Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14300

Search results for: compulsory schooling system

14300 A Short History of Recorder Education in Taiwan: A Qualitative Research about the Process of the Recorder Move into the Compulsory Schooling System

Authors: Jen-Fu Lee

Abstract:

From the 1980s, the ministry of education in Taiwan moves the instrument ‘Recorder’ into the 9-year compulsory schooling system. The recorder is widely popularized successfully in Taiwan. The research aims to document the history of how the recorder came into Taiwan, what the process of the recorder moving into the schooling system is; what the meaning for the recorder moving into the schooling system is by searching the papers about the recorder in Taiwan and interviewing the people who had participated the process. The research discovers that the recorder in Taiwan was popularized nongovernmental by Shang-Ren, Wang. Shang-Ren, Wang imported 200 recorders from Japan in 1982 and then founded a publishing house which publishes the books and sheets about the recorder in 1983. The reason of Shang-Ren, Wang committed to popularizing the recorder is to spread the Orff Approach in Taiwan. Except for the technique of playing the recorder, the knowledge of the history of the recorder and the role that it plays in Early Music is not available in school. The recorder only plays a ‘Cheap and Easy’ instrument which is suitable for the schooling system in Taiwan, cannot develop to a professional instrument.

Keywords: recorder, Taiwan, Shang-Ren, Wang, compulsory schooling system

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14299 The Importance of Compulsory Pre-School Education from the Parents’ Perspective in the Czech Republic

Authors: Beata Horníckova, Sona Lorencova

Abstract:

The study deals with the presentation of the results of quantitatively oriented research. The research was conducted as part of a questionnaire survey with the aim to find out what are the attitudes of parents to compulsory preschool education in the Czech Republic. This research presents results from the area of importance of compulsory pre-school education from the parents’ perspective. The research method was a questionnaire, which was distributed to respondents through an online platform. The research involved 107 parents, who answered a total of 36 questions that found out their attitudes to last year’s compulsory preschool attendance. The results show that compulsory pre-school attendance has increased the importance of pre-school education. However, the results also show that the compulsory last year of pre-school education is not more important according to parents than in previous years. Most participants consider compulsory pre-school attendance to be important and are happy that their child attends it. The results reveal the fact that the introduction of compulsory pre-school attendance has contributed to the importance of parents’ perceptions of pre-primary education.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education of pre-school children, kindergarten, parents

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14298 Virtual Schooling as a Collaboration between Public Schools and the Scientific Community

Authors: Thomas A. Fuller

Abstract:

Over the past fifteen years, virtual schooling has been introduced and implemented in varying degrees throughout the public education system in the United States. It is possible in some states for students to voluntarily take all of their course load online, without ever having to step in a classroom. Experts foresee a dramatic rise in the number of courses taken online by public school students in the United States, with some predicting that by 2019 as many as 50% of public high school courses will be delivered online. This electronic delivery of public education offers tremendous potential to the scientific community because it calls for innovation and is funded by public school revenue. Public accountability provides a ready supply of statistical data for measuring the progress of virtual schools as they are implemented into the public school arena. This allows for a survey of the current use of virtual schooling through examination of past statistical data, as well as forecasting forward for future years based upon this past data. Virtual schooling is on the rise in the United States, but its growth has been tempered by practical problems of implementation. The greatest and best use of virtual schooling thus far has been to supplement the courses offered by public schools (e.g., offering unique language courses, elective courses, and games-based math and science courses). The weaknesses of virtual schooling lay in the problematic accountability in allowing students to take courses online at home and the lack of supportive infrastructure in the public school arena. Virtual schooling holds great promise for the public school education system in the United States, as well as the scientific community. Online courses allow students access to a much greater catalog of courses than is offered through classroom instruction in their local public school. This promising sector needs assistance from the scientific community in implementing new pedagogical methodologies.

Keywords: virtual schools, online classroom, electronic delivery, technological innovation

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14297 Achievement Goal Orientations of Schooling Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Development

Authors: Iniye Irene Wodi, Allen A. Agih

Abstract:

Goal theory perspective as an emerging trend in students’ motivation explores reasons why students engage in achievement related behaviour. While previous research typifies students’ goal orientations into two dimensions of mastery and performance orientations in various other parts of the world, not much has been done in this regard in Nigeria and specifically in Bayelsa state to the best of the researcher’s knowledge. To this end, the study explores the achievement goal orientations of schooling adolescents in Bayelsa State. The sample of the study consists of 220 schooling adolescents drawn from four urban schools in the state. A modified form of the Patterns of Adaptive learning survey (PALS) questionnaire was used to elicit data. Results indicated that schooling adolescents in Bayelsa state are mastery as well as performance oriented. The students also did not differ in goal orientations by gender. The implications of this for sustainable development were highlighted.

