs of patches. In these days, IaaS services have been spread and many users can customize virtual machines on IaaS Cloud like their own private servers. Regarding to software patches of OS or middleware installed on virtual machines, users need to adopt and verify these patches by themselves. This task increases operation costs of users. Our proposed method replicates user virtual environments, extracts verification test cases for user virtual environments from test case DB, distributes patches to virtual machines on replicated environments and conducts those test cases automatically on replicated environments. We have implemented the proposed method on OpenStack using Jenkins and confirmed the feasibility. Using the implementation, we confirmed the effectiveness of test case creation efforts by our proposed idea of 2-tier abstraction of software functions and test cases. We also evaluated the automatic verification performance of environment replications, test cases extractions and test cases conductions.

Keywords: OpenStack, cloud computing, automatic verification, jenkins

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1383 Toward Discovering an Architectural Typology Based on the Theory of Affordance

Authors: Falntina Ahmad Alata, Natheer Abu Obeid

Abstract:

This paper revolves around the concept of affordance. It aims to discover and develop an architectural typology based on the ecological concept of affordance. In order to achieve this aim, an analytical study is conducted and two sources were taken into account: 1- Gibson's definition of the concept of affordance and 2- The researches that are concerned on the affordance categorisation. As a result, this paper concluded 16 typologies of affordances, including the possibilities of mixing them based on both sources. To clarify these typologies and provide further understanding, a wide range of architectural examples are presented and proposed in the paper. To prove this vocabulary’s capability to diagnose and evaluate the affordance of different environments, an experimental study with two processes have been adapted: 1. Diagnostic process: the interpretation of the environments with regards to its affordance by using the new vocabulary (the developed typologies). 2. Evaluating process: the evaluation of the environments that have been interpreted and classified with regards to their affordances. By using the measures of emotional experience (the positive affect ‘PA’ and the negative affect ‘NA’) and the architectural evaluation criteria (beauty, economy and function). The experimental study proves that the typologies are capable of reading the affordance within different environments. Additionally, it explains how these different typologies reflect different interactions based on the previous processes. The data which are concluded from the evaluation of measures explain how different typologies of affordance that have already reflected different environments had different evaluations. In fact, some of them are recommended while the others are not. In other words, the paper draws a roadmap for designers to diagnose, evaluate and analyse the affordance into different architectural environments. After that, it guides them through adapting the best interaction (affordance category), which they intend to adapt into their proposed designs.

Keywords: Affordance theory, Affordance categories, Architectural environments, Architectural Evaluation Criteria (AEC), emotional experience (PA, NA)

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1382 The ROADS project: Road Observational Assessment of Driving distractionS

Authors: Marko Gjorgjievski, Bradley Petrisor, Sheila Sprague, Silvia Chuan Li, Bill Ristevski

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Globally, 1.35 million people die, and more than 78 million get injured in road traffic collisions every year. Distracted driving is a huge contributor to these tragedies, and by reducing this dangerous behaviour, we can potentially help decrease these numbers. The first step to curbing distracted driving is to ascertain the scope and magnitude of the problem. The goal of the ROADS project was to determine the naturalistic proportion of distracted drivers in real-time conditions and the specific driving distractions they engage in, using covert observational methods. We observed drivers on the 400 – highway series and the city streetsbetween and in the cities of Hamilton and Toronto, in Ontario, Canada. The observation period was six months, from November 2020 to July 2021. A two-member research team performed covert observations while actively participating in regular traffic in a moving vehicle. We collected data on demographics (age, sex), safety (seatbelt, two-hand driving), driving distractions (in-vehicle, outer-vehicle, and mobile phones), and differences in driving (lane drift, evasive maneuvers, near-crash/crash). Regression analyses were done to determine associations between demographics, situational variables and distracted driving, and differences in driving. There were 1105 drivers that we observed in this study, 536 (48.5%) on the highways and 569 (51.5%) in an urban setting. We identified 381 (34.5%) of the drivers as female and 723 (65.4%) as male (ratio 1.9). The average observation time was 21.2 seconds (SD 11.1, range 6-97).In total, there were 609 (55.1%) distracted drivers, the most common ones being drivers engaging in in-vehicle distractions(n=521, 47.1%). The most common specific distraction was talking with a passenger (n=225, 20.4%). In total, 88 drivers engaged in mobile phone distractions (8.0%). Of these, 63 drivers were observed using a handheld device, 38 (3.4%) of which were visibly manipulating their device, and 25 (2.3%) were actively talking on a handheld mobile phone. There were 25 (2.3%) drivers that exhibited driving differences, 24 (96%) of whom were distracted. Lane drifts were the most common driving difference observed (n=18, 1.6%). This naturalistic data collected covertly and in real-time driving situations likely represents the closest estimate of distracted driving rates on the roads. Sadly, more than half of all the observed drivers and almost allthe drivers that demonstrated differences in driving were distracted. Despite handheld mobile phones being dangerous and illegal, we still observed one in twenty drivers engage in these distractions. These numbers are even more concerning, given that the observations only recorded a short segment of the drivers' trip. This data can be used to educate drivers and develop action plans and policies aimed at the prevention of distracted driving.

