Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 523

Search results for: medication adherence

523 Patient-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence and Clinical Outcomes among major depression disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study.

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz


Background: there was paucity of data on the self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs), level of adherence and clinical outcomes with antidepressants among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in Ethiopia. Hence, the present study sought to determine the level of adherence for and clinical outcome with antidepressants and the magnitude of ADRs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was employed on MDD patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar university hospital psychiatry clinic. All patients who were available during the study period were included under the study population. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale was employed to assess the adverse drug reaction. The rate of medication adherence was determined using morisky medication adherence measurement scale eight. Clinical Outcome of patients was measured by using patient health questionnaire. Multivariable logistic carried out to determine factors for adherence and patient outcome. Results: two hundred seventy patients were participated in the study. More than half of the respondents were males 122(56.2%). The mean age of the participants was 30.94 ± 8.853. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications 124(57.1%). About 186(85.7%) of patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain 29(13.2). Around 198(92.2%) ADRs were probable and 19(8.8%) were possible. Patients with long standing MDD had high risk of non-adherence COR: 2.458[4.413-4.227], AOR: 2.424[1.185-4.961]. More than one-half 125(57.6) of respondents showed improved outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence was found to be associated with reduced risk of progression of the diseases COR: 0.37[0.110-5.379] and AOR: 0.432[0.201-0.909]. Conclusion: Patient reported adverse drug reactions were more prevalent in major depressive disorder patients. Adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. However, the clinical outcome was relatively higher. Long standing depression was associated with non-adherence. In addition, clinical outcome of patients were affected by non-adherence. Therefore, adherence enhancing interventions should be provided to improve medication adherence and patient outcome.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, clinical outcomes, Ethiopia, prospective study, medication adherence

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522 Evaluation of Medication Administration Process in a Paediatric Ward

Authors: Zayed Alsulami, Asma Aldosseri, Ahmed Ezziden, Abdulrahman Alonazi


Children are more susceptible to medication errors than adults. Medication administration process is the last stage in the medication treatment process and most of the errors detected in this stage. Little research has been undertaken about medication errors in children in the Middle East countries. This study was aimed to evaluate how the paediatric nurses adhere to the medication administration policy and also to identify any medication preparation and administration errors or any risk factors. An observational, prospective study of medication administration process from when the nurses preparing patient medication until administration stage (May to August 2014) was conducted in Saudi Arabia. Twelve paediatric nurses serving 90 paediatric patients were observed. 456 drug administered doses were evaluated. Adherence rate was variable in 7 steps out of 16 steps. Patient allergy information, dose calculation, drug expiry date were the steps in medication administration with lowest adherence rates. 63 medication preparation and administration errors were identified with error rate 13.8% of medication administrations. No potentially life-threating errors were witnessed. Few logistic and administrative factors were reported. The results showed that the medication administration policy and procedure need an urgent revision to be more sensible for nurses in practice. Nurses’ knowledge and skills regarding the medication administration process should be improved.

Keywords: medication sasfety, paediatric, medication errors, paediatric ward

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521 Improving Self-Administered Medication Adherence for Older Adults: A Systematic Review

Authors: Mathumalar Loganathan, Lina Syazana, Bryony Dean Franklin


Background: The therapeutic benefit of self-administered medication for long-term use is limited by an average 50% non-adherence rate. Patient forgetfulness is a common factor in unintentional non-adherence. With a growing ageing population, strategies to improve self-administration of medication adherence are essential. Our aim was to review systematically the effects of interventions to optimise self-administration of medication. Method: Database searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsynINFO, CINAHL from 1980 to 31 October 2013. Search terms included were ‘self-administration’, ‘self-care’, ‘medication adherence’, and ‘intervention’. Two independent reviewers undertook screening and methodological quality assessment, using the Downs and Black rating scale. Results: The search strategy retrieved 6 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three intervention strategies were identified: self-administration medication programme (SAMP), nursing education and medication packaging (pill calendar). A nursing education programme focused on improving patients’ behavioural self-management of drug prescribing. This was the most studied area and three studies highlighting an improvement in self-administration of medication. Conclusion: Results are mixed and there is no one interventional strategy that has proved to be effective. Nevertheless, self-administration of medication programme seems to show most promise. A multi-faceted approach and clearer policy guideline are likely to be required to improve prescribing for these vulnerable patients. Mixed results were found for SAMP. Medication packaging (pill calendar) was evaluated in one study showing a significant improvement in self-administration of medication. A meta-analysis could not be performed due to heterogeneity in the outcome measures.

Keywords: self-administered medication, intervention, prescribing, older patients

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520 Improving Depression Symptoms and Antidepressant Medication Adherence Using Encrypted Short Message Service Text Message Reminders

Authors: Ogbonna Olelewe


This quality improvement project seeks to address the background and significance of promoting antidepressant (AD) medication adherence to reduce depression symptoms in patients diagnosed with major depression. This project aims to substantiate using daily encrypted short message service (SMS) text reminders to take prescribed antidepressant medications with the goal of increasing medication adherence to reduce depression scores in patients diagnosed with major depression, thereby preventing relapses and increasing remission rates. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. The PHQ-9 provides a total score of depression symptoms from mild to severe, ranging from 0 to 27. A -pretest/post-test design was used, with a convenience sample size of 35 adult patients aged 18 years old to 45 years old, diagnosed with MDD, and prescribed at least one antidepressant for one year or more. Pre- and post-test PHQ-9 scores were conducted to compare depression scores before and after the four-week intervention period. The results indicated improved post-intervention PHQ-9 scores, improved AD medication adherence, and a significant reduction in depression symptoms.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, antidepressants, short message services, text reminders, Medication adherence/non-adherence, Patient Health Questionnaire 9