Keywords: achievement goals, goal orientations, schooling adolescents, sustainable development

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14296 Parents' Expectations from Compulsory Pre-School Education in the Slovak Republic

Authors: Sona Lorencova, Beata Hornickova

Abstract:

The study deals with the presentation of the results of qualitatively oriented research, the aim of which was to find out the attitudes of parents to the planned compulsory pre-school education in the Slovak Republic. The research was conceived as an entry into the field of the researched issue and its aim was to support the validity and effectiveness of items in the questionnaire, which was created based on the statements of parents. The research method was an interview with 15 parents whose children attended kindergarten. The main question of the interviews was to find out what are the parents' expectations from compulsory pre-school education, which will be compulsory in the Slovak Republic from 2021 for all 5-year-old children. From the introduction of compulsory pre-school education, the professional public expects in particular greater participation of children from marginalized Roma communities in pre-school education, as well as children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, better preparation of children for primary school and better results in international testing. The research found that the expectations of parents are different and depend on their socio-economic status, in accordance with which they place greater importance on the upbringing and education of children. The findings from interviews with parents contributed to the formulation of items in the questionnaire, which will be distributed to parents whose children will attend compulsory pre-school education in the Slovak Republic from 2021.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, kindergarten, education of pre-school children, parental expectations from pre-school education

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14295 Parents' Attitude toward Compulsory Pre-School Education in Slovakia

Authors: Sona Lorencova, Beata Hornickova

Abstract:

Compulsory pre-school education in Slovakia will be established by the Education Act for all five-year-old children from September 2021. The implementation of this law will change pre-school education in our country from optional to compulsory, and children will be able to complete this education either in institutional form school facilities or in the form of individual education at the request of the parent. The primary purpose of this change is that all children achieve pre-school education before entering primary school, thus eliminating differences between children before entering primary school. The benefits of introducing compulsory pre-school education are obvious to the professional public. However, as this fundamental change in children's education is perceived by parents who have a prime position in the upbringing and education of their children, research pays minimal attention. The aim of the study is to interpret the findings of quantitatively oriented research, which was focused on finding out the attitudes of parents to the planned introduction of compulsory preschool education in Slovakia. The data were obtained through questionnaires primarily intended for parents of preschool children. In the distributed questionnaire, the degree of agreement or disagreement with individual items could be expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of the research present how perceived compulsory pre-school education is perceived by the parental public in Slovakia and what perspectives and limitations parents anticipate after its introduction.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education act, childs' learning and development, kindergarten, parents' perspectives

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14294 Parents’ Opinions on Compulsory Pre-school Attendance in the Czech Republic

Authors: Beata Hornickova, Sona Lorencova

Abstract:

The study deals with the presentation of the results of qualitatively oriented research, which was carried out in the scope of determining the attitudes of parents to preschool education in the Czech Republic. The research is conceived as an entry into the field of the researched issue and aimed to support the effectiveness of the items of the questionnaire, which was subsequently created based on the parents’ statements from interviews. The research method was interview with 15 parents of preschool children. The main aim of the interviews was to find out their views on the compulsory attendance of their children in kindergarten. Compulsory pre-school attendance has been introduced in the Czech Republic since 2017/18 with the aim of reducing delays in the entry of children into primary school and eliminating subsequent school failures. The findings offered a look at the differing views on compulsory kindergarten school influenced by the different socio-economic status of parents. Parents with a higher socio-economic status attached greater importance to the educational component of compulsory preschool attendance as a preparation for primary school, while parents with a lower socio-economic status emphasized the educational component. An interesting finding is also a statement from interviews of a parent who does not find benefits in compulsory preschool attendance.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education of pre-school children, kindergarten, parents’ opinions on pre-school education

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14293 Queering Alterity: Engaging Pluralism to Move Beyond Gender Binaries in the Classroom

Authors: A. K. O'Loughlin

Abstract:

In Simone de Beauvoir’s climatic 1959 meditation, The Second Sex, she avows that 'On ne naît pas femme; on le devient,' translated most recently in the unabridged text (2010) as 'One is not born, but rather becomes, woman.' The signifier ‘woman’ in this context, signifies Beauvoir’s contemplation of the institution, the concept of woman(ness) defined in relation to the binary and hegemonic man(ness.) She is 'the other.' This paper is a theoretical contemplation of (1) how we actively teach 'othering' in the institution of schooling and (2) new considerations of pluralism for self-reflection and subversion that teachers, in particular, are faced with. How, in schooling, do we learn one’s options for racialized, classed and sexualized gender identification and the hierarchical signification that define these signifiers? Just like the myth of apolitical schooling, we cannot escape teaching social organization in the classroom. Yet, we do have a choice. How do we as educators learn about our own embodied intersectionalities? How do we unlearn our own binaries? How do we teach about intersectional gender? How do we teach 'the other'? We posit the processes of these reflections by educators may move our classrooms beyond binaries, engage pluralism and queer alterity itself.

