Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 807

Search results for: pronunciation errors

807 Error Analysis of Pronunciation of French by Sinhala Speaking Learners

Authors: Chandeera Gunawardena

Abstract:

The present research analyzes the pronunciation errors encountered by thirty Sinhala speaking learners of French on the assumption that the pronunciation errors were systematic and they reflect the interference of the native language of the learners. The thirty participants were selected using random sampling method. By the time of the study, the subjects were studying French as a foreign language for their Bachelor of Arts Degree at University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The participants were from a homogenous linguistics background. All participants speak the same native language (Sinhala) thus they had completed their secondary education in Sinhala medium and during which they had also learnt French as a foreign language. A battery operated audio tape recorder and a 120-minute blank cassettes were used for recording. A list comprised of 60 words representing all French phonemes was used to diagnose pronunciation difficulties. Before the recording process commenced, the subjects were requested to familiarize themselves with the words through reading them several times. The recording was conducted individually in a quiet classroom and each recording approximately took fifteen minutes. Each subject was required to read at a normal speed. After the completion of recording, the recordings were replayed to identify common errors which were immediately transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Results show that Sinhala speaking learners face problems with French nasal vowels and French initial consonants clusters. The learners also exhibit errors which occur because of their second language (English) interference.

Keywords: error analysis, pronunciation difficulties, pronunciation errors, Sinhala speaking learners of French

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806 Stop Consonants in Chinese and Slovak: Contrastive Analysis by Using Praat

Authors: Maria Istvanova

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The acquisition of the correct pronunciation in Chinese is closely linked to the initial phase of the study. Based on the contrastive analysis, we determine the differences in the pronunciation of stop consonants in Chinese and Slovak taking into consideration the place and manner of articulation to gain a better understanding of the students' main difficulties in the process of acquiring correct pronunciation of Chinese stop consonants. We employ the software Praat for the analysis of the recorded samples with an emphasis on the pronunciation of the students with a varying command of Chinese. The comparison of the VOT length for the individual consonants in the students' pronunciation and the pronunciation of the native speaker exposes the differences between the correct pronunciation and the deviant pronunciation of the students.

Keywords: Chinese, contrastive analysis, Praat, pronunciation, Slovak.

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
805 Anxiety and Self-Perceived L2 Proficiency: A Comparison of Which Can Better Predict L2 Pronunciation Performance

Authors: Jiexuan Lin, Huiyi Chen

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The development of L2 pronunciation competence remains understudied in the literature and it is not clear what may influence learners’ development of L2 pronunciation. The present study was an attempt to find out which of the two common factors in L2 acquisition, i.e., foreign language anxiety or self-perceived L2 proficiency, can better predict Chinese EFL learners’ pronunciation performance. 78 first-year English majors, who had received a three-month pronunciation training course, were asked to 1) fill out a questionnaire on foreign language classroom anxiety, 2) self-report their L2 proficiency in general, in speaking and in pronunciation, and 3) complete an oral and a written test on their L2 pronunciation (the score of the oral part indicates participants’ pronunciation proficiency in oral production, and the score of the written part indexes participants’ ability in applying pronunciation knowledge in comprehension.) Results showed that the pronunciation scores were negatively correlated with the anxiety scores, and were positively correlated with the self-perceived pronunciation proficiency. But only the written scores in the L2 pronunciation test, not the oral scores, were positively correlated with the L2 self-perceived general proficiency. Neither the oral nor the written scores in the L2 pronunciation test had a significant correlation with the self-perceived speaking proficiency. Given the fairly strong correlations, the anxiety scores and the self-perceived pronunciation proficiency were put in regression models to predict L2 pronunciation performance. The anxiety factor alone accounted for 13.9% of the variance and the self-perceived pronunciation proficiency alone explained 12.1% of the variance. But when both anxiety scores and self-perceived pronunciation proficiency were put in a stepwise regression model, only the anxiety scores had a significant and unique contribution to the L2 pronunciation performance (4.8%). Taken together, the results suggested that the learners’ anxiety level could better predict their L2 pronunciation performance, compared with the self-perceived proficiency levels. The obtained data have the following pedagogical implications. 1) Given the fairly strong correlation between anxiety and L2 pronunciation performance, the instructors who are interested in predicting learners’ L2 pronunciation proficiency may measure their anxiety level, instead of their proficiency, as the predicting variable. 2) The correlation of oral scores (in the pronunciation test) with pronunciation proficiency, rather than with speaking proficiency, indicates that a) learners after receiving some amounts of training are to some extent able to evaluate their own pronunciation ability, implying the feasibility of incorporating self-evaluation and peer comments in course instruction; b) the ‘proficiency’ measure used to predict pronunciation performance should be used with caution. The proficiency of specific skills seemingly highly related to pronunciation (i.e., speaking in this case) may not be taken for granted as an effective predictor for pronunciation performance. 3) The correlation between the written scores with general L2 proficiency is interesting.