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519 Non-Adherence to Antidepressant Treatment and Its Predictors among Outpatients with Depressive Disorders

Authors: Selam Mulugeta, Barkot Milkias, Mesfin Araya, Abel Worku, Eyasu Mulugeta


In Ethiopia, there is inadequate information on non-adherence to antidepressant treatment in patients with depressive disorders. Having awareness of the pattern of adherence is important in future prognosis, quality of life, and functionality in these patients. This hospital-based cross-sectional quantitative study was done on a sample of 216 consecutive outpatients with depressive disorders. Data were collected using questionnaires through in-person and phone call interviews. The 8-item Morisky scale was used to assess the pattern of medication adherence. Other specially developed tools were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical information from electronic medical records and patient interviews. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version - 25. Univariate and multivariable analyses were carried out to assess factors associated with non-adherence. 90% of the participants had a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Based on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, the prevalence of non-adherence was found to be 84.7%. Living distance between 11 to 50 km from the hospital (AOR= 11, 95% CI (29,46.6)), post-secondary level of education (AOR= 8.3, 95% CI (1, 64.4)) and taking multiple medications (AOR= 6.1, 95% CI (1, 34.9)) were found to have significantly increased odds of non-adherence. Non-adherence was significantly associated with factors such as increased living distance from the hospital, relatively higher educational level, and polypharmacy. Proper and patient-centered psychoeducation, addressing the communication gap between patients and doctors, adherence to prescribing guidelines, avoiding polypharmacy unless indicated & working on accessibility of treatment is essential to decrease non-adherence.

Keywords: depressive disorders, Ethiopia, medication adherence, Addis Ababa

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518 Method for Improving Antidepressants Adherence in Patients with Depressive Disorder: Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Juntip Kanjanasilp, Ratree Sawangjit, Kanokporn Meelap, Kwanchanok Kruthakool


Depression is a common mental health disorder. Antidepressants are effective pharmacological treatments, but most patients have low medication adherence. This study aims to systematic review and meta-analysis what method increase the antidepressants adherence efficiently and improve clinical outcome. Systematic review of articles of randomized controlled trials obtained by a computerized literature search of The Cochrane, Library, Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Education search, Web of Science and ThaiLIS (28 December 2017). Twenty-three studies were included and assessed the quality of research by ROB 2.0. The results reported that printing media improved in number of people who had medication adherence statistical significantly (p= 0.018), but education, phone call, and program utilization were no different (p=0.172, p=0.127, p=0.659). There was no significant difference in pharmacist’s group, health care team’s group and physician’s group (p=0.329, p=0.070, p=0.040). Times of intervention at 1 month and 6 months improved medication adherence significantly (p= 0.0001, p=0.013). There was significantly improved adherence in single intervention (p=0.027) but no different in multiple interventions (p=0.154). When we analyzed medication adherence with the mean score, no improved adherence was found, not relevant with who gives the intervention and times to intervention. However, the multiple interventions group was statistically significant improved medication adherence (p=0.040). Phone call and the physician’s group were statistically significant improved clinical outcomes in number of improved patients (0.025 and 0.020, respectively). But in the pharmacist’s group and physician’s group were not found difference in the mean score of clinical outcomes (p=0.993, p=0.120, respectively). Times to intervention and number of intervention were not significant difference than usual care. The overall intervention can increase antidepressant adherence, especially the printing media, and the appropriate timing of the intervention is at least 6 months. For effective treatment, the provider should have experience and expert in caring for patients with depressive disorders, such as a psychiatrist. Medical personnel should have knowledge in caring for these patients also.

Keywords: depression, medication adherence, clinical outcomes, systematic review, meta-analysis

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517 Effects of Self-Management Programs on Blood Pressure Control, Self-Efficacy, Medication Adherence, and Body Mass Index among Older Adult Patients with Hypertension: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Van Truong Pham


Background: Self-management was described as a potential strategy for blood pressure control in patients with hypertension. However, the effects of self-management interventions on blood pressure, self-efficacy, medication adherence, and body mass index (BMI) in older adults with hypertension have not been systematically evaluated. We evaluated the effects of self-management interventions on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), self-efficacy, medication adherence, and BMI in hypertensive older adults. Methods: We followed the recommended guidelines of preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Searches in electronic databases including CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Ovid-Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and other sources were performed to include all relevant studies up to April 2019. Studies selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. We summarized intervention effects as Hedges' g values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software 2.0. Results: Twelve randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. The results revealed that self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, medication adherence, whereas the effect of self-management on BMI was not significant in older adult patients with hypertension. The following Hedges' g (effect size) values were obtained: SBP, -0.34 (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.17, p < 0.001); DBP, -0.18 (95% CI, -0.30 to -0.05, p < 0.001); self-efficacy, 0.93 (95%CI, 0.50 to 1.36, p < 0.001); medication adherence, 1.72 (95%CI, 0.44 to 3.00, p=0.008); and BMI, -0.57 (95%CI, -1.62 to 0.48, p = 0.286). Conclusions: Self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. However, the effects of self-management on obesity control were not supported by the evidence. Healthcare providers should implement self-management interventions to strengthen patients' role in managing their health care.