Keywords: othering, alterity, education, schooling, identity, racialization, gender, intersectionality, pluralism

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14292 Conscription or Constriction: Perception of Students on the Reinforcement of Compulsory Military Service

Authors: Krista Mae F. Ramos, Lance Micaiah C. Dauz, Gylza Nicole D. Bautista, Rua R. Galang, Jeric Xyrus G. Karganilla

Abstract:

With the recent proclamation of the possible reinforcement of Compulsory Military Service in the Philippines, debates and societal talks rose and circulated as opinions and perceptions regarding the topic continue to clash. This study aims to determine the perception of the youth on its reimplementation and identify various advantages and disadvantages based on their perspective. The responses were gathered through a virtual call interview, underwent the process of thematization, and were categorized into different themes. Results reflect that the students perceive compulsory military service as a necessity for national defense but requires a long time that can hinder their education and needs a strong foundation to be implemented and sustained. The participants acknowledged that the practice would instill discipline, patriotism, and nationalism, develop an individual’s physical abilities, provide skills and knowledge and improve a person’s self-defense. However, there are also concerns regarding the prominent military shaping and abuse, their loss of freedom of choice, and the chances of health deterioration.

Keywords: compulsory, military, service, reinforcement, perception

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14291 Parental Involvement in Schooling of Female Students and its Impact on Their Achievement at Elementary Level

Authors: Aroona Hashmi

Abstract:

Parental Involvement is a strategic key to both traditional and contemporary way of ‘face-to-face’ schooling, including public/private schools and home schooling. Present research is destined to find out whether this connection happens in Pakistani schools, a land which faces educational hurdles. This study aims to find out the parental involvement in schooling of female students and its impact on their achievement at elementary level. In this study quantitative research approach is used. Survey is conducted by utilizing reliable and valid instrument named as Parental Involvement Project Questionnaire (PIP). A stratified random sampling technique applied to select twenty schools in total from District Lahore. Schools were selected from public and private sectors. All selected schools were registered with Punjab Examination Commission (PEC), therefore standardized tests are conducted by PEC for class 8 every year in Punjab province, Pakistan. In total 1000 students and their 1000 parents constituted the sample. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 17. T-test and Regression was applied to independent samples to test the null hypotheses. The result of this study indicated that parents of female students showed more involvement as compared to parents of male students at elementary level. There was significant difference in the impact of parental involvement on achievement of female students and male students i.e. there was more impact of parental involvement found on achievement of female students as compared to male students.

Keywords: parental involvement, achievement, schooling, elementary level, PEC

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14290 Lateralisation of Visual Function in Yellow-Eyed Mullet (Aldrichetta forsteri) and Its Role in Schooling Behaviour

Authors: Karen L. Middlemiss, Denham G. Cook, Peter Jaksons, Alistair Jerrett, William Davison

Abstract:

Lateralisation of cognitive function is a common phenomenon found throughout the animal kingdom. Strong biases in functional behaviours have evolved from asymmetrical brain hemispheres which differ in structure and/or cognitive function. In fish, lateralisation is involved in visually mediated behaviours such as schooling, predator avoidance, and foraging, and is considered to have a direct impact on species fitness. Currently, there is very little literature on the role of lateralisation in fish schools. The yellow-eyed mullet (Aldrichetta forsteri), is an estuarine and coastal species found commonly throughout temperate regions of Australia and New Zealand. This study sought to quantify visually mediated behaviours in yellow-eyed mullet to identify the significance of lateralisation, and the factors which influence functional behaviours in schooling fish. Our approach to study design was to conduct a series of tank based experiments investigating; a) individual and population level lateralisation, b) schooling behaviour, and d) optic lobe anatomy. Yellow-eyed mullet showed individual variation in direction and strength of lateralisation in juveniles, and trait specific spatial positioning within the school was evidenced in strongly lateralised fish. In combination with observed differences in schooling behaviour, the possibility of ontogenetic plasticity in both behavioural lateralisation and optic lobe morphology in adults is suggested. These findings highlight the need for research into the genetic and environmental factors (epigenetics) which drive functional behaviours such as schooling, feeding and aggression. Improved knowledge on collective behaviour could have significant benefits to captive rearing programmes through improved culture techniques and will add to the limited body of knowledge on the complex ecophysiological interactions present in our inshore fisheries.