Keywords: anxiety, Chinese EFL learners, L2 pronunciation, self-perceived L2 proficiency

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804 Investigating the Pronunciation of '-S' and '-Ed' Suffixes in Yemeni English

Authors: Saif Bareq, Vivek Mirgane

Abstract:

The present paper seeks to explicate the pronunciation of the ‘-s’ and ‘-ed’ suffixes when applied in their relative places in word endings. It attempts to investigate the problems faced by Yemenis in the pronunciation of these suffixes in all occurrences and realizations. It discusses the realization of ‘s’ in the four areas of plural, 3rd person singular and genitive markers, and contraction of ‘has’ and ‘is’ as in he’s, it’s ..,etc. and shows how they are differently represented by three different sounds /s/, /z/ and /z/ based on the phonological structure of the words in which they occur. Similarly, it explains the realization of the ‘-ed’ suffix of the past and past participle marker and how it is realized differently by three sounds governed by the phonological structure of these words. Besides, it tries to shed some light on the English morphophonemic and phonological rules that govern the pronunciation of such troublesome endings. It is hypothesized that the absence of such phenomenon in the mother tongue pronunciation of these suffixes.

Keywords: Suffixes' Pronunciation, Phonological Structure, Phonological Rules, Morpho-Phonemics, Yemeni English

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803 EFL Learners' Attitudes towards the Proper Pronunciation of English and towards Podcasts as a Facilitator for Proper Pronunciation

Authors: Riam Almaqrn, Abdulrahman Alshabeb

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The study aims to examine the attitudes of Saudi students of English towards proper pronunciation and towards podcasts as a facilitator for proper pronunciation. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, twenty-three students participated in this study. The study used a questionnaire as the main data collection instrument. The questionnaire included two parts, one or proper pronunciation and the other for podcasts. Data analysis showed that the participants, in spite of the low rate of improvement in their pronunciation, had positive attitudes towards proper pronunciation of English. This outcome is compatible with previous studies` results that assert the fact that having a positive attitude towards a particular language and its speakers can improve pronunciation. As for podcasts, students received a total of five podcasts related to their listening and speaking textbook. At the end of the project, students showed high rate of acceptance for podcasts and positive attitudes towards them. The findings proved the usefulness of examining learners` attitudes towards new CALL applications before using them in a practical way. In the light of the findings, pedagogical implications and suggestions were presented for language instructors and academics.

Keywords: CALL, MALL, podcast, learning English

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
802 Adaption Model for Building Agile Pronunciation Dictionaries Using Phonemic Distance Measurements

Authors: Akella Amarendra Babu, Rama Devi Yellasiri, Natukula Sainath

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Where human beings can easily learn and adopt pronunciation variations, machines need training before put into use. Also humans keep minimum vocabulary and their pronunciation variations are stored in front-end of their memory for ready reference, while machines keep the entire pronunciation dictionary for ready reference. Supervised methods are used for preparation of pronunciation dictionaries which take large amounts of manual effort, cost, time and are not suitable for real time use. This paper presents an unsupervised adaptation model for building agile and dynamic pronunciation dictionaries online. These methods mimic human approach in learning the new pronunciations in real time. A new algorithm for measuring sound distances called Dynamic Phone Warping is presented and tested. Performance of the system is measured using an adaptation model and the precision metrics is found to be better than 86 percent.

Keywords: pronunciation variations, dynamic programming, machine learning, natural language processing

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801 Phonetics Problems and Solutions for 5th Grade Students of Turkish Language as a Foreign Language in Demirel College in 2015-2016 Academic Year

Authors: Huseyin Demir

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Foreign language learners are able to make mistakes in their pronunciation and writing when they encounter with alphabetical indications that are not available in their own language. The fifth-grade students who learn Turkish language at Demirel College in Georgia constitute the concrete example. ‘F’, ‘y’, ‘ö’, ‘ü’ letters in the Turkish alphabet are the most common mistakes they make. After a careful comparative linguistic study, it was found out that the mistakes caused by the fact that these signs were not available in Georgian. These problems have been tried to be solved through comparative language teaching method by using the pronunciation possibilities in other languages, which are spoken or known by students. First of all, other languages known by students are identified, the similar pronunciation difficulties in Turkish are also found in those languages in order to minimize the pronunciation problem in Turkish, pronunciation possibilities are that are available in those language are utilized. In this context, visual animations are made for pronunciation of English words such as year (yr), earn (örn), fair (fêir) and made student familiar with pronunciation with these words through repetition. With this study, it is observed that student’s motivation has been increased and with these indications, student’s mistakes are minimized.