Keywords: self-management, meta-analysis, blood pressure control, self-efficacy, medication adherence, body mass index

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516 Factors Associated with Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment among HIV Infected Patients in Ukraine

Authors: Larissa Burruano, Sergey Grabovyj, Irina Nguen


The study aimed to assess the level of adherence to anti retroviral therapy (ART) and to examine the relationship between adherence and risk behavior factor (drug use) among patients infected with HIV. The patients with newly diagnosed or established HIV infection under follow-up at the Sumskij Regional Centre for AIDS Prevention in Ukraine were eligible for this study. Medical records were used to measure the patient’s adherence to medication. Measurements were obtained at month 6 and at month 12 to calculate the number of medication omission during the past 30 days: (on a 2-point scale – once until three in a month – were considered adherent, three and more in a month – were considered non-adherent). Of the 50 study participants, 27 (54.0%) were men and 23 (46.0%) women. The mean age is 35.2 years (SD= 5.1). A majority of the patients (82.0%) is in the age group of 25-30 years. The main level of adherence was 74.0% and 66.0% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The main routes of HIV transmission were drug injection among men 12 (44.4%) and sexual contact among women 11 (47.8%). Univariate analyses indicated that patients who had lower level of education were more likely to have been non-adherent at month 6- (X2 =5.1, n=50, p < .05) and at month 12 (X2 = 4.34, n=50, p < .05). Multivariate tests showed that only age (OR= 1.163 [95% CI 0.98–1.370]) was significant independent predictor of treatment adherence, while gender, education, employment status were not predictive for the risk of developing non-compliance. There was not a significant interaction between non-adherence and intravenous drug use. Consistent with these findings, younger people were more likely to have missed a dose of their medication because they had a greater sense of invulnerability than older patients. The study indicates that the socio demographic characteristic should be taken into an account in the future research regarding adherence in the case of HIV infection. If the patient anti retroviral adherence can be improved by qualitatively better medical care in all regions of the Ukraine, behavioral changes in the population can to be expected in the long term.

Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, adherence, Ukraine, Eastern Europe

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515 Epidemiological Correlates of Adherence to Anti-Hypertensive Treatment in Primary Health Care Setting of Ludhiana, Punjab

Authors: Sangeeta Girdhar, Amanat Grewal, Nahush Bansal


Introduction: There is an increasing burden of hypertension in India. The morbidity and mortality arising from complications are mainly due to non-adherence to medication, unhealthy dietary habits, and lack of physical activity. Non-adherence is a well-recognised factor contributing to inadequate control of high blood pressure. Adherence to pharmacotherapy for hypertension varies from 43% to 88%. Non-adherence is influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Understanding these factors is useful in managing non-adherence. Therefore, the study was planned to determine adherence among hypertensives and factors associated with non-adherence to treatment. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Urban Health Training Centre of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana. Patients attending the OPD over a period of 3 months were included in the study. Prior ethical approval was obtained, and informed consent was taken from subjects. A predesigned semi-structured questionnaire was applied, which included socio-demographic profile, treatment-seeking behaviour, adherence to the antihypertensive medication, lifestyle factors (intake of alcohol, smoking, consumption of junk food, high salt intake) contributing to the development of the disease. Reasons for non-adherence to the therapy were also explored. Data was entered into excel, and SPSS 26 version was used for analysis. Results: A total of 186 individuals were interviewed. Out of these, 113 females (60.8%) and 73 males (39.2%) participated in the study. Mean age of participants was 60.9 ± 10.7 years. Adherence to anti-hypertensive treatment was found in 68.3% of the participants. It was observed that adherence was more in literate individuals as compared to illiterate (p value- 0.78). Adherence was lower among smokers (33.3%) and alcohol consumers (53.8%) as compared to non-users (69.4% and 70.6%, respectively). The predominant reasons for skipping medications were discontinuing medication when feeling well, forgetfulness and unawareness. Conclusion: There is a need to generate awareness regarding the importance of adherence to therapy among patients. Intensive health education and counselling of the patients is the need of the hour.

Keywords: hypertension, anti-hypertensive, adherence, counselling

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514 Social Media as a Tool for Medication Adherence and Personal Health Management

Authors: Huang Wei-Chi, Li Wei, Yu Tien-Chieh


Medication adherence is crucial for treatment success. Adherence problem is common in patients with polypharmacy, especially in the geriatric population who are vulnerable to multiple chronic conditions but averagely less knowledgeable about diseases and medications. In order to help patients take medications appropriately and enhance the understanding of diseases or medications, a Line official account named e-Pharmacist was designed. The line is a popular freeware app with the highest penetration rate (95.7%) in Taiwan. The interface of e-Pharmacist is user-friendly for easy-to-read and convenient operating. Differ from other medication adherence apps, users just added e-Pharmacist as a LINE friend without installing any more apps and the drug lists were automatically downloaded from the personal electronic medical records with security permission. Over and above medication reminder, several additional capabilities were set up and engaged in the platform of e-Pharmacist including prescription refill reservation, laboratory examination consultation, medical appointment registration, and “Daily Health Log” where patients can record and track data of blood pressure/blood sugar and daily meals for self-health management as well as can share the important information to clinical professionals when seeking medical help. Additionally, a Line chatbot was utilized to provide tailored medicine information for the individual user. From July 2020 to March 2022, around 3000 patients added e-pharmacist as Line friends. Every day more than 1500 patients receive messages from e-pharmacist to notify them to take medicine. Thanks to the e-pharmacist alert system and Chatbot, the low-compliance patients (defined by Program on Adherence to Medication, PAM) significantly dropped from 36% to 6%, whereas the high-compliance patients dramatically increased from 13% to 77%. The user satisfaction is 98%. In brief, an e-pharmacist is not only a medication reminder but also a tailored personal assistant with value-added service for health management.