Keywords: distracted driving, mobile phones, naturalistic data, traffic safety

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1381 Attention Problems among Adolescents: Examining Educational Environments

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang, Georgianna Duarte

Abstract:

This study investigated the attention problems with the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Two thousand eight hundred and ninety-four adolescents were surveyed by using a stratified sampling method. We examined the relationships between relevant background variables and attention problems. Multiple regression models were applied to analyze the data. Relevant variables such as sports activities, hobbies, age, grade and the number of close friends were included in this study as predictive variables. The analysis results indicated that educational environments and extracurricular activities are important factors which influence students’ attention problems.

Keywords: adolescents, ASEBA, attention problems, educational environments, stratified sampling

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1380 Roadway Infrastructure and Bus Safety

Authors: Richard J. Hanowski, Rebecca L. Hammond

Abstract:

Very few studies have been conducted to investigate safety issues associated with motorcoach/bus operations. The current study investigates the impact that roadway infrastructure, including locality, roadway grade, traffic flow and traffic density, have on bus safety. A naturalistic driving study was conducted in the U.S.A that involved 43 motorcoaches. Two fleets participated in the study and over 600,000 miles of naturalistic driving data were collected. Sixty-five bus drivers participated in this study; 48 male and 17 female. The average age of the drivers was 49 years. A sophisticated data acquisition system (DAS) was installed on each of the 43 motorcoaches and a variety of kinematic and video data were continuously recorded. The data were analyzed by identifying safety critical events (SCEs), which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Additionally, baseline (normative driving) segments were also identified and analyzed for comparison to the SCEs. This presentation highlights the need for bus safety research and the methods used in this data collection effort. With respect to elements of roadway infrastructure, this study highlights the methods used to assess locality, roadway grade, traffic flow, and traffic density. Locality was determined by manual review of the recorded video for each event and baseline and was characterized in terms of open country, residential, business/industrial, church, playground, school, urban, airport, interstate, and other. Roadway grade was similarly determined through video review and characterized in terms of level, grade up, grade down, hillcrest, and dip. The video was also used to make a determination of the traffic flow and traffic density at the time of the event or baseline segment. For traffic flow, video was used to assess which of the following best characterized the event or baseline: not divided (2-way traffic), not divided (center 2-way left turn lane), divided (median or barrier), one-way traffic, or no lanes. In terms of traffic density, level-of-service categories were used: A1, A2, B, C, D, E, and F. Highlighted in this abstract are only a few of the many roadway elements that were coded in this study. Other elements included lighting levels, weather conditions, roadway surface conditions, relation to junction, and roadway alignment. Note that a key component of this study was to assess the impact that driver distraction and fatigue have on bus operations. In this regard, once the roadway elements had been coded, the primary research questions that were addressed were (i) “What environmental condition are associated with driver choice of engagement in tasks?”, and (ii) “what are the odds of being in a SCE while engaging in tasks while encountering these conditions?”. The study may be of interest to researchers and traffic engineers that are interested in the relationship between roadway infrastructure elements and safety events in motorcoach bus operations.