Keywords: cerebral asymmetry, fisheries, schooling, visual bias

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14289 Understanding the Multilingualism of the Mauritian Multilingual Primary School Learner and Translanguaging: A Linguistic Ethnographic Study

Authors: Yesha Devi Mahadeo-Doorgakant

Abstract:

The Mauritian landscape is well-known for its multilingualism with the daily interaction of the number of languages that are used in the island; namely Kreol Morisien, the European languages (English and French) and the Oriental/Asian languages (Hindi, Arabic/Urdu, Tamil, Telegu, Marathi, Mandarin, etc.). However, within Mauritius’ multilingual educational system, English is the official medium of instruction while French is taught as compulsory subject till upper secondary and oriental languages are offered as optional languages at primary level. Usually, Mauritians choose one oriental language based on their ethnic/religious identity, when they start their primary schooling as an additional language to learn. In January 2012, Kreol Morisien, which is the considered the language of daily interaction of the majority of Mauritians, was introduced as an optional subject at primary level, taught at the same time as the oriental languages. The introduction of Kreol Morisien has spurred linguistic debates about the issue of multilingualism within the curriculum. Taking this into account, researchers have started pondering on the multilingual educational system of the country and questioning whether the current language curriculum caters for the complex everyday linguistic reality of the multilingual Mauritian learner, given most learners are embedded within an environment where the different languages interact with each other daily. This paper, therefore, proposes translanguaging as being a more befitting theoretical lens through which the multilingualism and the linguistic repertoire of Mauritian learners’ can best be understood.

Keywords: multilingualism, translanguaging, multilingual learner, linguistic ethnography

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14288 Pre-Grade R Numerosity Levels and Gaps: A Case of South African Learners in the Eastern Cape

Authors: Nellie Nosisi Feza

Abstract:

Developing young students' number sense is a priority if the aim is to build a rich mathematical foundation for successful schooling and future innovative careers. Capturing students’ interests is crucial while mediating counting concepts. This paper reports South African young children number concepts demonstrated before entering the reception class. It indicates the diverse knowledge attained in different settings before entering formal schooling. The findings indicate that their start is uneven with fully and partly attained number concepts. The findings suggest pre-schooling stimulation that provides rich mathematical experiences and purposeful play towards the attainment of core foundational concepts. Literature directs practice on important core concepts that are foundational in developing number sense.

Keywords: numeracy, learning trajectories, innate abilities, counting, Grade R/reception class

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14287 Software Quality Measurement System for Telecommunication Industry in Malaysia

Authors: Nor Fazlina Iryani Abdul Hamid, Mohamad Khatim Hasan

Abstract:

Evolution of software quality measurement has been started since McCall introduced his quality model in year 1977. Starting from there, several software quality models and software quality measurement methods had emerged but none of them focused on telecommunication industry. In this paper, the implementation of software quality measurement system for telecommunication industry was compulsory to accommodate the rapid growth of telecommunication industry. The quality value of the telecommunication related software could be calculated using this system by entering the required parameters. The system would calculate the quality value of the measured system based on predefined quality metrics and aggregated by referring to the quality model. It would classify the quality level of the software based on Net Satisfaction Index (NSI). Thus, software quality measurement system was important to both developers and users in order to produce high quality software product for telecommunication industry.

Keywords: software quality, quality measurement, quality model, quality metric, net satisfaction index

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14286 A Critique of Contemporary Sexual Liberation: A Third Way Analysis

Authors: Sydelle Barreto

Abstract:

Sexual liberation has been thought of as a movement, an idea, and an antithesis of material oppression. Within feminism it has consistently resisted definition - different feminist schools of thought had entirely different constructions of what liberated feminine sexuality could look like and how we might get there. This paper will critique the current definition of sexual liberation as being limited and carceral in its perspectives of sexual assault and extremely reductive in its imaginings of sexual liberation. The ultimate goal of this assessment is to potentially outline what true sexual liberation might look like in a way that is inclusive but not ignorant of the realities of the patriarchy. The first critique of sexual liberation included in the paper centers around the limits of consent, carceral feminism and sexual subjectivity. The argument will build off the traditionally sex-negative critiques of consent as being limited in scope by explaining how a lack of nuance is even more dangerous to victims of sexual violations. The discussion will also expand an interrogant of consent to an interrogation of wantedness and desire. If we understand that critiquing the conditions of consent is important, we must also critique the way patriarchy and compulsory sexuality have affected desire. Using the aforementioned concept of compulsory sexuality, the paper will argue that while sexual liberation has begun to include queer and transgender individuals, it is still overwhelmingly allonormative. Sex positivity and its opponents both fail to include asexuality. This ultimately leads to a conflation of sexual liberation with genuine material liberation. Just as we cannot divorce our constructions of sexual liberation from the realities of the patriarchy and rape culture, we should consider compulsory sexuality as its own system of social regulation. The conclusion will begin to construct an alternative vision of sexual liberation, leveraging concepts of sexual subjectivity, including a rejection of carceral feminism as a response to sexual violence, and finally, leading to the beginnings of a deconstruction of compulsory sexuality. The paper concludes with a vision of sexual liberation that does not confuse itself with material liberation or mere sexual oppression, but rather a key way stops on the road to constructing our most authentic sexual selves.