Keywords: pronunciation, Demirel college, motivations, Turkish as a foreign language

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
800 The Effect of Using LDOCE on Iranian EFL Learners’ Pronunciation Accuracy

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Mahmoodi, Elahe Saedpanah

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Since pronunciation is among those factors that can have strong effects on EFL learners’ successful communication, instructional programs with accurate pronunciation purposes seem to be a necessity in any L2 teaching context. The widespread use of smart mobile phones brings with itself various educational applications, which can assist foreign language learners in learning and speaking another language other than their L1. In line with this supportive innovation, the present study investigated the role of LDOCE (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English), a mobile application, on improving Iranian EFL learners’ pronunciation accuracy. To this aim, 40 EFL learners studying English at the intermediate level participated in the current study. This was an experimental research with two groups of 20 students in an experimental and a control group. The data were collected through the administration of a pronunciation pretest before the instruction and a post-test after the treatment. In addition, the assessment was based on the pupils’ recorded voices while reading the selected words. The results of the independent samples t-test indicated that using LDOCE significantly affected Iranian EFL learners' pronunciation accuracy with those in the experimental group outperforming their control group counterparts.

Keywords: LDOCE, EFL learners, pronunciation accuracy, CALL, MALL

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799 Difficulties in Teaching and Learning English Pronunciation in Sindh Province, Pakistan

Authors: Majno Ajbani

Abstract:

Difficulties in teaching and learning English pronunciation in Sindh province, Pakistan Abstract Sindhi language is widely spoken in Sindh province, and it is one of the difficult languages of the world. Sindhi language has fifty-two alphabets which have caused a serious issue in learning and teaching of English pronunciation for teachers and students of Colleges and Universities. This study focuses on teachers’ and students’ need for extensive training in the pronunciation that articulates the real pronunciation of actual words. The study is set to contribute in the sociolinguistic studies of English learning communities in this region. Data from 200 English teachers and students was collected by already tested structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS 20 software. The data analysis clearly demonstrates the higher range of inappropriate pronunciations towards English learning and teaching. The anthropogenic responses indicate 87 percentages teachers and students had an improper pronunciation. This indicates the substantial negative effects on academic and sociolinguistic aspects. It is suggested an improper speaking of English, based on rapid changes in geopolitical and sociocultural surroundings.

Keywords: alphabets, pronunciation, sociolinguistic, anthropogenic, imprudent, malapropos

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798 Problems of Learning English Vowels Pronunciation in Nigeria

Authors: Wasila Lawan Gadanya

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This paper examines the problems of learning English vowel pronunciation. The objective is to identify some of the factors that affect the learning of English vowel sounds and their proper realization in words. The theoretical framework adopted is based on both error analysis and contrastive analysis. The data collection instruments used in the study are questionnaire and word list for the respondents (students) and observation of some of their lecturers. All the data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. The findings show that it is not a single factor that affects the learning of English vowel pronunciation rather many factors concurrently do so. Among the factors examined, it has been found that lack of correlation between English orthography and its pronunciation, not mother-tongue (which most people consider as a factor affecting learning of the pronunciation of a second language), has the greatest influence on students’ learning and realization of English vowel sounds since the respondents in this study are from different ethnic groups of Nigeria and thus speak different languages but having the same or almost the same problem when pronouncing the English vowel sounds.

Keywords: English vowels, learning, Nigeria, pronunciation

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797 Error Analysis of the Pronunciation of English Consonants and Arabic Consonants by Egyptian Learners

Authors: Marwa A. Nasser

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This is an empirical study that provides an investigation of the most significant errors of Egyptian learners in producing English consonants and Arabic consonants, and advice on how these can be remedied. The study adopts a descriptive approach and the analysis is based on audio recordings of two groups of people. The first group includes six volunteers of Egyptian learners belonging to the English Department at Faculty of Women who learn English as a foreign language. The other group includes six Egyptian learners who are studying Tajweed (how to recite Quran correctly). The audio recordings were examined, and sounds were analyzed in an attempt to highlight the most common error done by the learners while reading English or reading (or reciting) Quran. Results show that the two groups of learners have problems with certain phonemic contrasts. Both groups share common errors although both languages are different and not related (e.g. pre-aspiration of fortis stops, incorrect articulation of consonants and velarization of certain sounds).

Keywords: consonant articulations, Egyptian learners of English, Egyptian learners of Quran, empirical study, error analysis, pronunciation problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
796 Still Pictures for Learning Foreign Language Sounds

Authors: Kaoru Tomita

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This study explores how visual information helps us to learn foreign language pronunciation. Visual assistance and its effect for learning foreign language have been discussed widely. For example, simplified illustrations in textbooks are used for telling learners which part of the articulation organs are used for pronouncing sounds. Vowels are put into a chart that depicts a vowel space. Consonants are put into a table that contains two axes of place and manner of articulation. When comparing a still picture and a moving picture for visualizing learners’ pronunciation, it becomes clear that the former works better than the latter. The visualization of vowels was applied to class activities in which native and non-native speakers’ English was compared and the learners’ feedback was collected: the positions of six vowels did not scatter as much as they were expected to do. Specifically, two vowels were not discriminated and were arranged very close in the vowel space. It was surprising for the author to find that learners liked analyzing their own pronunciation by linking formant ones and twos on a sheet of paper with a pencil. Even a simple method works well if it leads learners to think about their pronunciation analytically.