Keywords: bus safety, motorcoach, naturalistic driving, roadway infrastructure

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1379 Student Performance and Confidence Analysis on Education Virtual Environments through Different Assessment Strategies

Authors: Rubén Manrique, Delio Balcázar, José Parrado, Sebastián Rodríguez

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Hand in hand with the evolution of technology, education systems have moved to virtual environments to provide increased coverage and facilitate the access to education. However, measuring student performance in virtual environments presents significant challenges to ensure students are acquiring the expected skills. In this study, the confidence and performance of engineering students in virtual environments is analyzed through different evaluation strategies. The effect of the assessment strategy in student confidence is identified using educational data mining techniques. Four assessment strategies were used. First, a conventional multiple choice test; second, a multiple choice test with feedback; third, a multiple choice test with a second chance; and fourth; a multiple choice test with feedback and second chance. Our results show that applying testing with online feedback strategies can influence positively student confidence.

Keywords: assessment strategies, educational data mining, student performance, student confidence

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1378 Searching k-Nearest Neighbors to be Appropriate under Gaming Environments

Authors: Jae Moon Lee

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In general, algorithms to find continuous k-nearest neighbors have been researched on the location based services, monitoring periodically the moving objects such as vehicles and mobile phone. Those researches assume the environment that the number of query points is much less than that of moving objects and the query points are not moved but fixed. In gaming environments, this problem is when computing the next movement considering the neighbors such as flocking, crowd and robot simulations. In this case, every moving object becomes a query point so that the number of query point is same to that of moving objects and the query points are also moving. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the existing algorithms focused on location based services how they operate under gaming environments.

Keywords: flocking behavior, heterogeneous agents, similarity, simulation

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1377 Low-Impact Development Strategies Assessment for Urban Design

Authors: Y. S. Lin, H. L. Lin

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Climate change and land-use change caused by urban expansion increase the frequency of urban flooding. To mitigate the increase in runoff volume, low-impact development (LID) is a green approach for reducing the area of impervious surface and managing stormwater at the source with decentralized micro-scale control measures. However, the current benefit assessment and practical application of LID in Taiwan is still tending to be development plan in the community and building site scales. As for urban design, site-based moisture-holding capacity has been common index for evaluating LID’s effectiveness of urban design, which ignore the diversity, and complexity of the urban built environments, such as different densities, positive and negative spaces, volumes of building and so on. Such inflexible regulations not only probably make difficulty for most of the developed areas to implement, but also not suitable for every different types of built environments, make little benefits to some types of built environments. Looking toward to enable LID to strength the link with urban design to reduce the runoff in coping urban flooding, the research consider different characteristics of different types of built environments in developing LID strategy. Classify the built environments by doing the cluster analysis based on density measures, such as Ground Space Index (GSI), Floor Space Index (FSI), Floors (L), and Open Space Ratio (OSR), and analyze their impervious surface rates and runoff volumes. Simulate flood situations by using quasi-two-dimensional flood plain flow model, and evaluate the flood mitigation effectiveness of different types of built environments in different low-impact development strategies. The information from the results of the assessment can be more precisely implement in urban design. In addition, it helps to enact regulations of low-Impact development strategies in urban design more suitable for every different type of built environments.

Keywords: low-impact development, urban design, flooding, density measures

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1376 Facilitating Waste Management to Achieve Sustainable Residential Built Environments

Authors: Ingy Ibrahim El-Darwish, Neveen Youssef Azmy

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The endowment of a healthy environment can be implemented by endorsing sustainable fundamentals. Design of sustainable buildings through recycling of waste, can reduce health problems, provide good environments and contribute to the aesthetically pleasing entourage. Such environments can help in providing energy-saving alternatives to consolidate the principles of sustainability. The poor community awareness and the absence of laws and legislation in Egypt for waste management specifically in residential areas have led to an inability to provide an integrated system for waste management in urban and rural areas. Many problems and environmental challenges face the Egyptian urban environments. From these problems, is the lack of a cohesive vision for waste collection and recycling for energy-saving. The second problem is the lack public awareness of the short term and long term vision of waste management. Bad practices have adversely affected the efficiency of environmental management systems due to lack of urban legislations that codify collection and recycling of residential communities in Egyptian urban environments. Hence, this research tries to address residents on waste management matters to facilitate legislative process on waste collection and classification within residential units and outside them in a preparation phase for recycling in the Egyptian urban environments. In order to achieve this goal, one of the Egyptian communities has been addressed, analyzed and studied. Waste collection, classification, separation and access to recycling places in the urban city are proposed in preparation for a legislation ruling and regulating the process. Hence, sustainable principles are to be achieved.