Keywords: feminism, sexual assault, sexual liberation, consent

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14285 Home Education in the Australian Context

Authors: Abeer Karaali

Abstract:

This paper will seek to clarify important key terms such as home schooling and home education as well as the legalities attached to such terms. It will reflect on the recent proposed changes to terminology in NSW, Australia. The various pedagogical approaches to home education will be explored including their prominence in the Australian context. There is a strong focus on literature from Australia. The historical background of home education in Australia will be explained as well as the difference between distance education and home education. The statistics related to home education in Australia will be explored in the scope and compared to the US. The future of home education in Australia will be discussed.

Keywords: alternative education, e-learning, home education, home schooling, online resources, technology

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14284 Empowering 21st Century Students with Self-Employability Skill Competencies in an Era of Uncertainties of Paid Employment Jobs

Authors: Pac Ordu

Abstract:

The paper was conceived on the premise that employment of tertiary education graduates has become an endemic problem in Nigeria. Recognizing the objective of current education as schooling for paid employment, the paper identified that the basic objective of present-day education should be schooling to become self-employed. While schooling to become a successful employee was identified as the focus for the older generation, schooling to become self-employed was defined as the focus for 21st-century teaching and learning. Hence, the paper condemned the inability of curriculum implementers to teach creative trends to enable students to acquire practical skills and small business operation-oriented competencies. A review of some disciplines was made to show the new trend of education that would empower Nigerian students with small business enterprise operation skills for self-employment on graduation. This was further made to draw the attention of institutions and curriculum designers to the need for our curriculum to be functional in line with demands of the innovative economic environment. The paper also noted that at periods of recession with its attendant effects, was the best period for students of entrepreneurship to dream and create their small business enterprises. It highlighted the role of Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria and the national recognition it has received for developing an innovative, practical model of teaching entrepreneurship education in Nigeria Colleges of Education system. In order to equip students for economic survival on graduation, the introduction of innovative teaching can only be successful if lecturers shift their focus away from the conventional emphasis on theory to students’ energy quotients. While the paper obviously recommended that lecturers should be creative and teach outside the curriculum box, it further recommended that students should use this period of their studentship to dream, create and operate their own small business enterprises.

Keywords: 21st century students, curriculum, entrepreneurship, hands-on-training, innovative

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14283 Indigenous Childhood: Upbringing and Schooling in Two Indigenous Communities from Argentina (Qom and Mbyá)

Authors: Ana Carolina Hecht, Noelia Enriz, Mariana Garcia Palacios

Abstract:

The South American anthropology has been recently focused to research with children in different contexts. In our researches with children from indigenous communities in the lowlands and highlands of South America (Qom and Mbyá), we especially considered social categories that define the different ways of being a boy and a girl. In this way, we built an approach to disrupt monolithic models of childhood. The aim of this paper is to tackle the first stage of life, demarcated from their nominal references and from the upbringing and formative experiences in which children participate. So, we will focus on the network of social relations in the period of childhood, making especial focus on language develops, religion, schooling and games. The crossing of our different thematic interests allows us to consider the complexity of knowledge and skills that come into play during the development of children. Methodologically, this text is based on an ethnographic approach, with frequent visits and periods of cohabitation, for more than a decade with Mbyá and Qom people, who lives within indigenous communities in the provinces of Chaco, Buenos Aires and Misiones, in Argentina. We made participant observation and interviews with children and their families, with the objective to include children's voices in our researches about the whole community.