Keywords: feedback, pronunciation, visualization, vowel

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
795 A Genre-Based Approach to the Teaching of Pronunciation

Authors: Marden Silva, Danielle Guerra

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Some studies have indicated that pronunciation teaching hasn’t been paid enough attention by teachers regarding EFL contexts. In particular, segmental and suprasegmental features through genre-based approach may be an opportunity on how to integrate pronunciation into a more meaningful learning practice. Therefore, the aim of this project was to carry out a survey on some aspects related to English pronunciation that Brazilian students consider more difficult to learn, thus enabling the discussion of strategies that can facilitate the development of oral skills in English classes by integrating the teaching of phonetic-phonological aspects into the genre-based approach. Notions of intelligibility, fluency and accuracy were proposed by some authors as an ideal didactic sequence. According to their proposals, basic learners should be exposed to activities focused on the notion of intelligibility as well as intermediate students to the notion of fluency, and finally more advanced ones to accuracy practices. In order to test this hypothesis, data collection was conducted during three high school English classes at Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), in Brazil, through questionnaires and didactic activities, which were recorded and transcribed for further analysis. The genre debate was chosen to facilitate the oral expression of the participants in a freer way, making them answering questions and giving their opinion about a previously selected topic. The findings indicated that basic students demonstrated more difficulty with aspects of English pronunciation than the others. Many of the intelligibility aspects analyzed had to be listened more than once for a better understanding. For intermediate students, the speeches recorded were considerably easier to understand, but nevertheless they found it more difficult to pronounce the words fluently, often interrupting their speech to think about what they were going to say and how they would talk. Lastly, more advanced learners seemed to express their ideas more fluently, but still subtle errors related to accuracy were perceptible in speech, thereby confirming the proposed hypothesis. It was also seen that using genre-based approach to promote oral communication in English classes might be a relevant method, considering the socio-communicative function inherent in the suggested approach.

Keywords: EFL, genre-based approach, oral skills, pronunciation

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
794 English 2A Students’ Oral Presentation Errors: Basis for English Policy Revision

Authors: Marylene N. Tizon

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English instructors pay attention on errors committed by students as errors show whether they know or master their oral skills and what difficulties they may have in the process of learning the English language. This descriptive quantitative study aimed at identifying and categorizing the oral presentation errors of the purposively chosen 118 English 2A students enrolled during the first semester of school year 2013 – 2014. The analysis of the data for this study was undertaken using the errors committed by the students in their presentation. Marking and classifying of errors were made by first classifying them into linguistic grammatical errors then all errors were categorized further into Surface Structure Errors Taxonomy with the use of Frequency and Percentage distribution. From the analysis of the data, the researcher found out: Errors in tenses of the verbs (71 or 16%) and in addition 167 or 37% were most frequently uttered by the students. And Question and negation mistakes (12 or 3%) and misordering errors (28 or 7%) were least frequently enunciated by the students. Thus, the respondents in this study most frequently enunciated errors in tenses and in addition while they uttered least frequently the errors in question, negation, and misordering.

Keywords: grammatical error, oral presentation error, surface structure errors taxonomy, descriptive quantitative design, Philippines, Asia

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793 Knowledge Required for Avoiding Lexical Errors at Machine Translation

Authors: Yukiko Sasaki Alam

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This research aims at finding out the causes that led to wrong lexical selections in machine translation (MT) rather than categorizing lexical errors, which has been a main practice in error analysis. By manually examining and analyzing lexical errors outputted by a MT system, it suggests what knowledge would help the system reduce lexical errors.

Keywords: machine translation, error analysis, lexical errors, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
792 Thai Prosody Problems with First-Year Students

Authors: Jiraporn Adchariyaprasit

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Thai language is difficult in all four language skills, especially reading. The first year students may have different abilities in reading, so a teacher is required to find out a student’s reading level so that the teacher can help and support them till they can develop and resolve each problem themselves. This research is aimed to study the prosody problem among Thai students and will be focused on first year Thai students in the second semester. A total of 58 students were involved in this study. Four obstacles were found: 1) Interpretation from what they read and write; 2) Incorrectness Pronunciation of Prosody; 3) Incorrectness in Rhythm of the Poem; Incorrectness of the Thai Poem Pronunciation.