Keywords: recycling, residential buildings, sustainability, waste

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1375 Unstructured Learning: Development of Free Form Construction in Waldorf and Normative Preschools

Authors: Salam Kodsi

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In this research, we sought to focus on constructive play and examine its components in the context of two different educational approaches: Waldorf and normative schools. When they are free to choose, construction is one of the forms of play most favored by children. Its short-term and long-term cognitive contributions are apparent in various areas of development. The lack of empirical studies about play in Waldorf schools, which addresses the possibility of this incidental learning inspired the need to enrich the body of existing knowledge. 90 children (4-6 yrs.old) four preschools ( two normative, two Waldorf) participated in a small homogeneous city. Naturalistic observations documented the time frame, physical space, and construction materials related to the freeform building; processes of construction among focal representative children and its products. The study’s main finding with respect to the construction output points to a connection between educational approach and level of construction sophistication. Higher levels of sophistication were found at the Waldorf preschools than at the mainstream preschools. This finding emerged due to the differences in the level of sophistication among the older children in the two types of preschools, while practically no differences emerged among the younger children. Discussion of the research findings considered the differences between the play environments in terms of time, physical space, and construction materials. The construction processes were characterized according to the design model stages. The construction output was characterized according to the sophistication scale dimensions and the connections between approach, age and gender, and sophistication level.

Keywords: constructive play, preschool, design process model, complexity

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1374 Rapid Proliferation of Tissue Culture Using of Olive (Olea Europea L.) cv.Zard

Authors: Majid Gharaipour Abbasabad

Abstract:

This research is studying the effects that various densities of Zeatin, and BA hormones may have on the scale of transformation of plant nodes to new shoots, among seedlings produced by seed germination, and also surveys the amount of produced shoots and their lengths, inside the specific Olive seed lab medium (OM). It is also concerned with the effects that various densities of IBA hormone, and inoculating the shoots with Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 can have on shoots' root production. This is a totally random research, and each attendance group has had three occurrences, and ten samples per a hectare. The average amounts have been compared using Duncan's test method, which was done in 5% level. The results indicated that the highest rate of transformation of micro samples to shoots happened in the seed germination environments, containing Zetain with 5 mg, and also 15 mg per a liter densities. (respectively, 95% and 94%), while the highest rate of plants' stem production ,in micro samples, happened in the lab medium environments with 5mg per a liter Zetain density (4.5). In lab medium environments with 15 mg Zetain per liter, a decrease was observed in the number of produced stems (3.88). According to the produced stems' lenght, the longest stem length was observed in environments with 5 mg and also 15 mg per a liter Zetain, and 25 mg per a liter BA densities (respectively, 8.45 cm, 45.66 cm, 8.53 cm). Meanwhile, the lowest amount of transformation of micro samples to shoots, the lowest number of produced shoots, and the shortest shoots were observed in the environments without any hormones (respectively, 3.32 cm, 1.13, 19.66%). The results of root production in Olive indicated that attendance groups which were exposed to different hormones did not vary, and Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 had no effect on them, as well. The lowest root's growth rate (22%) happened in environments without any hormones and also, in environment with Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 (19.66%). The largest number of roots was observed in the environments, containing Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 plus IBA (10 mg/l) and Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 plus IBA (10 mg/l), (respectively, 8.46 and 8.70), which had a significant difference with environments merely containing 10 mg and 20 mg of IBA per a litre (respectively, 3.06 and 3.2). So it can be concluded that even though Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 had no impact on root's growth among shoots, it had an impact on the number of produced roots. It should be noted that even when the environment contained merely Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 without any hormones, only (1.16) roots were produced, which is significantly different from the attendance group with hormones (1.06).