Keywords: chidhood, indigenous people, schooling, upbringing

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14282 Social Skills as a Significant Aspect of a Successful Start of Compulsory Education

Authors: Eva Šmelová, Alena Berčíková

Abstract:

The issue of school maturity and readiness of a child for a successful start of compulsory education is one of the long-term monitored areas, especially in the context of education and psychology. In the context of the curricular reform in the Czech Republic, the issue has recently gained importance. Analyses of research in this area suggest a lack of a broader overview of indicators informing about the current level of children’s school maturity and school readiness. Instead, various studies address partial issues. Between 2009 and 2013 a research study was performed at the Faculty of Education, Palacký University Olomouc (Czech Republic) focusing on children’s maturity and readiness for compulsory education. In this study, social skills were of marginal interest; the main focus was on the mental area. This previous research is smoothly linked with the present study, the objective of which is to identify the level of school maturity and school readiness in selected characteristics of social skills as part of the adaptation process after enrolment in compulsory education. In this context, the following research question has been formulated: During the process of adaptation to the school environment, which social skills are weakened? The method applied was observation, for the purposes of which the authors developed a research tool – record sheet with 11 items – social skills that a child should have by the end of preschool education. The items were assessed by first-grade teachers at the beginning of the school year. The degree of achievement and intensity of the skills were assessed for each child using an assessment scale. In the research, the authors monitored a total of three independent variables (gender, postponement of school attendance, participation in inclusive education). The effect of these independent variables was monitored using 11 dependent variables. These variables are represented by the results achieved in selected social skills. Statistical data processing was assisted by the Computer Centre of Palacký University Olomouc. Statistical calculations were performed using SPSS v. 12.0 for Windows and STATISTICA: StatSoft STATISTICA CR, Cz (software system for data analysis). The research sample comprised 115 children. In their paper, the authors present the results of the research and at the same time point to possible areas of further investigation. They also highlight possible risks associated with weakened social skills.

Keywords: compulsory education, curricular reform, educational diagnostics, pupil, school curriculum, school maturity, school readiness, social skills

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14281 5iD Viewer: Observation of Fish School Behaviour in Labyrinths and Use of Semantic and Syntactic Entropy for School Structure Definition

Authors: Dalibor Štys, Kryštof M. Stys, Maryia Chkalova, Petr Kouba, Aliaxandr Pautsina, Dalibor Štys Jr., Jana Pečenková, Denis Durniev, Tomáš Náhlík, Petr Císař

Abstract:

In this article, a construction and some properties of the 5iD viewer, the system recording simultaneously five views of a given experimental object is reported. Properties of the system are demonstrated on the analysis of fish schooling behavior. It is demonstrated the method of instrument calibration which allows inclusion of image distortion and it is proposed and partly tested also the method of distance assessment in the case that only two opposite cameras are available. Finally, we demonstrate how the state trajectory of the behavior of the fish school may be constructed from the entropy of the system.

Keywords: 3D positioning, school behavior, distance calibration, space vision, space distortion

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14280 The Mental Health Policy in the State of EspíRito Santo, Brazil: Judicialization

Authors: Fabiola Xavier Leal, Lara Campanharo, Sueli Aparecida Rodrigues Lucas

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The phenomenon of judicialization in health policy brings with it a great deal of problematization, but in general, it means that some issues that were previously solved by traditional political bodies are being decided by the Judiciary bodies. It is, therefore, a controversial topic that has generated many reflections both in the academic and political fields, considering that not only a dispute of public funds is at stake, but also the debate on access to social rights provided for in the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988 and in the various public policies, such as healthcare. With regard to the phenomenon in the Mental Health Policy focusing on people who use drugs, the disputes that permeate this scenario are evident: moral, cultural, sanitary, economic, psychological aspects. There are also the individual and collective dimensions of suffering. And in this process, we all question: What is the role of the Brazilian State in this matter? In this context, another question that needs to be answered is the amount spent on this procedure in the state of Espírito Santo (ES), Brazil (in the last 04 years, around R$121,978,591.44 were paid only for compulsory hospitalization of individuals) in the field in question, which is the financing of the services of the Psychosocial Care Network (RAPS). Therefore, this article aims to problematize the phenomenon of judicialization in Mental Health Policy through the compulsory hospitalization of people who use drugs in Espírito Santo (ES). We proposed a study that sought to understand how this has been occurring and making an impact on the provision of RAPS services in the Espírito Santo scenario. Therefore, the general objective of this study is to analyze the expenses with compulsory hospitalizations for drug use carried out by the State Health Department (SESA) between 2014 and 2019, in which we will seek to identify its destination and the impact of these actions on public health policy. For the purposes of this article, we will present the preliminary data of this study, such as the amount spent by the state and the receiving institutions. For data collection, the following data sources were used: documents available publicly on the Transparency Portal (payments made per year, institutions that received, subjects hospitalized, period and the amount of the daily rates paid); as well as the processes generated by SESA through its own system - ONBASE. For qualitative analysis, content analysis was used; and for quantitative analysis, descriptive statistics was used. Thus, we seek to problematize the issue of judicialization for compulsory hospitalizations, considering the current situation in which this resource has been widely requested to legitimize the war on drugs. This scenario highlights the moral-legal discourse, pointing out strategies through the control of bodies and through faith as an alternative.