Keywords: e-pharmacist, self-health management, medication reminder, value-added service

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513 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto


Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, adherence, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist, Jordan

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512 Prevalence of Non-Adherence among Psychiatric Patients in Jordan: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Tareq L. Mukattash, Karem H. Alzoubi, Ejlal Abu El-Rub, Anan S. Jarab, Sayyer I. Al-Azzam, Maher Khdour, Mohammed Shara, Yazid N. Alhamarneh


Background: It has been estimated that up to 50% of any patient population is at least partially non-adherent to their prescribed treatment. Identifying barriers to adherence is required to develop effective interventions for psychiatric patients. Objective: To explore the prevalence and factors of non-adherence among psychiatric patients present at four psychiatric clinics. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A sample of psychiatric patients attending outpatient psychiatric clinics was enrolled between March and April 2011. Results: A total of 243 psychiatric patients took part in this study with the majority of patients (92.5%) being prescribed more than one psychiatric disorder. The majority (64.2%) of the patients was classified as non-adherent according to the Morisky adherence questionnaire and forgetfulness was the most prevalent reason for that. Conclusions: Non-adherence is a common and important issue among psychiatric patients. Polypharmacy, safety concerns and lack of insight towards the prescribed treatment were reported as the main reasons of non-adherence.

Keywords: medication adherence, psychiatric disorders, clinical pharmacy, polypharmacy

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511 Effects of Medication Reminder Innovation on Adherence and the Quality of Medicine

Authors: Suparpit von Bormann, Winai Sayorwan, Sirichai Channim, Sararat Rungruangkhanarak, Premchai Suksamran, Piyaporn Srisuk, Piyatida Phosri


The best medicine will not work if the patient does not take them. There are several methods developed to help patients to be adherent to medicine. However, non-adherent rate still high: 24% in physically ill and 42% in mentally ill patients. Moreover, patients might feel less confident when carrying medicine around. Normal medicine box has no alarm; whereas the one with alarm is not handy and might be left at home. Therefore, Medication Reminder (MR) was invented. MR is a medicine pocket that has an alarm clock to remind the patient when it is the time to take medicine. It also has a small light indicating the medicine the patient has to take. This pocket is attached within a purse or wallet because most people forget medicine but do not forget to take their money. This research was conducted to develop innovation assisting patients to take their medicine on time. Samples were 24 volunteers who went out to work every day. Uncoated tablets, coated tablets, and capsules were filled in three types of containers: MR, plastic bag with ziplock, and normal plastic box. Each volunteer carried three types of containers everywhere during day time. After three days, medicines were tested for physical quality (appearance, odor, color, hardness, and weight) in laboratory. Medication adherence and satisfaction questionnaires were completed by participants. The results showed that MR showed significant improvement in participants’ adherence than plastic bag with ziplock, and normal plastic box at p < .001 (x̄(SD) = 11.16(0.75), 7.83(0.98), 8.83(1.32), respectively). Based on the quality test, MR and normal plastic box significantly better protected medicine than plastic bag with zip lock at p < .001 (x̄(SD) = 4(0.00), 4(0.00), 2.5(0.54), respectively). Most participants were satisfied with the innovation in highest level (4.50 out of 5). MR has a potential to improve adherent rates of participants and therefore to be an innovation that helps reducing the cost of treatment due to non-adherence. MR also has a potential in commercial aspect due to its effects in preserving quality of medicine. MR can be integrated with local products such as silk purse that can increase income for local people.

Keywords: medication, reminder, adherence, satisfaction

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510 Improving Medication Understanding, Use and Self-Efficacy among Stroke Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial; Study Protocol

Authors: Jamunarani Appalasamy, Tha Kyi Kyi, Quek Kia Fatt, Joyce Pauline Joseph, Anuar Zaini M. Zain


Background: The Health Belief Theory had always been associated with chronic disease management. Various health behaviour concepts and perception branching from this Health Belief Theory had involved with medication understanding, use, and self-efficacy which directly link to medication adherence. In a previous quantitative and qualitative study, stroke patients in Malaysia were found to be strongly believing information obtained by various sources such as the internet and social communication. This action leads to lower perception of their stroke preventative medication benefit which in long-term creates non-adherence. Hence, this study intends to pilot an intervention which uses audio-visual concept incorporated with mHealth service to enhance learning and self-reflection among stroke patients to manage their disease. Methods/Design: Twenty patients will be allocated to a proposed intervention whereas another twenty patients are allocated to the usual treatment. The intervention involves a series of developed audio-visual videos sent via mobile phone which later await for responses and feedback from the receiver (patient) via SMS or recorded calls. The primary outcome would be the medication understanding, use and self-efficacy measured over two months pre and post intervention. Secondary outcome is measured from changes of blood parameters and other self-reported questionnaires. Discussion: This study shall also assess uptake/attrition, feasibility, and acceptability of this intervention. Trial Registration: NMRR-15-851-24737 (IIR)

Keywords: health belief, medication understanding, medication use, self-efficacy

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509 Blood Pressure Level, Targeted Blood Pressure Control Rate, and Factors Related to Blood Pressure Control in Post-Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

Authors: Nannapus Saramad, Rewwadee Petsirasan, Jom Suwanno


Background: This retrospective study design was to describe average blood pressure, blood pressure level, target blood pressure control rate post-stroke BP control in the year following discharge from Sichon hospital, Sichon District, Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The secondary data analysis was employed from the patient’s health records with patient or caregiver interview. A total of 232 eligible post-acute ischemic strokes in the year following discharge (2017-2018) were recruited. Methods: Data analyses were applied to identify the relationship values of single variables were determined through univariate analyses: The Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, the variables found to have a p-value < 0.2 were analyzed by the binary logistic regression Results: Most of the patients in this study were men 61.6%, an average age of 65.4 ± 14.8 years. Systolic blood pressure levels were in the grade 1-2 hypertension and diastolic pressure at optimal and normal at all times during the initial treatment through the present. The results revealed 25% among the groups under the age of 60 achieved BP control; 36.3% for older than 60 years group; and 27.9% for diabetic group. The multivariate analysis revealed the final relationship of four significant variables: 1) receiving calcium-channel blocker (p =.027); 2) medication adherence of antihypertensive (p = .024) 3) medication adherence of antiplatelet ( p = .020); and 4) medication behavior ( p = . 010) . Conclusion: The medical nurse and health care provider should promote their adherence to behavior to improve their blood pressure control.