Keywords: olive-effect of hormones-germination of seed, densities of zeatin, BA hormones, agriculture

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1373 Challenges That People with Autism and Caregivers Face in Public Environments

Authors: Andrei Pomana, Graham Brewer

Abstract:

Autism is a lifelong developmental disorder that affects verbal and non-verbal communication, behaviour and sensory processing. As a result, people on the autism spectrum have a difficult time when confronted with environments that have high levels of sensory stimulation. This is often compounded by the inability to properly communicate their wants and needs to caregivers. The capacity for people with autism to integrate depends on their ability to at least tolerate highly stimulating public environments for short periods of time. The overall challenges that people on the spectrum and their caregivers face need to be established in order to properly create and assess methods to mitigate the effects of high stimulus public spaces. The paper aims to identify the challenges that people on the autism spectrum and their caregivers face in typical public environments. Nine experienced autism therapists have participated in a semi-structured interview regarding the challenges that people with autism and their caregivers face in public environments. The qualitative data shows that the unpredictability of events and the high sensory stimulation present in public environments, especially auditory, are the two biggest contributors to the difficulties that people on the spectrum face. If the stimuli are not removed in a short period of time, uncontrollable behaviours or 'meltdowns' can occur, which leave the person incapacitated and unable to respond to any outside input. Possible solutions to increase integration in public spaces for people with autism revolve around removing unwanted sensory stimulus, creating personalized barriers for certain stimuli, equipping people with autism with better tools to communicate their needs or to orient themselves to a safe location and providing a predictable pattern of events that would prepare individuals for tasks ahead of time.

Keywords: autism, built environment, meltdown, public environment, sensory processing disorders

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1372 Socio-Cultural Adaptation Approach to Enhance Intercultural Collaboration and Learning

Authors: Fadoua Ouamani, Narjès Bellamine Ben Saoud, Henda Hajjami Ben Ghézala

Abstract:

In the last few years and over the last decades, there was a growing interest in the development of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments. However, the existing systems ignore the variety of learners and their socio-cultural differences, especially in the case of distant and networked learning. In fact, within such collaborative learning environments, learners from different socio-cultural backgrounds may interact together. These learners evolve within various cultures and social contexts and acquire different socio-cultural values and behaviors. Thus, they should be assisted while communicating and collaborating especially in an intercultural group. Besides, the communication and collaboration tools provided to each learner must depend on and be adapted to her/his socio-cultural profile. The main goal of this paper is to present the proposed socio-cultural adaptation approach based on and guided by ontologies to adapt CSCL environments to the socio-cultural profiles of its users (learners or others).

Keywords: CSCL, socio-cultural profile, adaptation, ontology

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
1371 Virtual 3D Environments for Image-Based Navigation Algorithms

Authors: V. B. Bastos, M. P. Lima, P. R. G. Kurka

Abstract:

This paper applies to the creation of virtual 3D environments for the study and development of mobile robot image based navigation algorithms and techniques, which need to operate robustly and efficiently. The test of these algorithms can be performed in a physical way, from conducting experiments on a prototype, or by numerical simulations. Current simulation platforms for robotic applications do not have flexible and updated models for image rendering, being unable to reproduce complex light effects and materials. Thus, it is necessary to create a test platform that integrates sophisticated simulated applications of real environments for navigation, with data and image processing. This work proposes the development of a high-level platform for building 3D model’s environments and the test of image-based navigation algorithms for mobile robots. Techniques were used for applying texture and lighting effects in order to accurately represent the generation of rendered images regarding the real world version. The application will integrate image processing scripts, trajectory control, dynamic modeling and simulation techniques for physics representation and picture rendering with the open source 3D creation suite - Blender.

Keywords: simulation, visual navigation, mobile robot, data visualization

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1370 An Approximation Technique to Automate Tron

Authors: P. Jayashree, S. Rajkumar

Abstract:

With the trend of virtual and augmented reality environments booming to provide a life like experience, gaming is a major tool in supporting such learning environments. In this work, a variant of Voronoi heuristics, employing supervised learning for the TRON game is proposed. The paper discusses the features that would be really useful when a machine learning bot is to be used as an opponent against a human player. Various game scenarios, nature of the bot and the experimental results are provided for the proposed variant to prove that the approach is better than those that are currently followed.