Keywords: pronunciation, prosody, interpretation, Thai language

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791 Error Analysis in English Essays Writing of Thai Students with Different English Language Experiences

Authors: Sirirat Choophan Atthaphonphiphat

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The objective of the study is to analyze errors in English essay writing of Thai (Suratthani Rajabhat University)’s students with different English language experiences. 16 subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on their English language experience. The data were collected from English essay writing about 'My daily life'. The finding shows that 275 tokens of errors were found from 240 English sentences. The errors were categorized into 4 types based on frequency counts: grammatical errors, mechanical errors, lexical errors, and structural errors, respectively. The findings support all of the researcher’s hypothesizes, i.e. 1) the students with low English language experience made more errors than those with high English language experience; 2) all errors in English essay writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students, the interlingual errors are more than the intralingual ones; 3) systemic and structural differences between English (target language) and Thai (mother-tongue language) lead to the errors in English essays writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students.

Keywords: applied linguistics, error analysis, interference, language transfer

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790 Feedback Preference and Practice of English Majors’ in Pronunciation Instruction

Authors: Claerchille Jhulia Robin

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This paper discusses the perspective of ESL learners towards pronunciation instruction. It sought to determine how these learners view the type of feedback their speech teacher gives and its impact on their own classroom practice of providing feedback. This study utilized a quantitative-qualitative approach to the problem. The respondents were Education students majoring in English. A survey questionnaire and interview guide were used for data gathering. The data from the survey was tabulated using frequency count and the data from the interview were then transcribed and analyzed. Results showed that ESL learners favor immediate corrective feedback and they do not find any issue in being corrected in front of their peers. They also practice the same corrective technique in their own classroom.

Keywords: ESL, feedback, learner perspective, pronunciation instruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
789 Experimental Research and Analyses of Yoruba Native Speakers’ Chinese Phonetic Errors

Authors: Obasa Joshua Ifeoluwa

Abstract:

Phonetics is the foundation and most important part of language learning. This article, through an acoustic experiment as well as using Praat software, uses Yoruba students’ Chinese consonants, vowels, and tones pronunciation to carry out a visual comparison with that of native Chinese speakers. This article is aimed at Yoruba native speakers learning Chinese phonetics; therefore, Yoruba students are selected. The students surveyed are required to be at an elementary level and have learned Chinese for less than six months. The students selected are all undergraduates majoring in Chinese Studies at the University of Lagos. These students have already learned Chinese Pinyin and are all familiar with the pinyin used in the provided questionnaire. The Chinese students selected are those that have passed the level two Mandarin proficiency examination, which serves as an assurance that their pronunciation is standard. It is discovered in this work that in terms of Mandarin’s consonants pronunciation, Yoruba students cannot distinguish between the voiced and voiceless as well as the aspirated and non-aspirated phonetics features. For instance, while pronouncing [ph] it is clearly shown in the spectrogram that the Voice Onset Time (VOT) of a Chinese speaker is higher than that of a Yoruba native speaker, which means that the Yoruba speaker is pronouncing the unaspirated counterpart [p]. Another difficulty is to pronounce some affricates like [tʂ]、[tʂʰ]、[ʂ]、[ʐ]、 [tɕ]、[tɕʰ]、[ɕ]. This is because these sounds are not in the phonetic system of the Yoruba language. In terms of vowels, some students find it difficult to pronounce some allophonic high vowels such as [ɿ] and [ʅ], therefore pronouncing them as their phoneme [i]; another pronunciation error is pronouncing [y] as [u], also as shown in the spectrogram, a student pronounced [y] as [iu]. In terms of tone, it is most difficult for students to differentiate between the second (rising) and third (falling and rising) tones because these tones’ emphasis is on the rising pitch. This work concludes that the major error made by Yoruba students while pronouncing Chinese sounds is caused by the interference of their first language (LI) and sometimes by their lingua franca.

Keywords: Chinese, Yoruba, error analysis, experimental phonetics, consonant, vowel, tone

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788 The Study of Formal and Semantic Errors of Lexis by Persian EFL Learners

Authors: Mohammad J. Rezai, Fereshteh Davarpanah

Abstract:

Producing a text in a language which is not one’s mother tongue can be a demanding task for language learners. Examining lexical errors committed by EFL learners is a challenging area of investigation which can shed light on the process of second language acquisition. Despite the considerable number of investigations into grammatical errors, few studies have tackled formal and semantic errors of lexis committed by EFL learners. The current study aimed at examining Persian learners’ formal and semantic errors of lexis in English. To this end, 60 students at three different proficiency levels were asked to write on 10 different topics in 10 separate sessions. Finally, 600 essays written by Persian EFL learners were collected, acting as the corpus of the study. An error taxonomy comprising formal and semantic errors was selected to analyze the corpus. The formal category covered misselection and misformation errors, while the semantic errors were classified into lexical, collocational and lexicogrammatical categories. Each category was further classified into subcategories depending on the identified errors. The results showed that there were 2583 errors in the corpus of 9600 words, among which, 2030 formal errors and 553 semantic errors were identified. The most frequent errors in the corpus included formal error commitment (78.6%), which were more prevalent at the advanced level (42.4%). The semantic errors (21.4%) were more frequent at the low intermediate level (40.5%). Among formal errors of lexis, the highest number of errors was devoted to misformation errors (98%), while misselection errors constituted 2% of the errors. Additionally, no significant differences were observed among the three semantic error subcategories, namely collocational, lexical choice and lexicogrammatical. The results of the study can shed light on the challenges faced by EFL learners in the second language acquisition process.