Keywords: acute ischemic stroke, target blood pressure control, medication adherence, recurrence stroke

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508 Medication Side Effects: Implications on the Mental Health and Adherence Behaviour of Patients with Hypertension

Authors: Irene Kretchy, Frances Owusu-Daaku, Samuel Danquah


Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and a major cause of death and disability worldwide. This study examined whether psychosocial variables influenced patients’ perception and experience of side effects of their medicines, how they coped with these experiences and the impact on mental health and medication adherence to conventional hypertension therapies. Methods: A hospital-based mixed methods study, using quantitative and qualitative approaches was conducted on hypertensive patients. Participants were asked about side effects, medication adherence, common psychological symptoms, and coping mechanisms with the aid of standard questionnaires. Information from the quantitative phase was analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The interviews from the qualitative study were audio-taped with a digital audio recorder, manually transcribed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The themes originated from participant interviews a posteriori. Results: The experiences of side effects – such as palpitations, frequent urination, recurrent bouts of hunger, erectile dysfunction, dizziness, cough, physical exhaustion - were categorized as no/low (39.75%), moderate (53.0%) and high (7.25%). Significant relationships between depression (x 2 = 24.21, P < 0.0001), anxiety (x 2 = 42.33, P < 0.0001), stress (x 2 = 39.73, P < 0.0001) and side effects were observed. A logistic regression model using the adjusted results for this association are reported – depression [OR = 1.9 (1.03 – 3.57), p = 0.04], anxiety [OR = 1.5 (1.22 – 1.77), p = < 0.001], and stress [OR = 1.3 (1.02 – 1.71), p = 0.04]. Side effects significantly increased the probability of individuals to be non-adherent [OR = 4.84 (95% CI 1.07 – 1.85), p = 0.04] with social factors, media influences and attitudes of primary caregivers further explaining this relationship. The personal adoption of medication modifying strategies, espousing the use of complementary and alternative treatments, and interventions made by clinicians were the main forms of coping with side effects. Conclusions: Results from this study show that contrary to a biomedical approach, the experience of side effects has biological, social and psychological interrelations. The result offers more support for the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to healthcare where all forms of expertise are incorporated into health provision and patient care. Additionally, medication side effects should be considered as a possible cause of non-adherence among hypertensive patients, thus addressing this problem from a Biopsychosocial perspective in any intervention may improve adherence and invariably control blood pressure.

Keywords: biopsychosocial, hypertension, medication adherence, psychological disorders

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507 Patients' Interpretation of Prescribed Medication Instructions: A Pilot Study among Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Makanye Clinic in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Charity Ngoatle, Tebogo M. Mothiba, Mahlapahlapana J. Themane


Misapprehension of medications instructions due to poor health literacy is common in diabetic patients, predominantly leading to suboptimal medication therapy caused by taking less than expected, or getting inadequate medication concentration. Globally, 50% of adults have been reported to have misunderstood medication instructions which could be the cause of not using medication as prescribed. Reading material has been found not to improve people’s knowledge to the extent where they would be informed and knowledgeable about their health. This, therefore, depicts that instructive materials alone cannot improve health literacy but further patient education is still needed to explain what the information really mean. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ interpretation of prescribed medication instructions at Makanye Clinic in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study used a mixed method approach. A non-probability purposive and simple random sampling strategies will be used to select ten (10) participants for the pilot study. Semi-structured interviews with a guide and self- administered structured questionnaires will be used to collect data. Tesch’s eight steps for qualitative data analysis and SPSS version 24 with descriptive statistics will be adopted. The preliminary findings from other studies show that: (a) poor health literacy negatively affect medication adherence, (b) general literacy influence health literacy, and (c) there are poor health outcomes and medication adverse effects due to poor medication comprehension.

Keywords: instructions, diabetes mellitus, patients, prescribed medication

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506 Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Adherence and Bleeding Events in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bahagavathula, Abdulla Shehab Sheab, Asim Hassen


Objectives: Non-adherence and discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy lead to increased ischemic stroke risk and contributes to suboptimal outcomes of the anticoagulant treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to investigate the adherence to NOACs and adverse events in patients with AF. Methods: Original research articles conducted on patients with AF and using any NOACs (dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban) reporting adherence for at least 35 days were included. Scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH keywords to obtaining literature researched between 2008 to till June, 2016. Study characteristics, patient’s sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence levels and bleeding events reported were recorded. Results: The overall sample size of the six studies is 1,640,157, with CHADS2 scores < 2 in 551 patients, CHADS2-VASc ≥ 2 in 62,232 AF patients. Three-forth [75.6% (95%CI= 66.5-84.8), p < 0.001] are adherent to NOACs. However, a higher rate [72.7% (62.5-82.9), p < 0.001] of adherence was observed with Dabigatran than Apixaban [59.9% (3.2-123.1), p=0.063] and Rivaroxaban [59.3% (38.7-80.0), p<0.001]. Sub-group analysis revealed that nearly 57% of the AF patients on NOACs have CHADS2 scores < 2 and 20% of these patients were non-adherent to NOACs. Overall bleeding events rate associated with NOACs non-adherent AF patients was found to be 7.5% (0.2-14.8), p=0.045. However, nearly 11.2% of AF patients experienced bleeding events were non-adherent to NOAC medications. A higher proportion of bleeding events were noticed with Dabigatran (14.7%). Conclusions: Adherence rates, while uniformly suboptimal, nevertheless varied considerably, lowest at 59.3% for rivaroxaban and 59.9% for apixaban, followed by dabigatran (75.6%). Overall bleeding events associated with NOACs rates were 7.5%. However, lower adherence to NOACs was associated with worse outcomes among patients with greater stroke risk.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, bleeding events, meta-analysis, novel oral anticoagulants