Keywords: artificial Intelligence, automation, machine learning, TRON game, Voronoi heuristics

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1369 Rest Behavior and Restoration: Searching for Patterns through a Textual Analysis

Authors: Sandra Christina Gressler

Abstract:

Resting is essentially the physical and mental relaxation. So, can behaviors that go beyond the merely physical relaxation to some extent be understood as a behavior of restoration? Studies on restorative environments emphasize the physical, mental and social benefits that some environments can provide and suggest that activities in natural environments reduce the stress of daily lives, promoting recovery against the daily wear. These studies, though specific in their results, do not unify the different possibilities of restoration. Considering the importance of restorative environments by promoting well-being, this research aims to verify the applicability of the theory on restorative environments in a Brazilian context, inquiring about the environment/behavior of rest. The research sought to achieve its goals by; a) identifying daily ways of how participants interact/connect with nature; b) identifying the resting environments/behavior; c) verifying if rest strategies match the restorative environments suggested by restorative studies; and d) verifying different rest strategies related to time. Workers from different companies in which certain functions require focused attention, and high school students from different schools, participated in this study. An interview was used to collect data and information. The data obtained were compared with studies of attention restoration theory and stress recovery. The collected data were analyzed through the basic descriptive inductive statistics and the use of the software ALCESTE® (Analyse Lexicale par Contexte d'un Ensemble de Segments de Texte). The open questions investigate perception of nature on a daily basis – analysis using ALCESTE; rest periods – daily, weekends and holidays – analysis using ALCESTE with tri-croisé; and resting environments and activities – analysis using a simple descriptive statistics. According to the results, environments with natural characteristics that are compatible with personal desires (physical aspects and distance) and residential environments when they fulfill the characteristics of refuge, safety, and self-expression, characteristics of primary territory, meet the requirements of restoration. Analyzes suggest that the perception of nature has a wide range that goes beyond the objects nearby and possible to be touched, as well as observation and contemplation of details. The restoration processes described in the studies of attention restoration theory occur gradually (hierarchically), starting with being away, following compatibility, fascination, and extent. They are also associated with the time that is available for rest. The relation between rest behaviors and the bio-demographic characteristics of the participants are noted. It reinforces, in studies of restoration, the need to insert not only investigations regarding the physical characteristics of the environment but also behavior, social relationship, subjective reactions, distance and time available. The complexity of the theme indicates the necessity for multimethod studies. Practical contributions provide subsidies for developing strategies to promote the welfare of the population.

Keywords: attention restoration theory, environmental psychology, rest behavior, restorative environments

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1368 Simplified Mobile AR Platform Design for Augmented Tourism

Authors: Eric Hawkinson, Edgaras Artemciukas

Abstract:

This study outlines iterations of designing mobile augmented reality (MAR) applications for tourism specific contexts. Using a design based research model, several cycles of development to implementation were analyzed and refined upon with the goal of building a MAR platform that would facilitate the creation of augmented tours and environments by non-technical users. The project took on several stages, and through the process, a simple framework was begun to be established that can inform the design and use of MAR applications for tourism contexts. As a result of these iterations of development, a platform was developed that can allow novice computer users to create augmented tourism environments. This system was able to connect existing tools in widespread use such as Google Forms and connect them to computer vision algorithms needed for more advanced augmented tourism environments. The study concludes with a discussion of this MAR platform and reveals design elements that have implications for tourism contexts. The study also points to future case uses and design approaches for augmented tourism.

Keywords: augmented tourism, augmented reality, user experience, mobile design, e-tourism

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1367 AMBICOM: An Ambient Computing Middleware Architecture for Heterogeneous Environments

Authors: Ekrem Aksoy, Nihat Adar, Selçuk Canbek

Abstract:

Ambient Computing or Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is emerging area in computer science aiming to create intelligently connected environments and Internet of Things. In this paper, we propose communication middleware architecture for AmI. This middleware architecture addresses problems of communication, networking, and abstraction of applications, although there are other aspects (e.g. HCI and Security) within general AmI framework. Within this middleware architecture, any application developer might address HCI and Security issues with extensibility features of this platform.

Keywords: AmI, ambient computing, middleware, distributed-systems, software-defined networking

Procedia PDF Downloads 191