Keywords: collocational errors, lexical errors, Persian EFL learners, semantic errors

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787 Evaluation of Medication Errors in Outpatient Pharmacies: Electronic Prescription System vs. Paper System

Authors: Mera Ababneh, Sayer Al-Azzam, Karem Alzoubi, Abeer Rababa'h

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Background: Medication errors are among the most common medical errors. Their occurrences result in patient’s mortality, morbidity, and additional healthcare costs. Continuous monitoring and detection is required. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare medication errors in outpatient’s prescriptions in two different hospitals (paper system vs. electronic system). Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study conducted in two major hospitals; King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) and Princess Bassma Teaching Hospital (PBTH) over three months period. Data collection was conducted by two trained pharmacists at each site. During the study period, medication prescriptions and dispensing procedures were screened for medication errors in both participating centers by two trained pharmacist. Results: In the electronic prescription hospital, 2500 prescriptions were screened in which 631 medication errors were detected. Prescription errors were 231 (36.6%), and dispensing errors were 400 (63.4%) of all errors. On the other side, analysis of 2500 prescriptions in paper-based hospital revealed 3714 medication errors, of which 288 (7.8%) were prescription errors, and 3426 (92.2%) were dispensing errors. A significant number of 2496 (67.2%) were inadequately and/or inappropriately labeled. Conclusion: This study provides insight for healthcare policy makers, professionals, and administrators to invest in advanced technology systems, education, and epidemiological surveillance programs to minimize medication errors.

Keywords: medication errors, prescription errors, dispensing errors, electronic prescription, handwritten prescription

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
786 British English vs. American English: A Comparative Study

Authors: Halima Benazzouz

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It is often believed that British English and American English are the foremost varieties of the English Language serving as reference norms for other varieties;that is the reason why they have obviously been compared and contrasted.Meanwhile,the terms “British English” and “American English” are used differently by different people to refer to: 1) Two national varieties each subsuming regional and other sub-varieties standard and non-standard. 2) Two national standard varieties in which each one is only part of the range of English within its own state, but the most prestigious part. 3) Two international varieties, that is each is more than a national variety of the English Language. 4) Two international standard varieties that may or may not each subsume other standard varieties.Furthermore,each variety serves as a reference norm for users of the language elsewhere. Moreover, without a clear identification, as primarily belonging to one variety or the other, British English(Br.Eng) and American English (Am.Eng) are understood as national or international varieties. British English and American English are both “variants” and “varieties” of the English Language, more similar than different.In brief, the following may justify general categories of difference between Standard American English (S.Am.E) and Standard British English (S.Br.e) each having their own sociolectic value: A difference in pronunciation exists between the two foremost varieties, although it is the same spelling, by contrast, a divergence in spelling may be recognized, eventhough the same pronunciation. In such case, the same term is different but there is a similarity in spelling and pronunciation. Otherwise, grammar, syntax, and punctuation are distinctively used to distinguish the two varieties of the English Language. Beyond these differences, spelling is noted as one of the chief sources of variation.

Keywords: Greek, Latin, French pronunciation expert, varieties of English language

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785 Comparative Study of Affricate Initial Consonants in Chinese and Slovak

Authors: Maria Istvanova

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The purpose of the comparative study of the affricate consonants in Chinese and Slovak is to increase the awareness of the main distinguishing features between these two languages taking into consideration this particular group of consonants. This study determines the main difficulties of the Slovak learners in the process of acquiring correct pronunciation of affricate initial consonants in Chinese based on the understanding of the distinguishing features of Chinese and Slovak affricates in combination with the experimental measuring of VOT values. The software tool Praat is used for the analysis of the recorded language samples. The language samples contain recordings of a Chinese native speaker and Slovak students of Chinese with different language proficiency levels. Based on the results of the analysis in Praat, the study identifies erroneous pronunciation and provide clarification of its cause.