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505 Multilevel of Factors Affected Optimal Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Suppression amongst HIV-Infected Prisoners in South Ethiopia: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Terefe Fuge, George Tsourtos , Emma Miller


Objectives: Maintaining optimal adherence and viral suppression in people living with HIV (PLWHA) is essential to ensure both preventative and therapeutic benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prisoners bear a particularly high burden of HIV infection and are highly likely to transmit to others during and after incarceration. However, the level of adherence and viral suppression, as well as its associated factors in incarcerated populations in low-income countries is unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of non-adherence and viral failure, and contributing factors to this amongst prisoners in South Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted between June 1, 2019 and July 31, 2020 to compare the level of adherence and viral suppression between incarcerated and non-incarcerated PLWHA. The study involved 74 inmates living with HIV (ILWHA) and 296 non-incarcerated PLWHA. Background information including sociodemographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural, and incarceration-related characteristics was collected using a structured questionnaire. Adherence was determined based on participants’ self-report and pharmacy refill records, and plasma viral load measurements which were undertaken within the study period were prospectively extracted to determine viral suppression. Various univariate and multivariate regression models were used to analyse data. Results: Self-reported dose adherence was approximately similar between ILWHA and non-incarcerated PLWHA (81% and 83% respectively), but ILWHA had a significantly higher medication possession ratio (MPR) (89% vs 75%). The prevalence of viral failure (VF) was slightly higher (6%) in ILWHA compared to non-incarcerated PLWHA (4.4%). The overall dose non-adherence (NA) was significantly associated with missing ART appointments, level of satisfaction with ART services, patient’s ability to comply with a specified medication schedule and types of methods used to monitor the schedule. In ILWHA specifically, accessing ART services from a hospital compared to a health centre, an inability to always attend clinic appointments, experience of depression and a lack of social support predicted NA. VF was significantly higher in males, people of age 31-35 years and in those who experienced social stigma, regardless of their incarceration status. Conclusions: This study revealed that HIV-infected prisoners in South Ethiopia were more likely to be non-adherent to doses and so to develop viral failure compared to their non-incarcerated counterparts. A multitude of factors was found to be responsible for this requiring multilevel intervention strategies focusing on the specific needs of prisoners.

Keywords: Adherence , Antiretroviral therapy, Incarceration, South Ethiopia, Viral suppression

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504 The Association between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Behavior among Patients with Hypertension

Authors: Fazel Zinat Motlagh, Reza Chaman, Rashid Ghafari, Zahra Behzad, Ahmad Ali Eslami


Background: Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform several self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association between self-efficacy and self-care behaviors related to hypertension. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer Ahmad province, the south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients, were randomly selected and participated in the study. Self-care behavior was measured with using H-SCALE (Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects). Logistic regression conducted to detect correlation between self-efficacy and adherence to hypertension self-care behaviors. Results: Less than half (40.8%) of the participants reported that they have good self-efficacy to manage hypertension. Good self-efficacy was significantly associated with improve in adherence to medication (95% CI: 1.68, 1.83), eating a low-salt diet (95% CI: 1.44–1.73), physical activity (95% CI: 1.39–1.55), quit smoking (95% CI: 0.38–0.47), and weight management techniques (95% CI: 0.66–0.82). Conclusion: Hypertension self-efficacy was associated with adherence to self-care behaviors among adult with hypertension. According to our finding hypertension is a manageable condition. Self-efficacy is important factor in adherence with self-care behaviors related with hypertension.

Keywords: self-efficacy, hypertension, self-care, Iran

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503 The Diet Adherence in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Patients in the North of Iran Based on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahboobeh Gholipour, Moona Naghshbandi


Background and objectives: Before any nutritional intervention, it is necessary to have the prospect of eating habits of people with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we assessed the adherence of healthy diet based on Mediterranean dietary pattern and related factors in adults in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 550 men and women with cardiovascular risk factors that referred to Heshmat hospital in Rasht, northern Iran. Information was collected by interview and reading medical history and measuring anthropometric indexes. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener was used for assessing dietary adherence, this screener was modified according to religious beliefs and culture of Iran. Results: The mean age of participants was 58±0.38 years. The mean of body mass index was 27±0.01 kg/m2, and the mean of waist circumference was 98±0.2 cm. The mean of dietary adherence was 5.76±0.07. 45% of participants had low adherence, and just 4% had suitable adherence. The mean of dietary adherence in men was significantly higher than women (p=0. 07). Participants in rural area and high educational participants insignificantly had an unsuitable dietary Adherence. There was no significant association between some cardiovascular disease risk factors and dietary adherence. Conclusion: Education to different group about dietary intake correction and using a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is similar to dietary intake in the north of Iran, for controlling cardiovascular disease is necessary.