Keywords: compulsory hospitalization, drugs, judicialization, mental health

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14279 An Ethnographic Study of the Structure of English Compulsory Classes at a Pakistani University Aimed at Making an Intervention

Authors: Rafique A. Memon

Abstract:

The University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan (USJP) is a public sector institution which caters to the rural population of the Sindh Province. It consists of fifty-six (56) teaching departments with approximately 30,000 enrolled students. Within USJP, the Institute of English Language and Literature (IELL) works as a service provider by offering English Compulsory courses to the students majoring in other subjects such as Political Science, Communication Studies, International Relations, Maths, Physics, chemistry, etc. The medium of instruction is English across the disciplines, and course content is also written in English; therefore, the compulsory classes are meant to help students learn English language skills so that they can develop their competence in the target language. However, owing to the poor performance of students and complaints from the stake holders the researcher undertook to investigate the structure of English Compulsory Lessons. This was aimed at understanding characteristics and nature of those classes with the resulting emphasis on making an improvement. An ethnographic approach was adopted in which the researcher observed classes and videotaped six English Compulsory lessons which were then transcribed for the purpose of analysis. Each transcript was divided into episodes, on the basis of the criteria, i.e. (a) Language signals as boundary markers, e.g., OK, Well, OK let’s start (b) Patterns of interaction, e.g., teacher monologue, student teacher interaction (c) Functional unity, e.g., warm-up, interpretation of the text and wrap up. It was found that the episodic structure of the six traditional lessons was very similar. The lessons started with teacher-student interaction, followed by a group of extended teacher turns, and ended in teacher-student interaction in most of the cases. The data revealed that teachers mostly followed the transmission model of teaching. Students could get rare opportunities for participation only in the opening and closing episodes. This led to the conclusion that apparently the main stake holders, i.e., teachers, students and policy makers were either unaware or ignorant of the latest developments in the domain of teaching and learning. This teaching context seems to be in a dire need of intervention and innovation. This may well be achieved by providing teacher training, updating teaching material, and reducing number of students per class. The findings of this may serve as an eye-opener for policy makers of the public sector universities in Pakistan in general and for the University of Sindh in particular.

Keywords: English compulsory, structure, episodes, language signals

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14278 Role of Music Education as a Pillar in Sustainable Development of India

Authors: Rohit Rutka

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to reveal the importance of music as an indispensable aspect in education of art, with regard to every single culture which serves as indisputable support to sustainable development in India. Indian system of education is one of the oldest systems of the world. Both secular and sacred education was handed over systematically by formalizing the system of education. We have found significant growth in the system of education in our country since ancient times. It is a veritable avenue which enables societies to transmit music and musical skills from one generation to the upcoming ones. The research is based on a comprehensive literature review on the impact of music to sustainable development. This paper contextualized that music education is imperative to Sustainable Development, to the adult. It is a vital force of self-expression, communication and empowerment economically, in growing children, involvement in music education will promote their creative ability, thereby contribute to the full development of intellectual capacities, apt emotional development that gives the right values and feelings to various events and happenings, music helps to develop skills, innate and instinctive talent in human being and recommend that the informal music teaching should be incorporated into school system so as to transmit and preserve the cultural music and that the study of music should be made compulsory at all levels of the Indian educational system.

Keywords: sustainable development, music education, culture, music as a pillar to sustainable development

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14277 Education as an Important Correlate for Age at Marriage in Bangladesh

Authors: Forhana Rahman Noor, Shafia Jannat Khanam

Abstract:

A girl’s schooling is disrupted by the very act of marriage which requires her to move away from home and her school area to live with her husband’s family, according to custom and practice. Once in her new home, her husband or her in-laws decide her continuation of schooling. A plethora of research has confirmed the inter-relationship between education and age at marriage of girls. The primary data was collected from both urban and rural area in Bangladesh. The study revealed that mean age at marriage for girls was 15.69 years, as a whole and it was lower (15.21 years) in the rural area than that of the urban area (17.13 years). These readings confirm early marriage still exists. The most important determinant of age at marriage was found as low education level of the girls. The bi-variate analysis of this study discovered the relationship or association between education and age at marriage. The study also found the education level of husbands of girls has a significant effect on age at marriage of a girl.