Keywords: Chinese, comparative study, initial consonants, pronunciation, Slovak

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784 Spelling Errors of EFL Students: An Insight into Curriculum Development

Authors: Sheikha Ali Salim Al-Breiki

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The purpose of this study was to explore the types of the spelling errors students of grade ten make and to find out whether there were any significant differences between males and females with respect to the types of the spelling errors made. The sample of the study included 90 grade ten students from four different schools in North Batinah. The researcher manipulated the use of a test that consisted of two questions: an oral dictation test of 70 words with a contextualizing sentence and a free writing task. The misspellings were classified into nine different types. The findings revealed that the most common spelling errors among Omani grade ten students were vowel substitution, then came vowel omission in the second place and consonant substitution in the third place. Male students omitted more vowels than female students while females made more true word errors than their male counterparts. In light of the findings, the study presents some recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

Keywords: types of spelling errors, errors, ESL/EFL, error analysis

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783 Error Analysis: Examining Written Errors of English as a Second Language (ESL) Spanish Speaking Learners

Authors: Maria Torres

Abstract:

After the acknowledgment of contrastive analysis, Pit Coder’s establishment of error analysis revolutionized the way instructors analyze and examine students’ writing errors. One question that relates to error analysis with speakers of a first language, in this case, Spanish, who are learning a second language (English), is the type of errors that these learners make along with the causes of these errors. Many studies have looked at the way the native tongue influences second language acquisition, but this method does not take into account other possible sources of students’ errors. This paper examines writing samples from an advanced ESL class whose first language is Spanish at non-profit organization, Learning Quest Stanislaus Literacy Center. Through error analysis, errors in the students’ writing were identified, described, and classified. The purpose of this paper was to discover the type and origin of their errors which generated appropriate treatments. The results in this paper show that the most frequent errors in the advanced ESL students’ writing pertain to interlanguage and a small percentage from an intralanguage source. Lastly, the least type of errors were ones that originate from negative transfer. The results further solidify the idea that there are other errors and sources of errors to account for rather than solely focusing on the difference between the students’ mother and target language. This presentation will bring to light some strategies and techniques that address the issues found in this research. Taking into account the amount of error pertaining to interlanguage, an ESL teacher should provide metalinguistic awareness of the students’ errors.

Keywords: error analysis, ESL, interlanguage, intralangauge

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782 Francophone University Students' Attitudes Towards English Accents in Cameroon

Authors: Eric Agrie Ambele

Abstract:

The norms and models for learning pronunciation in relation to the teaching and learning of English pronunciation are key issues nowadays in English Language Teaching in ESL contexts. This paper discusses these issues based on a study on the attitudes of some Francophone university students in Cameroon towards three English accents spoken in Cameroon: Cameroon Francophone English (CamFE), Cameroon English (CamE), and Hyperlectal Cameroon English (near standard British English). With the desire to know more about the treatment that these English accents receive among these students, an aspect that had hitherto received little attention in the literature, a language attitude questionnaire, and the matched-guise technique was used to investigate this phenomenon. Two methods of data analysis were employed: (1) the percentage count procedure, and (2) the semantic differential scale. The findings reveal that the participants’ attitudes towards the selected accents vary in degree. Though Hyperlectal CamE emerged first, CamE second and CamFE third, no accent, on average, received a negative evaluation. It can be deduced from this findings that, first, CamE is gaining more and more recognition and can stand as an autonomous accent; second, that the participants all rated Hyperlectal CamE higher than CamE implies that they would be less motivated in a context where CamE is the learning model. By implication, in the teaching of English pronunciation to francophone learners learning English in Cameroon, Hyperlectal Cameroon English should be the model.

Keywords: teaching pronunciation, English accents, Francophone learners, attitudes

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781 The Mirage of Progress? a Longitudinal Study of Japanese Students’ L2 Oral Grammar

Authors: Robert Long, Hiroaki Watanabe

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This longitudinal study examines the grammatical errors of Japanese university students’ dialogues with a native speaker over an academic year. The L2 interactions of 15 Japanese speakers were taken from the JUSFC2018 corpus (April/May 2018) and the JUSFC2019 corpus (January/February). The corpora were based on a self-introduction monologue and a three-question dialogue; however, this study examines the grammatical accuracy found in the dialogues. Research questions focused on a possible significant difference in grammatical accuracy from the first interview session in 2018 and the second one the following year, specifically regarding errors in clauses per 100 words, global errors and local errors, and with specific errors related to parts of speech. The investigation also focused on which forms showed the least improvement or had worsened? Descriptive statistics showed that error-free clauses/errors per 100 words decreased slightly while clauses with errors/100 words increased by one clause. Global errors showed a significant decline, while local errors increased from 97 to 158 errors. For errors related to parts of speech, a t-test confirmed there was a significant difference between the two speech corpora with more error frequency occurring in the 2019 corpus. This data highlights the difficulty in having students self-edit themselves.