Keywords: dietary adherence, Mediterranean dietary pattern, cardiovascular disease, north of Iran

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502 Factors Associated With Poor Glycaemic Control Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at Gatundu Level 5 Hospital. Kiambu County, Kenya: Key Lessons and Way Forward

Authors: Carolyne Ndungu, Wesley Too, Diana Kassaman


Diabetes is a global public health problem with an increasing morbidity and mortality rate across the globe. It is reported that 422 million people worldwide have diabetes with type 2 diabetes more common in people of African descent. Whilst prevalence of diabetes is four times more than it was in the last three decades, making it the world's ninth greatest cause of mortality, treatment of complications resulting from poor glycemic control is still high, contributing to poverty level in sub-Saharan. Poor treatment adherence has also been identified as a major contributing factor poor glycemic control among diabetic patients and still remains a significant challenge especially among patients living in rural Kenya. This study therefore seeks to identify gaps, barriers and challenges towards medication non-adherence among diabetic patients on follow-up at Kiambu County Referral Hospital, Kenya. Methods: A cross- sectional descriptive study was carried out at Gatundu Level five Hospital in Kiambu County. The study population consisted of adult patients with type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on follow up, at the Diabetes clinic between the month of June to July 2022. Systematic sampling of 200 participants was carried out. Ethical approvals from relevant authorities were done and ethical aspects of the study were also observed. Data analysis is ongoing using logistic regression analysis. Results, recommendations -contribution of this study will be highlighted within the next one month.

Keywords: adherence, diabetes, medication, Kenya

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501 Social Support in Adherence to Therapy in Bioenterics Intragastric Balloon

Authors: Mariela González, Zoraide Lugli


Objective: to determine the relationship between perceived social support and adherence to therapy in patients who have been placed BioEnteric intragastric balloon (BIB). Material and method: 75 obese (56 women and 19 men) between 18 and 65 years (M = 39.29, SD = 11.82), who attended five centers in the city of Caracas, where he carried out this procedure. We used Social Support Scale and treatment adherence behavior respectively. The procedure was contacted the centers and the sample was selected. Subsequently, the inventories were applied before and the month after the before and three months after the balloon set. Results: Show that participants were characterized by moderate levels in the variables. On the other hand, those who perceive that they perceived support from friends are those who report adherence to therapy. Conclusions: From the results, it is suggested promote social support networks, which could be essential to achieve and maintain adherence to therapy in patients with BioEnterics intragastric balloon.

Keywords: BioEnteric intragastric balloon, perceived social support, adherence to therapy, patients

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500 Factors Associated with Recruitment and Adherence for Virtual Mindfulness Interventions in Youths

Authors: Kimberly Belfry, Shavon Stafford, Fariha Chowdhury, Jennifer Crawford, Soyeon Kim


Intervention programs are mostly delivered online during the pandemic. Screen fatigue has become a significant deterrent for virtually-deliveredinterventions, and thus, we aimed to examine factors associated with recruitment and adherence toan online mindfulness program for youths. Our preliminary analysis indicated that 40% of interested youths enrolled in the program. No difference in gender and age was found for those enrolled in the program. Adherence rate was approximately 25%, which warrants further examination. Grounding on the preliminary findings, we will conduct a binary logistic regression analysis to identify elements associated with recruitment and adherence. The model will include predictors such as age, sex, recruiter, mental health status, time of the year. Odds ratios and 95% CI will be reported. Our preliminary analysis showed low recruitment and adherence rate. By identifying elements associated with recruitment and adherence, our study provides transferrable information that can improve recruitment and adherence of online-delivered interventions offered during the pandemic.

Keywords: virtual interventions, recruitment, youth, mindfulness

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499 Influence of Causal beliefs on self-management in Korean patients with hypertension

Authors: Hyun-E Yeom


Patients’ views about the cause of hypertension may influence their present and proactive behaviors to regulate high blood pressure. This study aimed to examine the internal structure underlying the causal beliefs about hypertension and the influence of causal beliefs on self-care intention and medical compliance in Korean patients with hypertension. The causal beliefs of 145 patients (M age = 57.7) were assessed using the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. An exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the factor structure of the causal beliefs, and the factors’ influence on self-care intention and medication compliance was analyzed using multiple and logistic regression analyses. The four-factor structure including psychological, fate-related, risk and habitual factors was identified and the psychological factor was the most representative component of causal beliefs. The risk and fate-related factors were significant factors affecting lower intention to engage in self-care and poor compliance with medication regimens, respectively. The findings support the critical role of causal beliefs about hypertension in driving patients’ current and future self-care behaviors. This study highlights the importance of educational interventions corresponding to patients’ awareness of hypertension for improving their adherence to a healthy lifestyle and medication regimens.

Keywords: hypertension, self-care, beliefs, medication compliance

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498 Handling Patient's Supply during Inpatient Stay: Using Lean Six Sigma Techniques to Implement a Comprehensive Medication Handling Program

Authors: Erika Duggan


A Major Hospital had identified that there was no standard process for handling a patient’s medication that they brought with them to the hospital. It was also identified that each floor was handling the patient’s medication differently and storing it in multiple locations. Based on this disconnect many patients were leaving the hospital without their medication. The project team was tasked with creating a cohesive process to send a patient’s unneeded medication home on admission, storing any of the patient’s medication that could not be sent home, storing any of the patient’s medication for inpatient administration, and sending all of the patient’s medication home on discharge. The project team consisted of pharmacists, RNs, LPNs, members from nursing informatics and a project engineer and followed a DMAIC framework. Working together observations were performed to identify what was working and not working on the different floors which resulted in process maps. Using the multidisciplinary team, brainstorming, including affinity diagramming and other lean six sigma techniques, the best process for receiving, storing, and returning the medication was created. It was highlighted that being able to track the medication throughout the patient’s stay would be beneficial and would help make sure the medication left with the patient on discharge. Using an automated medications dispensing system would help store, and track patient’s medications. Also, the use of a specific order that would show up on the discharge instructions would assist the front line staff in retrieving the medication from a set location and sending it home with the patient. This new process will effectively streamline the admission and discharge process for patients who brought their medication with them as well as effectively tracking the medication during the patient’s stay. As well as increasing patient safety as it relates to medication administration.