Keywords: education, girl, age at marriage, correlate, Bangladesh

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14276 Working Memory Growth from Kindergarten to First Grade: Considering Impulsivity, Parental Discipline Methods and Socioeconomic Status

Authors: Ayse Cobanoglu

Abstract:

Working memory can be defined as a workspace that holds and regulates active information in mind. This study investigates individual changes in children's working memory from kindergarten to first grade. The main purpose of the study is whether parental discipline methods and child impulsive/overactive behaviors affect children's working memory initial status and growth rate, controlling for gender, minority status, and socioeconomic status (SES). A linear growth curve model with the first four waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 2011 (ECLS-K:2011) is performed to analyze the individual growth of children's working memory longitudinally (N=3915). Results revealed that there is a significant variation among students' initial status in the kindergarten fall semester as well as the growth rate during the first two years of schooling. While minority status, SES, and children's overactive/impulsive behaviors influenced children's initial status, only SES and minority status were significantly associated with the growth rate of working memory. For parental discipline methods, such as giving a warning and ignoring the child's negative behavior, are also negatively associated with initial working memory scores. Following that, students' working memory growth rate is examined, and students with lower SES as well as minorities showed a faster growth pattern during the first two years of schooling. However, the findings of parental disciplinary methods on working memory growth rates were mixed. It can be concluded that schooling helps low-SES minority students to develop their working memory.

Keywords: growth curve modeling, impulsive/overactive behaviors, parenting, working memory

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14275 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri

Abstract:

Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: data quality, Georgia, methodology, migration

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14274 Elementary Education Outcome Efficiency in Indian States

Authors: Jyotsna Rosario, K. R. Shanmugam

Abstract:

Since elementary education is a merit good, considerable public resources are allocated to universalise it. However, elementary education outcomes vary across the Indian States. Evidences indicate that while some states are lagging in elementary education outcome primarily due to lack of resources and poor schooling infrastructure, others are lagging despite resource abundance and well-developed schooling infrastructure. Addressing the issue of efficiency, the study employs Stochastic Frontier Analysis for panel data of 27 Indian states from 2012-13 to 2017-18 to estimate the technical efficiency of State governments in generating enrolment. The mean efficiency of states was estimated to be 58%. Punjab, Meghalaya, and West Bengal were found to be the most efficient states. Whereas Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha are one of the most inefficient states. This study emphasizes the efficient utilisation of public resources and helps in the identification of best practices.

Keywords: technical efficiency, public expenditure, elementary education outcome, stochastic frontier analysis

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14273 On a Single Server Queue with Arrivals in Batches of Variable Size, Generalized Coxian-2 Service and Compulsory Server Vacations

Authors: Kailash C. Madan

Abstract:

We study the steady state behaviour of a batch arrival single server queue in which the first service with general service times is compulsory and the second service with general service times is optional. We term such a two phase service as generalized Coxian-2 service. Just after completion of a service the server must take a vacation of random length of time with general vacation times. We obtain steady state probability generating functions for the queue size as well as the steady state mean queue size at a random epoch of time in explicit and closed forms. Some particular cases of interest including some known results have been derived.

Keywords: batch arrivals, compound Poisson process, generalized Coxian-2 service, steady state

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14272 The Impact of Female Education on Fertility: A Natural Experiment from Egypt

Authors: Fatma Romeh, Shiferaw Gurmu

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of female education on fertility, using the change in length of primary schooling in Egypt in 1988-89 as the source of exogenous variation in schooling. In particular, beginning in 1988, children had to attend primary school for only five years rather than six years. This change was applicable to all individuals born on or after October 1977. Using a nonparametric regression discontinuity approach, we compare education and fertility of women born just before and after October 1977. The results show that female education significantly reduces the number of children born per woman and delays the time until first birth. Applying a robust regression discontinuity approach, however, the impact of education on the number of children is no longer significant. The impact on the timing of first birth remained significant under the robust approach. Each year of female education postponed childbearing by three months, on average.

Keywords: Egypt, female education, fertility, robust regression discontinuity

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14271 Gender: Schooling and Social Condition’s Women in Brazil

Authors: Simone Tamires Vieira

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the history of women's schooling in Brazil and to reflect on the condition and social space of women today. Therefore, the following question arises as a research problem: how does the history of the school in/exclusion of women in Brazil relate to the occupations occupied today? As for the objectives, we seek to collect data on the education of women and girls in Brazil, analyze some institutionalized educational legislation and policies, reflect on issues of opportunity and deprivation in order to problematize the female condition through the review of qualitative literature. The results showed that gender and symbolic violence are powerful categories to analyze this theme since the trajectories, choices, and opportunities given to women are permeated by veiled mechanisms perpetuated by a structurally patriarchal society, focused on the interests of the elite, which denies diversity to maintain its status. The aim of this research is to contribute to reflections on the potential of dialogical action, as it highlights the forces that act and permeate the trajectories of women to empower current and future generations.

Keywords: gender, school in/exclusion symbolic violence, women, symbolic violence, women

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