Keywords: clause analysis, global vs. local errors, grammatical accuracy, L2 output, longitudinal study

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780 Features of Normative and Pathological Realizations of Sibilant Sounds for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Evaluation in Children

Authors: Zuzanna Miodonska, Michal Krecichwost, Pawel Badura

Abstract:

Sigmatism (lisping) is a speech disorder in which sibilant consonants are mispronounced. The diagnosis of this phenomenon is usually based on the auditory assessment. However, the progress in speech analysis techniques creates a possibility of developing computer-aided sigmatism diagnosis tools. The aim of the study is to statistically verify whether specific acoustic features of sibilant sounds may be related to pronunciation correctness. Such knowledge can be of great importance while implementing classifiers and designing novel tools for automatic sibilants pronunciation evaluation. The study covers analysis of various speech signal measures, including features proposed in the literature for the description of normative sibilants realization. Amplitudes and frequencies of three fricative formants (FF) are extracted based on local spectral maxima of the friction noise. Skewness, kurtosis, four normalized spectral moments (SM) and 13 mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) with their 1st and 2nd derivatives (13 Delta and 13 Delta-Delta MFCC) are included in the analysis as well. The resulting feature vector contains 51 measures. The experiments are performed on the speech corpus containing words with selected sibilant sounds (/ʃ, ʒ/) pronounced by 60 preschool children with proper pronunciation or with natural pathologies. In total, 224 /ʃ/ segments and 191 /ʒ/ segments are employed in the study. The Mann-Whitney U test is employed for the analysis of stigmatism and normative pronunciation. Statistically, significant differences are obtained in most of the proposed features in children divided into these two groups at p < 0.05. All spectral moments and fricative formants appear to be distinctive between pathology and proper pronunciation. These metrics describe the friction noise characteristic for sibilants, which makes them particularly promising for the use in sibilants evaluation tools. Correspondences found between phoneme feature values and an expert evaluation of the pronunciation correctness encourage to involve speech analysis tools in diagnosis and therapy of sigmatism. Proposed feature extraction methods could be used in a computer-assisted stigmatism diagnosis or therapy systems.

Keywords: computer-aided pronunciation evaluation, sigmatism diagnosis, speech signal analysis, statistical verification

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779 Language Switching Errors of Bilinguals: Role of Top down and Bottom up Process

Authors: Numra Qayyum, Samina Sarwat, Noor ul Ain

Abstract:

Bilingual speakers generally can speak both languages with the same competency without mixing them intentionally and making mistakes, but sometimes errors occur in language selection. This quantitative study particularly deals with the language errors made by Urdu-English bilinguals. In this research, researchers have given special attention to the part played by bottom-up priming and top-down cognitive control in these errors. Unstable Urdu-English bilingual participants termed pictures and were prompted to shift from one language to another under the pressure of time. Different situations were given to manipulate the participants. The long and short runs trials of the same language were also given before switching to another language. The study is concluded with the findings that bilinguals made more errors when switching to the first language from their second language, and these errors are large in number, especially when a speaker is switching from L2 (second language) to L1 (first language) after a long run. When the switching is reversed, i.e., from L2 to LI, it had no effect at all. These results gave the clear responsibility of all these errors to top-down cognitive control.

Keywords: bottom up priming, language error, language switching, top down cognitive control

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778 Understanding Relationships between Listening to Music and Pronunciation Learning: An Investigation Based upon Japanese EFL Learners' Self-Evaluation

Authors: Hirokatsu Kawashima

Abstract:

In an attempt to elucidate relationships between listening to music and pronunciation learning, a classroom-based investigation was conducted with Japanese EFL learners (n=45). The subjects were instructed to listen to English songs they liked on YouTube, especially paying attention to phonologically similar vowel and consonant minimal pair words (e.g., live and leave). This kind of activity, which included taking notes, was regularly carried out in the classroom, and the same kind of task was given to the subjects as homework in order to reinforce the in-class activity. The duration of these activities was eight weeks, after which the program was evaluated on a 9-point scale (1: the lowest and 9: the highest) by learners’ self-evaluation. The main questions for this evaluation included 1) how good the learners had been at pronouncing vowel and consonant minimal pair words originally, 2) how often they had listened to songs good for pronouncing vowel and consonant minimal pair words, 3) how frequently they had moved their mouths to vowel and consonant minimal pair words of English songs, and 4) how much they thought the program would support and enhance their pronunciation learning of phonologically similar vowel and consonant minimal pair words. It has been found, for example, A) that the evaluation of this program is by no means low (Mean: 6.51 and SD: 1.23), suggesting that listening to music may support and enhance pronunciation learning, and B) that listening to consonant minimal pair words in English songs and moving the mouth to them are more related to the program’s evaluation (r =.69, p=.00 and r =.55, p=.00, respectively) than listening to vowel minimal pair words in English songs and moving the mouth to them (r =.45, p=.00 and r =.39, p=.01, respectively).

Keywords: minimal pair, music, pronunciation, song

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