Keywords: lean six sigma, medication dispensing, process improvement, process mapping

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497 The Impact of E-Learning on Medication Administration of Nursing Students

Authors: Z. Karakus, Z. Ozer


Nurses are responsible for the care and treatment of individuals, as well as health maintenance and education. Medication administration is an important part of health promotion. The administration of a medicine is a common but important clinical procedure for nurses because of its complex structure. Therefore, medication errors are inevitable for nurses or nursing students. Medication errors can cause ineffective treatment, patient’s prolonged hospital stay, disablement, or death. Additionally, medication errors affect the global economy adversely by increasing health costs. Hence, preventing or decreasing of medication errors is a critical and essential issue in nursing. Nurse educators are in pursuit of new teaching methods to teach students significance of medication application. In the light of technological developments of this age, e-learning has started to be accepted as an important teaching method. E-learning is the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies in education. It has advantages such as flexibility of time and place, lower costs, faster delivery, and lower environmental impact. Students can make their own schedule and decide the learning method. This study is conducted to determine the impact of e-learning on medication administration of nursing students.

Keywords: e-learning, medication administration, nursing, nursing students

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
496 The Role of Defense Mechanisms in Treatment Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Exploratory Study

Authors: F. Marchini, A. Caputo, J. Balonan, F. Fedele, A. Napoli, V. Langher


Aim: The present study aims to explore the specific role of defense mechanisms in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in treatment adherence. Materials and methods: A correlational study design was employed. Thirty-two persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and assessed with Defense Mechanism Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Self-Care Inventory-Revised. Bivariate correlation and two-step regression analyses were performed. Results: Treatment adherence negatively correlates with hetero-directed hostility (r= -.537; p < .01), whereas it is positively associated with principalization (r= .407; p < .05). These two defense mechanisms overall explain an incremental variance of 26.9% in treatment adherence (ΔF=4.189, df1=2, df2 =21, p < .05), over and above the control variables for depression and alexithymia. However, only higher hetero-directed hostility is found to be a solid predictor of a decreased treatment adherence (β=-.497, p < .05). Conclusions: Despite providing preliminary results, this pilot study highlights the original contribution of defense mechanisms in adherence to type 2 diabetes regimens. Specifically, hetero-directed hostility may relate to an unconscious process, according to which disease-related painful feelings are displaced onto care relationships with negative impacts on adherence.

Keywords: alexithymia, defense mechanisms, treatment adherence, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
495 A Survey of Types and Causes of Medication Errors and Related Factors in Clinical Nurses

Authors: Kouorsh Zarea, Fatemeh Hassani, Samira Beiranvand, Akram Mohamadi


Background and Objectives: Medication error in hospitals is a major cause of the errors which disrupt the health care system. The aim of this study was to assess the nurses’ medication errors and related factors. Material and methods: This was a descriptive study on 225 nurses in various hospitals, selected through multistage random sampling. Data was collected by three researcher made tools; demographic, medication error and related factors questionnaires. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, One-way analysis of variance. Results: Based on the results obtained, the type of medication errors giving drugs to patients later or earlier (55.6%), multiple oral medication together regardless of their interactions (36%) and the postoperative analgesic without a prescription (34.2%), respectively. In addition, factors such as the shortage of nurses to patients’ ratio (57.3%), high load functions (51.1%) and fatigue caused by the extra work (40.4%), were the most important factors affecting the incidence of medication errors. The fear of legal issues (40%) are the most important factor is the lack of reported medication errors. Conclusions: Based on the results, effective management and promotion motivate nurses. Therefore, increasing scientific and clinical expertise in the field of nursing medication orders is recommended to prevent medication errors in various states of nursing intervention. Employing experienced staff in areas with high risk of medication errors and also supervising less-experienced staff through competent personnel are also suggested.

Keywords: medication error, nurse, clinical care, drug errors

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494 A Witty Relief Ailment Based on the Integration of IoT and Cloud

Authors: Sai Shruthi Sridhar, A. Madhumidha, Kreethika Guru, Priyanka Sekar, Ananthi Malayappan


Numerous changes in technology and its recent development are structuring long withstanding effect to our world, one among them is the emergence of “Internet of Things” (IoT). Similar to Technology world, one industry stands out in everyday life–healthcare. Attention to “quality of health care” is an increasingly important issue in a global economy and for every individual. As per WHO (World Health Organization) it is estimated to be less than 50% adhere to the medication provided and only about 20% get their medicine on time. Medication adherence is one of the top problems in healthcare which is fixable by use of technology. In recent past, there were minor provisions for elderly and specially-skilled to get motivated and to adhere medicines prescribed. This paper proposes a novel solution that uses IOT based RFID Medication Reminder Solution to provide personal health care services. This employs real time tracking which offer quick counter measures. The proposed solution builds on the recent digital advances in sensor technologies, smart phones and cloud services. This novel solution is easily adoptable and can benefit millions of people with a direct impact on the nation’s health care expenditure with innovative scenarios and pervasive connectivity.

Keywords: cloud services, IoT, RFID, sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 268